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Karlsson, S., Causevic, A. & Sundmark, D. (2021). Automatic Property-based Testing of GraphQL APIs. In: Proceedings - 2021 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2021: . Paper presented at 2nd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2021, Virtual, Online, 20 May 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic Property-based Testing of GraphQL APIs
2021 (English)In: Proceedings - 2021 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2021, 2021Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, GraphQL has become a popular way to expose web APIs. With its raise of adoption in industry, the quality of GraphQL APIs must be also assessed, as with any part of a software system, and preferably in an automated manner. However, there is currently a lack of methods to automatically generate tests to exercise GraphQL APIs.

In this paper, we propose a method for automatically producing GraphQL queries to test GraphQL APIs. This is achieved using a property-based approach to create a generator for queries based on the GraphQL schema of the system under test.

Our evaluation on a real world software system shows that this approach is both effective, in terms of finding real bugs, and efficient, as a complete schema can be covered in seconds. In addition, we evaluate the fault finding capability of the method when seeding known faults. 73% of the seeded faults were found, with room for improvements with regards to domain-specific behavior, a common oracle challenge in automatic test generation.

National Category
Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-54267 (URN)10.1109/AST52587.2021.00009 (DOI)000695707800001 ()2-s2.0-85113790213 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2nd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2021, Virtual, Online, 20 May 2021
Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Causevic, A., Sundmark, D. & Larsson, M. (2021). Model-based Automated Testing of Mobile Applications: An Industrial Case Study. In: Proceedings: 2021 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021. Paper presented at 14th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021, 12 April 2021 - 16 April 2021 (pp. 130-137).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based Automated Testing of Mobile Applications: An Industrial Case Study
2021 (English)In: Proceedings: 2021 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021, 2021, p. 130-137Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automatic testing of mobile applications has been a well-researched area in recent years. However, testing in industry is still a very manual practice, as research results have not been fully transferred and adopted. Considering mobile applications, manual testing has the additional burden of adequate testing posed by a large number of available devices and different configurations, as well as the maintenance and setup of such devices.

In this paper, we propose and evaluate the use of a model-based test generation approach, where generated tests are executed on a set of cloud-hosted real mobile devices. By using a model-based approach we generate dynamic, less brittle, and implementation simple test cases. The test execution on multiple real devices with different configurations increase the confidence in the implementation of the system under test. Our evaluation shows that the used approach produces a high coverage of the parts of the application related to user interactions. Nevertheless, the inclusion of external services in test generation is required in order to additionally increase the coverage of the complete application. Furthermore, we present the lessons learned while transferring and implementing this approach in an industrial context and applying it to the real product.

Keywords
Automated testing; Model-based testing; Test-case generation
National Category
Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-54265 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW52544.2021.00033 (DOI)000680833800020 ()2-s2.0-85108030099 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-4456-9 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021, 12 April 2021 - 16 April 2021
Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Malm, J., Causevic, A., Lisper, B. & Eldh, S. (2020). Automated analysis of flakiness-mitigating delays. In: Proceedings - 2020 IEEE/ACM 1st International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2020: . Paper presented at 2020 IEEE/ACM 1st International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2020, 15 July 2020 through 16 July 2020 (pp. 81-84). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated analysis of flakiness-mitigating delays
2020 (English)In: Proceedings - 2020 IEEE/ACM 1st International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2020, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020, p. 81-84Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During testing of parallel systems, which allow asynchronous communication, test flakiness is sometimes avoided by explicitly inserting delays in test code. The choice of delay approach can be a trade-off between short-term gain and long-term robustness. In this work, we present an approach for automatic detection and classification of delay insertions, with the goal of identifying those that could be made more robust. The approach has been implemented using an open-source compiler tooling framework and validated using test code from the telecom industry. © 2020 Association for Computing Machinery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2020
Keywords
flakiness, Static analysis, Technical debt, Test code metrics, Test smells, Automation, Codes (symbols), Economic and social effects, Open source software, Open systems, Testing, Asynchronous communication, Automated analysis, Automatic Detection, Delay insertion, Mitigating delays, Parallel system, Short-term gains, Telecom industry, Software testing
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-52177 (URN)10.1145/3387903.3389320 (DOI)001042455400009 ()2-s2.0-85093518154 (Scopus ID)9781450379571 (ISBN)
Conference
2020 IEEE/ACM 1st International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2020, 15 July 2020 through 16 July 2020
Note

Conference code: 162963; Export Date: 29 October 2020; Conference Paper

Available from: 2020-10-29 Created: 2020-10-29 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Causevic, A. & Sundmark, D. (2020). QuickREST: Property-based Test Generation of OpenAPI-Described RESTful APIs. In: Proceedings - 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2020: . Paper presented at 13th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2020, 23 March 2020 through 27 March 2020 (pp. 131-141). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 9159071.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QuickREST: Property-based Test Generation of OpenAPI-Described RESTful APIs
2020 (English)In: Proceedings - 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, p. 131-141, article id 9159071Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

RESTful APIs are an increasingly common way to expose software systems functionality and it is therefore of high interest to find methods to automatically test and verify such APIs. To lower the barrier for industry adoption, such methods need to be straightforward to use with a low effort. This paper introduces a method to explore the behaviour of a RESTful API. This is done by using automatic property-based tests produced from OpenAPI documents that describe the REST API under test. We describe how this method creates artifacts that can be leveraged both as property-based test generators and as a source of validation for results (i.e., as test oracles). Experimental results, on both industrial and open source services, indicate how this approach is a low effort way of finding real faults. Furthermore, it supports building additional knowledge about the system under test by automatically exposing misalignment of specification and implementation. Since the tests are generated from the OpenAPI document this method automatically evolves test cases as the REST API evolves. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020
Keywords
OpenAPI, Property-based testing, REST, Automatic test pattern generation, Open source software, Verification, Additional knowledge, Automatically test, Open sources, Property-based, Software systems, System under test, Test generations, Test oracles, Software testing
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-51327 (URN)10.1109/ICST46399.2020.00023 (DOI)000621170500015 ()2-s2.0-85091597984 (Scopus ID)9781728157771 (ISBN)
Conference
13th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2020, 23 March 2020 through 27 March 2020
Available from: 2020-10-08 Created: 2020-10-08 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Brahneborg, D., Afzal, W., Causevic, A. & Björkman, M. (2020). Superlinear and Bandwidth Friendly Geo-replication for Store-And-Forward Systems. In: ICSOFT 2020 - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Software Technologies: . Paper presented at 15th International Conference on Software Technologies, ICSOFT 2020; Virtual, Online; France; 7 July 2020 through 9 July 2020; Code 162155 (pp. 328-338). SciTePress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Superlinear and Bandwidth Friendly Geo-replication for Store-And-Forward Systems
2020 (English)In: ICSOFT 2020 - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Software Technologies, SciTePress, 2020, p. 328-338Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To keep internet based services available despite inevitable local internet and power outages, their data must be replicated to one or more other sites. For most systems using the store-and-forward architecture, data loss can also be prevented by using end-to-end acknowledgements. So far we have not found any sufficiently good solutions for replication of data in store-and-forward systems without acknowledgements and with geographically separated system nodes. We therefore designed a new replication protocol, which could take advantage of the lack of a global order between the messages and the acceptance of a slightly higher risk for duplicated deliveries than existing protocols. We tested a proof-of-concept implementation of the protocol for throughput and latency in a controlled experiment using 7 nodes in 4 geographically separated areas, and observed the throughput increasing superlinearly with the number of nodes up to almost 3500 messages per second. It is also, to the best of our knowledge, the first replication protocol with a bandwidth usage that scales according to the number of nodes allowed to fail and not the total number of nodes in the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2020
Keywords
Store-and-forward, Replication, SMS
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47567 (URN)10.5220/0009835403280338 (DOI)000614139800033 ()2-s2.0-85091740530 (Scopus ID)9789897584435 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Conference on Software Technologies, ICSOFT 2020; Virtual, Online; France; 7 July 2020 through 9 July 2020; Code 162155
Available from: 2020-04-23 Created: 2020-04-23 Last updated: 2021-03-05Bibliographically approved
Bilic, D., Sundmark, D., Afzal, W., Wallin, P., Causevic, A., Amlinger, C. & Barkah, D. (2020). Towards a Model-Driven Product Line Engineering Process - An Industrial Case Study. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 13th Innovations in Software Engineering Conference, ISEC 2020; IIITDM JabalpurJabalpur; India; 27 February 2020 through 29 February 2020. NEW YORK: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, Article ID 3385043.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Model-Driven Product Line Engineering Process - An Industrial Case Study
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2020 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, NEW YORK: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2020, article id 3385043Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many organizations developing software-intensive systems face challenges with high product complexity and large numbers of variants. In order to effectively maintain and develop these product variants, Product-Line Engineering methods are often considered, while Model-based Systems Engineering practices are commonly utilized to tackle product complexity. In this paper, we report on an industrial case study concerning the ongoing adoption of Product Line Engineering in the Model-based Systems Engineering environment at Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) in Sweden. In the study, we identify and define a Product Line Engineering process that is aligned with Model-based Systems Engineering activities at the engines control department of Volvo CE. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the migration from the current development process to a Model-based Product Line Engineering-oriented process. This process, and its implications, are derived by conducting and analyzing interviews with Volvo CE employees, inspecting artifacts and documents, and by means of participant observation. Based on the results of a first system model iteration, we were able to document how Model-based Systems Engineering and variability modeling will affect development activities, work products and stakeholders of the work products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, 2020
National Category
Computer Systems Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47531 (URN)10.1145/3385032.3385043 (DOI)000578290900007 ()2-s2.0-85082653763 (Scopus ID)9781450375948 (ISBN)
Conference
13th Innovations in Software Engineering Conference, ISEC 2020; IIITDM JabalpurJabalpur; India; 27 February 2020 through 29 February 2020
Available from: 2020-04-16 Created: 2020-04-16 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Causevic, A., Potena, P., Wiklund, K. & Borg, M. (2019). Message from the nexta 2019 chairs. In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019; Xi'an; China; 22 April 2019 through 27 April 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8728944.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Message from the nexta 2019 chairs
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, article id 8728944Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44915 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2019.00023 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068390145 (Scopus ID)
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019; Xi'an; China; 22 April 2019 through 27 April 2019
Note

Export Date: 18 July 2019; Editorial

Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-07-18Bibliographically approved
Abbaspour Asadollah, S., Enoiu, E. P., Causevic, A., Sundmark, D. & Hansson, H. (2018). A Runtime Verification based Concurrency Bug Detector for FreeRTOS Embedded Software. In: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018: . Paper presented at 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018. Geneva 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018. Code 139156 (pp. 172-179). , Article ID 8452035.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Runtime Verification based Concurrency Bug Detector for FreeRTOS Embedded Software
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, 2018, p. 172-179, article id 8452035Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41236 (URN)10.1109/ISPDC2018.2018.00032 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053906243 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-5330-2 (ISBN)
Conference
17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018. Geneva 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018. Code 139156
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved
Čaušević, A. (2018). Appreciate the journey not the destination - Using video assignments in software testing education. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2066, 4-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appreciate the journey not the destination - Using video assignments in software testing education
2018 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 2066, p. 4-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Courses related to software testing education, at the university level, in most cases have a learning outcome requiring from students to understand and apply a set of test design techniques upon completing the course. The problem, however, remains on how to both effectively and efficiently evaluate if a student has accomplished the stated outcome. By purely looking at the final resulting set of the test cases provided by a student, it is not evident which, if any, test design technique was used to derive them. In this paper, we are presenting a rather simple but effective method of collecting video assignment submissions from students instead of a traditional source code and tests solution. This way, the teacher could rather quickly and in detail gather evidence that student indeed obtained the knowledge needed for passing the stated learning outcome. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CEUR-WS, 2018
Keywords
Curricula; Students; Teaching, Learning outcome; Source codes; Test case; Test designs; University levels, Software testing
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38920 (URN)2-s2.0-85044544738 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Šurković, A., Hanić, D., Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Lundqvist, K., Wenslandt, D. & Falk, C. (2018). Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018; Västerås; Sweden; 18 September 2018 through 21 September 2018 (pp. 31-41). Springer Verlag, 11094
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process
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2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11094, p. 31-41Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Systems of systems (SoS) are built as a collection of systems capable of fulfilling their own function, as well as contributing to other functionalities. They are expected to increase production efficiency and possibly decrease human involvement in harmful environments, and in many cases such systems are safety-critical. For SoS it is a paramount to provide both safety and security assurance. It is not sufficient to analyze and provide assurance of these properties independently due to their mutual connection. Hence, a joint effort addressing safety and security that provides joint guarantees on both properties, is required. In this paper we provide a safety and security assurance argument by incorporating an adversary point of view, and identify potential failures coming from the security domain that might lead to an already identified set of hazards. In this way system assets, vulnerabilities and ways to exploit them can be assessed. As an outcome mitigation strategies coming from security considerations can be captured by the safety requirements. The approach is illustrated on an autonomous quarry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 11094
Keywords
Safety engineering, Systems engineering, Increase productions, Mitigation strategy, Potential failures, Safety and securities, Safety requirements, Security considerations, Security domains, Systems of systems, System of systems
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41127 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99229-7_4 (DOI)000458807000004 ()2-s2.0-85053870453 (Scopus ID)9783319992280 (ISBN)
Conference
ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018; Västerås; Sweden; 18 September 2018 through 21 September 2018
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8009-9052

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