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Franceschini, R., Challenger, M., Cicchetti, A., Denil, J. & Vangheluwe, H. (2019). Challenges for automation in adaptive abstraction. In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2019: . Paper presented at 22nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2019, 15 September 2019 through 20 September 2019 (pp. 443-448). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8904655.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges for automation in adaptive abstraction
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 443-448, article id 8904655Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Models are well-defined abstractions that provide cost-effective representations of the real-world for a precise purpose. When dealing with complex problems, there usually exist multiple abstractions, typically describing partially overlapping details of the system under study, and resulting in a hierarchy of abstractions. Adaptive abstraction leverages these levels with the aim of dynamically adapting the abstractions used during system execution. In this paper, we describe such process in terms of a MAPE-K (Monitor-Analyze-Plan-Execute over a shared Knowledge) control loop to discuss the challenges towards adaptive abstraction automation. In particular, we elaborate on adaptively selecting a candidate over multiple abstractions, an unaddressed issue in the literature. The discussion is supported by a running example in an agent-based simulation scenario.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Adaptive system, Agent based Simulation, Multi Paradigm, Multi-Abstraction, System Modeling, Traffic Simulation, Adaptive systems, C (programming language), Cost effectiveness, Systems analysis, Multi abstraction, Multi-paradigm, Traffic simulations, Abstracting
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46528 (URN)10.1109/MODELS-C.2019.00071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075950865 (Scopus ID)9781728151250 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2019, 15 September 2019 through 20 September 2019
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Bucchiarone, A., Cicchetti, A. & Marconi, A. (2019). Exploiting Multi-level Modelling for Designing and Deploying Gameful Systems. In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2019: . Paper presented at 22nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2019, 15 September 2019 through 20 September 2019 (pp. 34-44). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8906924.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploiting Multi-level Modelling for Designing and Deploying Gameful Systems
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 34-44, article id 8906924Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gamification is increasingly used to build solutions for driving the behaviour of target users' populations. Gameful systems are typically exploited to keep users' involvement in certain activities and/or to modify an initial behaviour through game-like elements, such as awarding points, submitting challenges and/or fostering competition and cooperation with other players. Gamification mechanisms are well-defined and composed of different ingredients that have to be correctly amalgamated together; among these we find single/multi-player challenges targeted to reach a certain goal and providing an adequate award for compensation. Since the current approaches are largely based on hand-coding/tuning, when the game grows in its complexity, keeping track of all the mechanisms and maintaining the implementation can become error-prone and tedious activities. In this paper, we describe a multi-level modelling approach for the definition of gamification mechanisms, from their design to their deployment and runtime adaptation. The approach is implemented by means of JetBrains MPS, a text-based meta-modelling framework, and validated using two gameful systems in the Education and Mobility domains. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Gamification Engine, Model-Driven Engineering, MPS, Multi-Level Modelling, Industrial engineering, Competition and cooperation, Error prones, Game-like elements, Gamification, Meta-modelling, Multilevels, Runtime adaptation, Engineering
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46599 (URN)10.1109/MODELS.2019.00-17 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076095969 (Scopus ID)9781728125350 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2019, 15 September 2019 through 20 September 2019
Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Bucchiarone, A., Cicchetti, A. & Marconi, A. (2019). GDF: A gamification design framework powered by model-driven engineering. In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2019: . Paper presented at 22nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2019, 15 September 2019 through 20 September 2019 (pp. 753-758). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8904523.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GDF: A gamification design framework powered by model-driven engineering
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 753-758, article id 8904523Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gamification refers to the exploitation of gaming mechanisms for serious purposes, like promoting behavioural changes, soliciting participation and engagement in activities, and so forth. In this demo paper we present the Gamification Design Framework (GDF), a tool for designing gamified applications through model-driven engineering mechanisms. In particular, the framework is based on a set of well-defined modelling layers that start from the definition of the main gamification elements, followed by the specification on how those elements are composed to design games, and then progressively refined to reach concrete game implementation and execution. The layers are interconnected through specialization/generalization relationships such that to realize a multi-level modelling approach. The approach is implemented by means of JetBrains MPS, a language workbench based on projectional editing, and has been validated through two gameful systems in the Education and Mobility domains. A prototype implementation of GDF and related artefacts are available at the demo GitHub repository: https://github.com/antbucc/GDF.git, while an illustrative demo of the framework features and their exploitation for the case studies are shown in the following video: https://youtu.be/wxCe6CTeHXk. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Gamification Design Framework, JetBrains MPS, Model-Driven Engineering, Multi-Level Modelling, HTTP, Systems analysis, Behavioural changes, Design frameworks, Design games, Language workbenches, Multilevels, Prototype implementations, C (programming language)
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46602 (URN)10.1109/MODELS-C.2019.00117 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075936373 (Scopus ID)9781728151250 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion, MODELS-C 2019, 15 September 2019 through 20 September 2019
Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Jongeling, R., Carlson, J. & Cicchetti, A. (2019). Impediments to Introducing Continuous Integration for Model-Based Development in Industry. In: Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2019: . Paper presented at Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2019; Kallithea, Chalkidiki; Greece; 28 August 2019 through 30 August 2019 (pp. 434-441). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8906729.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impediments to Introducing Continuous Integration for Model-Based Development in Industry
2019 (English)In: Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 434-441, article id 8906729Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Model-based development and continuous integration each separately are methods to improve the productivity of development of complex modern software systems. We investigate industrial adoption of these two phenomena in combination, i.e., applying continuous integration practices in model-based development projects. Through semi-structured interviews, eleven engineers at three companies with different modelling practices share their views on perceived and experienced impediments to this adoption. We find some cases in which this introduction is undesired and expected to not be beneficial. For other cases, we find and categorize several impediments and discuss how they are dealt with in industrial practice. Model synchronization and tool interoperability are found the most challenging to overcome and the ways in which they are circumvented in g to overcome and the ways in which they are circumvented in practice are detrimental for introducing continuous integration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45035 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2019.00071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075941988 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2019; Kallithea, Chalkidiki; Greece; 28 August 2019 through 30 August 2019
Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Jongeling, R., Ciccozzi, F., Cicchetti, A. & Carlson, J. (2019). Lightweight Consistency Checking for Agile Model-Based Development in Practice. Journal of Object Technology, 18(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lightweight Consistency Checking for Agile Model-Based Development in Practice
2019 (English)In: Journal of Object Technology, ISSN 1660-1769, E-ISSN 1660-1769, Vol. 18, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In model-based development projects, models at different abstraction levels capture different aspects of a software system, e.g., specification or design. Inconsistencies between these models can cause inefficient and incorrect development. A tool-based framework to assist developers creating and maintaining models conforming to different languages (i.e. heterogeneous models) and consistency between them is not only important but also much needed in practice. In this work, we focus on assisting developers bringing about multi-view consistency in the context of agile model-based development, through frequent, lightweight consistency checks across views and between heterogeneous models. The checks are lightweight in the sense that they are easy to create, edit, use and maintain, and since they find inconsistencies but do not attempt to automatically resolve them. With respect to ease of use, we explicitly separate the two main concerns in defining consistency checks, being (i) which modelling elements across heterogeneous models should be consistent with each other and (ii) what constitutes consistency between them. We assess the feasibility and illustrate the potential usefulness of our consistency checking approach, from an industrial agile model-based development point-of-view, through a proof-of-concept implementation on a sample project leveraging models expressed in SysML and Simulink. A continuous integration pipeline hosts the initial definition and subsequent execution of consistency checks, it is also the place where the user can view results of consistency checks and reconfigure them.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44918 (URN)10.5381/jot.2019.18.2.a11 (DOI)000473336200012 ()
Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-07-18Bibliographically approved
Cicchetti, A., Ciccozzi, F. & Pierantonio, A. (2019). Multi-view approaches for software and system modelling: a systematic literature review. Software and Systems Modeling, 18(6), 3207-3233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-view approaches for software and system modelling: a systematic literature review
2019 (English)In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 3207-3233Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the years, a number of approaches have been proposed on the description of systems and software in terms of multiple views represented by models. This modelling branch, so-called multi-view software and system modelling, praises a differentiated and complex scientific body of knowledge. With this study, we aimed at identifying, classifying, and evaluating existing solutions for multi-view modelling of software and systems. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review of the existing state of the art related to the topic. More specifically, we selected and analysed 40 research studies among over 8600 entries. We defined a taxonomy for characterising solutions for multi-view modelling and applied it to the selected studies. Lastly, we analysed and discussed the data extracted from the studies. From the analysed data, we made several observations, among which: (i) there is no uniformity nor agreement in the terminology when it comes to multi-view artefact types, (ii) multi-view approaches have not been evaluated in industrial settings and (iii) there is a lack of support for semantic consistency management and the community does not appear to consider this as a priority. The study results provide an exhaustive overview of the state of the art for multi-view software and systems modelling useful for both researchers and practitioners.

Keywords
Model-driven engineering, Multi-view modelling, Viewpoints, Views, Consistency
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45372 (URN)10.1007/s10270-018-00713-w (DOI)000485320600003 ()2-s2.0-85061733132 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Wnuk, K., Wohlin, C., Franke, U., Smite, D. & Cicchetti, A. (2018). A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components. Journal of Systems and Software, 135, 88-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2018
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37256 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2017.09.033 (DOI)000418308800006 ()2-s2.0-85032856583 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Bucchiarone, A. & Cicchetti, A. (2018). A model-driven solution to support smart mobility planning. In: Proceedings - 21st ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2018: . Paper presented at 21st ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2018, 14 October 2018 through 19 October 2018 (pp. 123-133). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model-driven solution to support smart mobility planning
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 21st ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2018, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2018, p. 123-133Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multimodal journey planners have been introduced with the goal to provide travellers with itineraries involving two or more means of transportation to go from one location to another within a city. Most of them take into account user preferences, their habits and are able to notify travellers with real time traffic information, delays, schedules update, etc.. To make urban mobility more sustainable, the journey planners of the future must include: (1) techniques to generate journey alternatives that take into account not only user preferences and needs but also specific city challenges and local mobility operators resources; (2) agile development approaches to make the update of the models and information used by the journey planners a self-adaptive task; (3) techniques for the continuous journeys monitoring able to understand when a current journey is no longer valid and to propose alternatives. In this paper we present the experiences matured during the development of a complete solution for mobility planning based on model-driven engineering techniques. Mobility challenges, resources and remarks are modelled by corresponding languages, which in turn support the automated derivation of a smart journey planner. By means of the introduced automation, it has been possible to reduce the complexity of encoding journey planning policies and to make journey planners more flexible and responsive with respect to adaptation needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2018
Keywords
Journey Planning, Model Transformation, Model-Driven Engineering, Smart Mobility, Engineering, Industrial engineering, Adaptation needs, Agile development, Complete solutions, Means of transportations, Real-time traffic information, Planning
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41443 (URN)10.1145/3239372.3239374 (DOI)000508877300012 ()2-s2.0-85056838729 (Scopus ID)9781450349499 (ISBN)
Conference
21st ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2018, 14 October 2018 through 19 October 2018
Note

Conference code: 141115; Cited By :1; Export Date: 29 November 2018; Conference Paper

Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
Bucaioni, A., Cicchetti, A., Ciccozzi, F., Kodali, M. & Sjödin, M. (2018). Alignment of Requirements and Testing in Agile: An Industrial Experience. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 738, 225-232
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alignment of Requirements and Testing in Agile: An Industrial Experience
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2018 (English)In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357, E-ISSN 2194-5365, Vol. 738, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agile development aims at switching the focus from processes to interactions between stakeholders, from heavy to minimalistic documentation, from contract negotiation and detailed plans to customer collaboration and prompt reaction to changes. With these premises, requirements traceability may appear to be an overly exigent activity, with little or no return-of-investment. However, since testing remains crucial even when going agile, the developers need to identify at a glance what to test and how to test it. That is why, even though requirements traceability has historically faced a firm resistance from the agile community, it can provide several benefits when promoting precise alignment of requirements with testing. This paper reports on our experience in promoting traceability of requirements and testing in the data communications for mission-critical systems in an industrial Scrum project. We define a semi-automated requirements tracing mechanism which coordinates four traceability techniques. We evaluate the solution by applying it to an industrial project aiming at enhancing the existing Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol by adding Simple Network Management Protocol support. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39196 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-77028-4_33 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045853502 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-11 Created: 2018-05-11 Last updated: 2018-05-11Bibliographically approved
Petersen, K., Badampudi, D., Ali Shah, S. M., Wnuk, K., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Cicchetti, A. (2018). Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? - A Case Survey. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 44(3), 237-261
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? - A Case Survey
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 237-261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37028 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2017.2677909 (DOI)000427678400002 ()2-s2.0-85044103443 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ORION - Decision Support for Component-Based Software Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0416-1787

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