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Cederbladh, J., Reale, A., Bergsten, A., Mikelov, R. & Cicchetti, A. (2023). Barriers for Adopting FMI-Based Co-Simulation in Industrial MBSE Processes. In: Proceedings - 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2023: . Paper presented at 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS-C 2023, Vasteras, 1 October 2023 through 6 October 2023 (pp. 510-519). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers for Adopting FMI-Based Co-Simulation in Industrial MBSE Processes
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings - 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 510-519Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is a growing paradigm for system development where models are the primary considered artefacts. However, MBSE often relies on semi-formal modelling languages and methods, limiting analytical capabilities. Co-Simulation is argued in the literature to be a promising technology in the simulation domain for integrating heterogeneous models in unified simulations. The most commonly used standard for Co-Simulation is currently the Functional-Mockup-Interface (FMI), supported by many tools in the industry. Recently there has been increasing interest in utilizing co-simulation in MBSE processes to enable simulation capabilities earlier in development, mainly via instantiating simulations using the FMI standard from system architecture views. This paper briefly argues the case for co-simulation for industrial MBSE and presents several barriers to integration from a holistic point of view. The paper highlights the need for further research and progress to improve the maturity of the industrial adoption for MBSE workflows while discussing the current outlook for FMI-based co-simulation orchestrated from architecture models. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Co-simulation, FMI, MBSE, SysML, Systems Engineering
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65682 (URN)10.1109/MODELS-C59198.2023.00088 (DOI)001137051500071 ()2-s2.0-85182405065 (Scopus ID)9798350324983 (ISBN)
Conference
2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS-C 2023, Vasteras, 1 October 2023 through 6 October 2023
Available from: 2024-01-24 Created: 2024-01-24 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Bonetti, F., Bucchiarone, A., Cicchetti, A. & Marconi, A. (2023). Challenging Models: Formalizing Quests in Gamified Systems for Behavioral Change. In: Proceedings - 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2023: . Paper presented at 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS-C 2023, Vasteras, 1 October 2023 through 6 October 2023 (pp. 747-756). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging Models: Formalizing Quests in Gamified Systems for Behavioral Change
2023 (English)In: Proceedings - 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 747-756Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tasks performed by users in exchange for some reward, also known as quests or challenges, are one of the essential elements found in gamified systems, including systems for behavioral change. These elements can be tailored to specific players, according to their profile features and past performance, in order to deliver a more personalized and motivating experience. However, in order to automatically generate challenges, a formal, generalizable model of the essential building blocks of such game elements and their internal relations is needed. Although some work has been carried out in the past to define quests and challenges, a widely agreed-upon definition is still missing. Such an abstract definition should be employable across different application domains and scenarios and be flexible with respect to implementation details and human factors. In this work, we employ a model-driven approach to (1) propose a formal definition of quests and challenges in gamified systems, focusing on systems for behavioral change in the mobility domain, (2) model quests by means of a Domain-Specific Language implementing the proposed definition, and (3) take the first steps towards automatic rule generation by demonstrating a mapping between our model and Drools syntax compatible with an existing gamification engine. In particular, we illustrate how to ease the implementation of quests and challenges by using an example from an existing gamified system in the sustainable mobility domain. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
behavioral change, challenge, Domain-Specific Language, quest, sustainable mobility, xText
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65683 (URN)10.1109/MODELS-C59198.2023.00121 (DOI)001137051500100 ()2-s2.0-85182395022 (Scopus ID)9798350324983 (ISBN)
Conference
2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS-C 2023, Vasteras, 1 October 2023 through 6 October 2023
Available from: 2024-01-24 Created: 2024-01-24 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Bucchiarone, A., Savary-Leblanc, M., Le Pallec, X., Cicchetti, A., Gérard, S., Bassanelli, S., . . . Marconi, A. (2023). Gamifying model-based engineering: the PapyGame experience. Software and Systems Modeling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamifying model-based engineering: the PapyGame experience
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2023 (English)In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modeling is an essential and challenging activity in any engineering environment. It implies some hard-to-train skills such as abstraction and communication. Teachers, project leaders, and tool vendors have a hard time teaching or training their students, co-workers, or users. Gamification refers to the exploitation of gaming mechanisms for serious purposes, like promoting behavioral changes, soliciting participation and engagement in activities, etc. We investigate the introduction of gaming mechanisms in modeling tasks with the primary goal of supporting learning/training. The result has been the realization of a gamified modeling environment named PapyGame. In this article, we present the approach adopted for PapyGame implementation, the details on the gamification elements involved, and the derived conceptual architecture required for applying gamification in any modeling environment. Moreover, to demonstrate the benefits of using PapyGame for learning/training modeling, a set of user experience evaluations have been conducted. Correspondingly, we report the obtained results together with a set of future challenges we consider as critical to make gamified modeling a more effective education/training approach. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Keywords
Education, Gamification, Model-based engineering, Papyrus, Education computing, Learning systems, Behavioral changes, Engineering environment, Modeling environments, Project leaders, Project tools, Teachers', Workers', Personnel training
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62093 (URN)10.1007/s10270-023-01091-8 (DOI)000943316500001 ()2-s2.0-85161032967 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-15 Created: 2023-03-15 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Bucchiarone, A., Savary-Leblanc, M., Le Pallec, X., Bruel, J.-M., Cicchetti, A., Cabot, J. & Gerard, S. (2023). Gamifying model-based engineering: The PapyGame tool. Science of Computer Programming, 230, Article ID 102974.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamifying model-based engineering: The PapyGame tool
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2023 (English)In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 230, article id 102974Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modeling is an essential and challenging activity in any engineering environment, and it requires some hard-to-train skills such as abstraction and communication. This makes it difficult for educators to teach or train their students, co-workers, or users. The audience of this paper is both educators and learners who struggle with modeling. To address this challenge, we present PapyGame, a gamified version of a robust modeling environment (Papyrus) that aims to improve the learner's motivation, make the learning process an enjoyable experience, and boost learning outcomes. Gamification is the exploitation of gaming mechanisms for serious purposes, such as promoting behavioral changes, soliciting participation and engagement in activities, and more. The paper presents PapyGame's functionalities, architectures, illustrative scenarios, and its potential impact on both educators and learners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Model-based engineering, Education, Training, Gamification, Papyrus
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65159 (URN)10.1016/j.scico.2023.102974 (DOI)001055948500001 ()2-s2.0-85161032967 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2023-12-21Bibliographically approved
Latifaj, M., Ciccozzi, F. & Cicchetti, A. (2023). Metamodel portioning for flexible and secure architectural views. In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. Softw. Archit. Companion, ICSA-C: . Paper presented at Proceedings - IEEE 20th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion, ICSA-C 2023 (pp. 292-295). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metamodel portioning for flexible and secure architectural views
2023 (English)In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. Softw. Archit. Companion, ICSA-C, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 292-295Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Interacting with a monolithic architecture model to describe the architecture of large-scale software-intensive systems can be a complex and daunting task. The plethora of various concerns being addressed in a single model can impede the ability of individual stakeholders to discern their aspects of relevance. Architectural views allow to spread the various concerns into multiple (smaller) models, each of which addresses a specific concern, thereby aiding architects to break down the complexity of the overall architecture. To enable that, the architectural language should be able to provide explicit separation of concerns, addressed by multiple and somehow separated language portions. For secure collaborative architecting, these portions should be equipped with access control mechanisms that ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the models.In this paper, we present our vision for the automated generation of portions of architectural (and more generically modeling) languages enhanced with access control mechanisms and co-evolution of the architectural portions in response to changes made to the base language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
access control, access permissions, architectural views, co-evolution, metamodel portioning, model-driven engineering, Modeling languages, Software architecture, Access control mechanism, Architecture modeling, Large-scales, Meta model, Monolithic architecture
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62585 (URN)10.1109/ICSA-C57050.2023.00067 (DOI)000990534100051 ()2-s2.0-85159093069 (Scopus ID)9781665464598 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings - IEEE 20th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion, ICSA-C 2023
Available from: 2023-05-29 Created: 2023-05-29 Last updated: 2023-06-21Bibliographically approved
Beqiri, L., Bakhshi Valojerdi, Z., Punnekkat, S. & Cicchetti, A. (2023). Remaining Useful Life Estimation for Railway Gearbox Bearings Using Machine Learning. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: . Paper presented at 5th International conference on Reliability, Safety and Security of Railway Systems: Modelling, Analysis, Verification and Certification, RSS Rail 2023, Berlin, Germany, 10 October - 12 October 2023 (pp. 62-77). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remaining Useful Life Estimation for Railway Gearbox Bearings Using Machine Learning
2023 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 62-77Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gearbox bearing maintenance is one of the major overhaul cost items for railway electric propulsion systems. They are continuously exposed to challenging working conditions, which compromise their performance and reliability. Various maintenance strategies have been introduced over time to improve the operational efficiency of such components, while lowering the cost of their maintenance. One of these is predictive maintenance, which makes use of previous historical data to estimate a component’s remaining useful life (RUL). This paper introduces a machine learning-based method for calculating the RUL of railway gearbox bearings. The method uses unlabeled mechanical vibration signals from gearbox bearings to detect patterns of increased bearing wear and predict the component’s residual life span. We combined a data smoothing method, a change point algorithm to set thresholds, and regression models for prediction. The proposed method has been validated using real-world gearbox data provided by our industrial partner, Alstom Transport AB in Sweden. The results are promising, particularly with respect to the predicted failure time. Our model predicted the failure to occur on day 330, while the gearbox bearing’s actual lifespan was 337 days. The deviation of just 7 days is a significant result, since an earlier RUL prediction value is usually preferable to avoid unexpected failure during operations. Additionally, we plan to further enhance the prediction model by including more data representing failing bearing patterns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 14198 LNCS
Keywords
Gearbox bearing, Machine learning, Predictive maintenance, Railway, Remaining useful life, Bearings (machine parts), Forecasting, Gears, Maintenance, Railroads, Regression analysis, Vibrations (mechanical), Cost items, Electric propulsion systems, Life estimation, Lifespans, Machine-learning, Major overhauls, Remaining useful lives
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64606 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-43366-5_4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174442316 (Scopus ID)9783031433658 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International conference on Reliability, Safety and Security of Railway Systems: Modelling, Analysis, Verification and Certification, RSS Rail 2023, Berlin, Germany, 10 October - 12 October 2023
Available from: 2023-10-27 Created: 2023-10-27 Last updated: 2023-10-27Bibliographically approved
Salimi, M., Loni, M., Sirjani, M., Cicchetti, A. & Abbaspour Asadollah, S. (2023). SARAF: Searching for Adversarial Robust Activation Functions. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Machine Vision and Applications, ICMVA 2023, Singapore, Singapore, 10 March 2023 through 12 March 2023 (pp. 174-182). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SARAF: Searching for Adversarial Robust Activation Functions
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2023 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, p. 174-182Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have received great attention in the computer vision domain. However, CNNs are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which are manipulations of input data that are imperceptible to humans but can fool the network. Several studies tried to address this issue, which can be divided into two categories: (i) training the network with adversarial examples, and (ii) optimizing the network architecture and/or hyperparameters. Although adversarial training is a sufficient defense mechanism, they suffer from requiring a large volume of training samples to cover a wide perturbation bound. Tweaking network activation functions (AFs) has been shown to provide promising results where CNNs suffer from performance loss. However, optimizing network AFs for compensating the negative impacts of adversarial attacks has not been addressed in the literature. This paper proposes the idea of searching for AFs that are robust against adversarial attacks. To this aim, we leverage the Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm with a fast convergence time. This proposed method is called SARAF. We demonstrate the consistent effectiveness of SARAF by achieving up to 16.92%, 18.3%, and 15.57% accuracy improvement against BIM, FGSM, and PGD adversarial attacks, respectively, over ResNet-18 with ReLU AFs (baseline) trained on CIFAR-10. Meanwhile, SARAF provides a significant search efficiency compared to random search as the optimization baseline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2023
Keywords
Activation Function, Adversarial Attack, Convolutional Neural Network, Optimization, Robustness, Chemical activation, Convolution, Convolutional neural networks, Network architecture, Activation functions, Defence mechanisms, Hyper-parameter, Input datas, Large volumes, Network activations, Optimisations, Simulated annealing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63891 (URN)10.1145/3589572.3589598 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163400963 (Scopus ID)9781450399531 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference on Machine Vision and Applications, ICMVA 2023, Singapore, Singapore, 10 March 2023 through 12 March 2023
Available from: 2023-07-19 Created: 2023-07-19 Last updated: 2023-07-19Bibliographically approved
Revenäs, Å., Ström, L., Cicchetti, A. & Ehn, M. (2023). Toward digital inclusion of older adults in e-health: a case study on support for physical activity. Universal Access in the Information Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward digital inclusion of older adults in e-health: a case study on support for physical activity
2023 (English)In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Older adults are a heterogeneous population for which many e-health innovations are inaccessible. Involving older adults in user-centered design (UCD) with a specific focus on inclusive design is important to make e-health more accessible to this user group. This case study aimed to explore the feasibility of a new UCD approach aiming to minimize bias in the design phase of a digital support for older adults’ physical activity (PA). The study used mixed methods and applied UCD principles in a four-iteration design phase followed by an evaluation phase where 11 and 15 older adults participated, respectively. The users’ gender, PA level and technology experience (TE) were considered in recruitment, data analysis and prioritization of improvement efforts. In the design phase, users with different gender, PA level and TE participated and contributed with feedback, which was prioritized in the development. The adaptation included improving readability, simplifying layout and features, clarifying structure, and making the digital content more inclusive and relevant. The evaluation showed that the users had a positive experience of the prototype and could use it with some help. The study demonstrated that adopting e-health to assure digital inclusion among older adults must address several aspects. The UCD approach was feasible for amending user bias and for confirming that users of both genders and with varied PA- and TE level shaped the design. However, evaluation of the method with larger samples is needed. Moreover, further research on methods to involve digitally excluded populations in UCD is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Keywords
Digital technology, Equity, Gender, Older adults, User representation, eHealth, Iterative methods, Design phase, Digital inclusion, Digital technologies, E health, Physical activity, User centered design
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64608 (URN)10.1007/s10209-023-01049-z (DOI)001084310700001 ()2-s2.0-85173990264 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-27 Created: 2023-10-27 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Revenäs, Å., Ström, L., Cicchetti, A. & Ehn, M. (2023). Towards multimodal boosting of motivation for fall-preventive physical activity in seniors: An iterative development evaluation study. Digital Health, 9, Article ID 20552076231180973.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards multimodal boosting of motivation for fall-preventive physical activity in seniors: An iterative development evaluation study
2023 (English)In: Digital Health, E-ISSN 2055-2076, Vol. 9, article id 20552076231180973Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Many seniors need to increase their physical activity (PA) and participation in fall prevention exercise. Therefore, digital systems have been developed to support fall-preventive PA. Most of them lack video coaching and PA monitoring, two functionalities that may be relevant for increasing PA.

Objective

To develop a prototype of a system to support seniors' fall-preventive PA, which includes also video coaching and PA monitoring, and to evaluate its feasibility and user experience.

Methods

A system prototype was conceived by integrating applications for step-monitoring, behavioural change support, personal calendar, video-coaching and a cloud service for data management and co-ordination. Its feasibility and user experience were evaluated in three consecutive test periods combined with technical development. In total, 11 seniors tested the system at home for four weeks with video coaching from health care professionals.

Results

Initially, the system's feasibility was non-satisfactory due to insufficient stability and usability. However, most problems could be addressed and amended. In the third (last) test period, both seniors and coaches experienced the system prototype to be fun, flexible and awareness-raising. Interestingly, the video coaching which made the system unique compared to similar systems was highly appreciated. Nonetheless, even the users in the last test period highlighted issues due to insufficient usability, stability and flexibility. Further improvements in these areas are needed.

Conclusions

Video coaching in fall-preventive PA can be valuable for both seniors and health care professionals. High reliability, usability and flexibility of systems supporting seniors are essential.

Keywords
aged, behavioural medicine, distance counselling, exercise, feasibility study, telemedicine, digital hälsa, hälsoteknik
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63905 (URN)10.1177/20552076231180973 (DOI)001018821600001 ()2-s2.0-85164597680 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mälardalen University
Available from: 2023-07-19 Created: 2023-07-19 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Bagnato, A., Cicchetti, A., Berardinelli, L., Bruneliere, H. & Eramo, R. (2022). AI-Augmented Model-Based Capabilities in the AIDOaRt Project: Continuous Development of Cyber-physical Systems. Ada User Journal, 43(4), 230-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AI-Augmented Model-Based Capabilities in the AIDOaRt Project: Continuous Development of Cyber-physical Systems
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2022 (English)In: Ada User Journal, ISSN 1381-6551, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 230-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper presents the AIDOaRt project, a 3 years long H2020-ECSEL European project involving 32 organizations, grouped in clusters from 7 different countries, focusing on AI-augmented automation supporting modeling, coding, testing, monitoring, and continuous development in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). To this end, the project proposes to combine Model Driven Engineering principles and techniques with AI-enhanced methods and tools for engineering more trustable and reliable CPSs. This paper introduces the AIDOaRt project, its overall objectives, and used requirement engineering methodology. Based on that, it also focuses on describing the current plan regarding a set of tools intended to cover the model-based capabilities requirements from the project.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ada-Europe, 2022
Keywords
Artificial Intelligence, Cyber-Physical Systems, Development Operations, Model-Based Engineering, Embedded systems, Continuous development, Cybe-physical systems, Development operation, Engineering techniques, European program, Model development, Model-based OPC, Model-driven Engineering, Cyber Physical System
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62584 (URN)10.1145/3591335.3591349 (DOI)2-s2.0-85159001518 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-30 Created: 2023-05-30 Last updated: 2023-05-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0416-1787

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