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Larsson, R., Astvik, W. & Welander, J. (2018). Hållbar socialtjänst – en fallstudie om relationen mellan arbetsmiljö och verksamhetsstyrning. In: Per Lindberg (Ed.), : . Paper presented at FALF2018 "Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?", Gävle, 10-12 juni 2018 (pp. 64-65). Gävle: Gävle University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbar socialtjänst – en fallstudie om relationen mellan arbetsmiljö och verksamhetsstyrning
2018 (Swedish)In: / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 64-65Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund

Flera studier gjorda under senare år visar att socialtjänsten framträder som särskilt problematisk vad gäller den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön med bland annat hög arbetsbelastning, rollkonflikter, låg grad av personalorientering liksom bristande öppenhet och dialog i organisationerna. Arbetsmiljöproblemen i socialtjänsten visar sig också genom hög personalomsättning, stressrelaterad ohälsa och sjukfrånvaro, vilket också får betydelse för socialtjänstens förmåga att tillhandahålla välfärdstjänster av hög kvalitet. Mot denna bakgrund är det motiverat att studera hur en mer hållbar organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö i socialtjänsten kan åstadkommas.

Syfte

Syftet med studien är att undersöka relationen mellan styrsystem och arbetsmiljöarbete med fokus på hur verksamhetsstyrningen bättre kan harmoniera med och integrera arbetsmiljöfrågor.

Metod

Studien är en kvalitativ fallstudie av individ- och familjeomsorgen i en kommun i Stockholm-Mälarregionen. Valet av fall gjordes utifrån forskningsprojektets avsikt att identifiera goda exempel på socialtjänstverksamheter som strävar efter att skapa goda arbetsvillkor och en hållbar arbetsmiljö. Datainsamlingen baseras på semistrukturerade intervjuer med kommunpolitiker, chefer på olika nivåer, socialsekreterare, fackliga företrädare och personer som arbetar med verksamhetsstöd såsom personalarbete (HR) och verksamhetsutveckling. Sammantaget har 18 personer intervjuats. Policy- och styrdokument (t.ex. verksamhetsplaner) och olika typer av personal- och arbetsmiljöstatistik används som kompletterande data. Intervjumaterialet har analyserats genom en tematisk analys.

Resultat

Resultaten visar att styrningen och ledningen av socialtjänsten har ett tydligt fokus på verksamhetens syfte och brukarnas behov, vilket innebär att socialtjänstlagen och andra lagar som reglerar verksamheten ges en framträdande plats i verksamhetsstyrningen. I resultaten framkommer också betydelsen av att kunna utföra ett "gott socialt arbete" och verksamhetens förmåga att kunna leverera en god kvalitet i sina välfärdstjänster. En god kvalitet är också något som relateras till socialarbetarnas villkor och förutsättningar att kunna utföra ett professionellt socialt arbete. I detta sammanhang beskrivs även betydelsen av en god organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö. Resultaten visar således att det, generellt sett, finns god medvetenhet bland politiker, chefer och socialarbetare om relationen mellan kvalitet och arbetsmiljö. Öppenhet och dialog i organisationen framträder här som särskilt betydelsefullt, vilket kan exemplifieras av att det görs kvalitativa dialogbaserade uppföljningar inom socialtjänsten där både verksamhetskvalitet och arbetsmiljöfrågor kopplas ihop, diskuteras och kan bli föremål för konkreta förbättringar (t.ex. resursförstärkning). Samtidigt som detta görs på verksamhetsnivå indikerar resultaten att det fortfarande finns "stuprörstänkande" på högre nivåer i kommunen där personal- och verksamhetsfrågor separeras och hanteras av olika politiska nämnder och organisatoriska enheter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2018
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39795 (URN)
Conference
FALF2018 "Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?", Gävle, 10-12 juni 2018
Funder
AFA Insurance, 150463
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-10-26Bibliographically approved
Astvik, W., Larsson, R. & Welander, J. (2018). Tillit i styrning och ledning för en hållbar arbetsmiljö inom socialtjänsten – en fallstudie av Nyköpings kommun.. In: Louise Bringselius (Ed.), Styra och leda med tillit: Forskning och praktik (pp. 139-165). Stockholm: Regeringskansliet/Norstedts Juridik
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tillit i styrning och ledning för en hållbar arbetsmiljö inom socialtjänsten – en fallstudie av Nyköpings kommun.
2018 (Swedish)In: Styra och leda med tillit: Forskning och praktik / [ed] Louise Bringselius, Stockholm: Regeringskansliet/Norstedts Juridik , 2018, p. 139-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Kapitlet syftar till att beskriva hur en mer tillitsbaserad styrning och ledning kan gestalta sig inom socialtjänstens verksamheter genom en analys av individ- och familjeomsorgen i Nyköpings kommun. Resultaten visar att grunduppdraget, det vill säga det ansvar som verksamheten förväntas ta gentemot medborgarna utifrån lagstiftningen har stort utrymme i styrningen snarare än mål, som de för tillfället styrande politikerna formulerar. Kvantitativa mått kompletteras med kvalitativa verksamhetsbeskrivningar och kontinuerlig dialog om verksamhetens kvalitet, brister och utvecklingsbehov. Ansvarsavgränsningar som inte gynnar klientens bästa kan motverkas genom hur ekonomistyrningen används. Här framstår det som väsentligt att undvika konkurrens, incitament och repressalier i styrningen som leder till fokus på den egna enhetens ekonomi snarare än verksamhetens kvalitet. Styrning och ledning som söker säkerställa förmåga, integritet och hjälpvillighet hänger intimt samman med arbetsmiljöfrågorna. När organisationen identifierar och åtgärdar reella hinder som försvårar ett professionellt socialt arbete är det tydligt att organisation tar ansvar för både verksamhetskvalitet och arbetsmiljö. Att säkerställa integritet och hjälpvillighet innebär också en konsekvent hållning till principer och värderingar som speglar ett offentligt ämbetsmannaetos. Via öppenhet och dialog i organisationen är det de gemensamma värdena som bidrar till ett gemensamt ansvar för verksamhetens kvalitet och en hållbar arbetsmiljö.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Regeringskansliet/Norstedts Juridik, 2018
Series
Statens offentliga utredningar (SOU), ISSN 0375-250X ; 2018:38
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39994 (URN)978-91-38-24805-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Hållbar socialtjänst - relationen mellan arbetsmiljö och verksamhetsstyrning
Funder
AFA Insurance, 150463
Note

Forskningsantologi från Tillitsdelegationen.

Available from: 2018-06-28 Created: 2018-06-28 Last updated: 2019-10-23
Welander, J., Astvik, W. & Isaksson, K. (2017). Corrosion of trust: Violation of psychological contracts as a reason for turnover amongst social workers. Nordic Social Work Research, 7(1), 67-79, Article ID ISSN: 2156-857X.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrosion of trust: Violation of psychological contracts as a reason for turnover amongst social workers
2017 (English)In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 67-79, article id ISSN: 2156-857XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Staff shortage in the social sector is a serious problem in several countriesand the high turnover rate of professional social workers presents a majorchallenge to the professional field. Social workers distinguish themselves asa particularly exposed occupational group, reporting higher workloads andmore difficult demands in comparison with other human service workers.Inspired by psychological contract theory, the objective of this study wasto describe social workers’ turnover processes that lead to a decision to quitafter a perceived violation of a psychological contract. Thirty-one interviewswere conducted with former statutory social workers who had voluntarilyresigned from their jobs during the preceding year. The analysis identifiedfour themes in the turnover processes stemming from perceptions oforganisational failure to fulfil promises concerning the provision of: (1) abalance between demands and resources at work, (2) a balance betweenefforts and rewards, (3) organisational professional ethics, and (4) responsiblehuman resource practices. The results highlight how organisational responsesto work-related dissatisfactions by social workers seem to enhance theirconviction of psychological contract breaches and perceptions of contractviolations, resulting in turnover. An important conclusion is that public sectoremployers need to reconsider their personnel strategies and practices inorder to start rebuilding trust and creating a more positive work climate.

Keywords
Social workers; turnover; psychological contract violation; work conditions
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35279 (URN)10.1080/2156857X.2016.1203814 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
Welander, J., Astvik, W. & Isaksson, K. (2017). Exit, silence and loyalty among social workers and managers in the Swedish social services. , 7(1), Article ID ISSN: 2156-857X.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exit, silence and loyalty among social workers and managers in the Swedish social services
2017 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Staff shortage in the social sector is a serious problem in several countriesand the high turnover rate of professional social workers presents a majorchallenge to the professional field. Social workers distinguish themselves asa particularly exposed occupational group, reporting higher workloads andmore difficult demands in comparison with other human service workers.Inspired by psychological contract theory, the objective of this study wasto describe social workers’ turnover processes that lead to a decision to quitafter a perceived violation of a psychological contract. Thirty-one interviewswere conducted with former statutory social workers who had voluntarilyresigned from their jobs during the preceding year. The analysis identifiedfour themes in the turnover processes stemming from perceptions oforganisational failure to fulfil promises concerning the provision of: (1) abalance between demands and resources at work, (2) a balance betweenefforts and rewards, (3) organisational professional ethics, and (4) responsiblehuman resource practices. The results highlight how organisational responsesto work-related dissatisfactions by social workers seem to enhance theirconviction of psychological contract breaches and perceptions of contractviolations, resulting in turnover. An important conclusion is that public sectoremployers need to reconsider their personnel strategies and practices inorder to start rebuilding trust and creating a more positive work climate.

Keywords
Social workers; turnover; psychological contract violation; work conditions
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35283 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
Welander, J., Astvik, W. & Hellgren, J. (2017). Stressrelaterad ohälsa och arbetstrivsel hos medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten. Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, 23(2), 8-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stressrelaterad ohälsa och arbetstrivsel hos medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten
2017 (Swedish)In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 8-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Situationen inom svensk socialtjänst framstår som särskilt problematisk med svåra arbetsvillkor, stressrelaterad ohälsa och höga ohälsotal. Baserat på en nationell enkätstudie med myndighetsutövande medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten undersöks betydelsen av arbetsvillkor och organisatoriska faktorer för ohälsa och arbetstrivsel. Resultaten visar bland annat att rimliga arbetskrav, i synnerhet kvantitativa krav, samt organisationens öppenhet har stor betydelse för ohälsa och arbetstrivsel hos både medarbetare och chefer inom socialtjänsten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2017
Keywords
Arbetstrivsel, Arbetsvillkor, Stressrelaterad ohälsa, Socialtjänsten, New Public Management
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35280 (URN)
Funder
AFA Insurance
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-28Bibliographically approved
Melin, M., Astvik, W. & Bernhard-Oettel, C. (2014). New work demands in higher education. A study of the relationship between excessive workload, coping strategies and subsequent health among academic staff. Quality in Higher Education, 20(3), 290-308
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New work demands in higher education. A study of the relationship between excessive workload, coping strategies and subsequent health among academic staff
2014 (English)In: Quality in Higher Education, ISSN 1353-8322, E-ISSN 1470-1081, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 290-308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the relationship between the work conditions in higher education work settings, the academic staff’s strategies for handling excessive workload and impact on well-being and work-life balance. The results show that there is a risk that staff in academic work places will start using compensatory coping strategies to deal with excessive demands and that this might seriously impair their health. The compensatory strategy cluster emerged as a ‘risk group’ among the three identified strategy clusters, having a lower work-life balance and suffering from stress-related symptoms more often than the other two strategy clusters. The results also show that high educational level, management position and wide discretion as regards regulation of work in time and space (when and where to work) are factors that might contribute to a lower work-life balance. In practice, the results can contribute to create more sustainable work environments by detecting risk behaviours and risk factors.

Keywords
higher education, academic staff, work demands, coping strategies, health, work environment
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26881 (URN)10.1080/13538322.2014.979547 (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2014-12-09 Created: 2014-12-09 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Astvik, W., Melin, M. & Allvin, M. (2014). Survival strategies in social work: A study of how coping strategies affect service quality, professionalism and employee health.. Nordic Social Work Research, 4(1), 52-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survival strategies in social work: A study of how coping strategies affect service quality, professionalism and employee health.
2014 (English)In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 52-66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The restructuring of human service organisations into more lean organisations has brought increased work demands for many human service professions. Social work stands out as a particularly exposed occupational group, in which high work demands are paired with a large individual responsibility to carry out the job. The objectives of the study were to identify what kind of coping strategies social workers employ to handle the imbalance between demands and resources in work and to investigate how different strategies affect outcomes regarding health, service quality and professional development. 16 individual interviews and four group interviews with another 16 social workers were conducted. The analysis identified five different main types of strategies: Compensatory, Demand-reducing, Disengagement, Voice and Exit. An extensive use of compensatory strategies was connected with negative outcomes in health. Often these compensatory strategies were replaced or combined with different means of reducing the work demands, which in turn influence performance and service quality in a negative way. The results highlight dilemmas the social workers are facing when the responsibility to deal with this imbalance are “decentralised” to the individual social worker. When resources do not match the organisational goals or quality standards, the social workers are forced into strategies that either endanger their own health or threaten the quality of service.

Keywords
social work; coping; work conditions; employee health; service quality; professionalism
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23168 (URN)10.1080/2156857X.2013.801879 (DOI)
Projects
Strategier för hälsa och kvalitet i välfärdstjänstearbete
Funder
AFA Insurance, Dnr 060004
Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Aronsson, G., Astvik, W. & Gustafsson, K. (2014). Work Conditions, Recovery and Health: A Study among Workers within Pre-School, Home Care and Social Work. British Journal of Social Work, 44(6), 1654-1672
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work Conditions, Recovery and Health: A Study among Workers within Pre-School, Home Care and Social Work
2014 (English)In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1654-1672Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study investigated the working conditions associated with the accumulation of stress and lack of recovery and how recovery is related to health. The study group was employed in pre-school, home care and social work (n = 193). Recovery was assumed to be an explanatory variable for the relations between work and health. The response rate on a survey was 79 per cent. Cluster analysis identified three groups: the 'Recovered' (36 per cent of the total group) and 'Not Recovered' (25 per cent) and the 'In-between' (39 per cent). The Not Recovered displayed the whole chain of risk factors, involving difficult working conditions to which they responded with increased compensatory strategies. Despite this group having significantly greater reports of ill health, work absenteeism was not greater, which is likely related to their substituting sickness absence with sickness presence. As many as 43 per cent of the social workers were found to belong to the Not Recovered group. Multiple regression analyses controlling for background variables revealed that the Not Recovered group had a significantly higher relative risk for poor self-rated health than those in the Recovered group. Even sharper increases in relative risk existed for the other five symptoms that were analysed. Practical implications and new research questions are discussed.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26483 (URN)10.1093/bjsw/bct036 (DOI)000342988900018 ()
Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Astvik, W. & Melin, M. (2013). Coping with the imbalance between job demands and resources: A study of different coping patterns and implications for health and quality in human service work. Journal of Social Work, 13(4), 337-360
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coping with the imbalance between job demands and resources: A study of different coping patterns and implications for health and quality in human service work
2013 (English)In: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 337-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Summary: In recent decades the public welfare sector has been subjected to major structural changes, and studies of various occupational groups within human service work have reported increased workload and a high prevalence of work-related stress. Using questionnaire data from a sample of human service workers within social work, child care and elderly care, the aim of this study was to identify different patterns of coping strategies to manage the imbalance between work demands and resources, and then to investigate their impact on outcomes in employee health and service quality.

Findings: Cluster analysis identified three strategy profiles: compensatory and quality reducing, voice and support seeking and self supporting, and the comparative analysis indicated that the compensatory and quality reducing cluster may be regarded as a risk group. Results of hierarchical regression analyses disclosed that the identified strategies affected health outcomes as well as perceived service quality. The use of compensatory and quality reducing strategies was negatively related to health and quality, although work demands, resources and background characteristics were controlled for.

Applications: The results add to the research field through the identification of compensatory and quality reducing strategies not previously described in the coping literature, as well as the risks associated with them. Applied in practice, the identified strategy clusters might help distinguish “risk behaviours” from more beneficial strategies. The results also point toward the importance of providing organizational structures that allow the employees to voice their opinions and critique, as well as to give and receive social support. 

Keywords
Coping, employee health, human service work, job stress, service quality
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14229 (URN)10.1177/1468017311434682 (DOI)000321199700001 ()2-s2.0-84879523336 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Strategier för hälsa och kvalitet i välfärdstjänstearbete
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Astvik, W. & Melin, M. (2013). Överlevnadsstrategier i socialt arbete: Hur påverkar copingstsrategier kvalitet och hälsa?. Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, 19(4), 61-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Överlevnadsstrategier i socialt arbete: Hur påverkar copingstsrategier kvalitet och hälsa?
2013 (Swedish)In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 61-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Förändringarna inom välfärdstjänstesektorn i Sverige har det senaste decenniet varit genomgripande. Rationaliseringar och ett decentraliserat resultat- och kostnadsansvar har i många fall medfört ökade arbetskrav, och socialsekreterares situation framstår som särskilt svår. Ansvaret att hantera obalansen mellan krav och resurser har decentraliserats till den enskilde socialsekreteraren. När resurserna inte matchar de kvalitetskrav som ställs tvingas socialsekreterarna till strategier som antingen äventyrar deras egen hälsa eller kvaliteten i arbetet. 

Keywords
socialtjänst, socialsekreterare, arbetsmiljö, arbetsvillkor, coping, stress, kvalitet
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26883 (URN)
Projects
Strategier för hälsa och kvalitet i välfärdstänstearbete
Funder
AFA Insurance, Dnr 060004
Available from: 2014-12-09 Created: 2014-12-09 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7405-0025

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