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Campana, Pietro EliaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1351-9245
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Publications (10 of 138) Show all publications
Elkadeem, M. R., Zainali, S., Ma Lu, S., Younes, A., Abido, M. A., Amaducci, S., . . . Campana, P. E. (2024). Agrivoltaic systems potentials in Sweden: A geospatial-assisted multi-criteria analysis. Applied Energy, 356, Article ID 122108.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agrivoltaic systems potentials in Sweden: A geospatial-assisted multi-criteria analysis
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2024 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 356, article id 122108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agrivoltaic systems represent an intelligent solution combining electricity production from solar photovoltaic technology with agricultural production to avoid land use conflicts. Geographic Information System technologies can support the implementation and spread of agrivoltaic systems by identifying the most suitable areas using useful spatially explicit information concerning techno-agro-socio-economic criteria. In this study, we have developed a procedure to identify and classify suitable areas for agrivoltaic systems in Sweden. An Ordinal Priority Approach based multi-criteria decision-making algorithm is established to calculate the weights of the selected evaluation criteria through expert interviews. The land use data refers to the Corine Land Cover 2018 product. The results show that about 8.6% of the Swedish territory, approximately 38,485 km2, is suitable for installing agrivoltaic systems. Among this area, about 0.2% is classified as “excellent”, about 15% as “very good”, about 72% as “good”, about 13% as “moderate”, and about 0.1% as “poor”. Most “excellent”-classified areas are in Kalmar, Skåne, and Gotland. In contrast, most “very good” sites are in Skåne, Kalmar, and Östergötland. By deploying vertically mounted agrivoltaic systems with bifacial photovoltaic modules, the total potential installed capacity for “excellent” areas is about 2.5 GWp, while for areas classified “excellent” and “very good” is about 221 GWp. The total “excellent” areas can potentially supply about 2.4 TWh of electricity against the electricity consumption in 2021 of about 143 TWh. On the other hand, the land classified as “excellent” and “very good” could potentially provide about 207 TWh. The County of Västra Götaland shows the greatest potentials in terms of total potential electricity supply from agrivoltaic systems with about 227 TWh, followed by Skåne with a total potential of 206 TWh. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Agrivoltaic, Geographic Information System, Shading, Sustainability, Water-food-energy nexus
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65014 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.122108 (DOI)001127715700001 ()2-s2.0-85178426007 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-13 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Jurasz, J., Guezgouz, M., Campana, P. E., Kaźmierczak, B., Kuriqi, A., Bloomfield, H., . . . Elkadeem, M. R. (2024). Complementarity of wind and solar power in North Africa: Potential for alleviating energy droughts and impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 191, Article ID 114181.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complementarity of wind and solar power in North Africa: Potential for alleviating energy droughts and impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation
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2024 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 191, article id 114181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With growing gas and oil prices, electricity generation based on these fossil fuels is becoming increasingly expensive. Furthermore, the vision of natural gas as a transition fuel is subject to many constraints and uncertainties of economic, environmental, and geopolitical nature. Consequently, renewable energies such as solar and wind power are expected to reach new records of installed capacity over the upcoming years. Considering the above, North Africa is one of the regions with the largest renewable resource potential globally. While extensively studied in the literature, these resources remain underutilized. Thus, to contribute to their future successful deployment and integration with the power system, this study presents a spatial and temporal analysis of the nature of solar and wind resources over North Africa from the perspective of energy droughts. Both the frequency and maximal duration of energy droughts are addressed. Both aspects of renewables’ variable nature have been evaluated in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) context. The analysis considers the period between 1960 and 2020 based on hourly reanalysis data (i.e., near-surface shortwave irradiation, wind speed, and air temperature) and the Hurrel NAO index. The findings show an in-phase relationship between solar power and winter NAO index, particularly over the coastal regions in western North Africa and opposite patterns in its eastern part. For wind energy, the connection with NAO has a more zonal pattern, with negative correlations in the north and positive correlations in the south. Solar energy droughts dominate northern Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, while wind energy droughts mainly occur in the Atlas Mountains range. On average, solar energy droughts tend not to exceed 2–3 consecutive days, with the longest extending for five days. Wind energy droughts can be as prolonged as 80 days (Atlas Mountains). Hybridizing solar and wind energy reduces the potential for energy droughts significantly. At the same time, the correlation between their occurrence and the NAO index remains low. These findings show the potential for substantial resilience to inter-annual climate variability, which could benefit the future stability of renewables-dominated power systems. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Climate resilience, Energy transition, Hurrel NAO index, Hybrid energy system, Renewable energy, Atmospheric pressure, Fossil fuels, Natural gas, Solar energy, Wind, Wind power, Energy, Energy transitions, Hurrel north atlantic oscillation index, North Africa, North atlantic oscillation indices, North Atlantic oscillations, Renewable energies, Solar and winds, Drought
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65244 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2023.114181 (DOI)001138707300001 ()2-s2.0-85180375827 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Campana, P. E., Stridh, B., Hörndahl, T., Svensson, S.-E. -., Zainali, S., Ma Lu, S., . . . Colauzzi, M. (2024). Experimental results, integrated model validation, and economic aspects of agrivoltaic systems at northern latitudes. Journal of Cleaner Production, 437, Article ID 140235.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental results, integrated model validation, and economic aspects of agrivoltaic systems at northern latitudes
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 437, article id 140235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agrivoltaic systems, which allow the coexistence of crop and electricity production on the same land, are an integrated water–energy–food nexus solution that allows the simultaneous attainment of conflicting Sustainable Development Goals. This study aims to analyse experimental results on the responses of ley grass yield and quality to shadings in the first agrivoltaic system in Sweden. It also aims to validate an integrated modelling platform for assessing agrivoltaic systems' performances before installation. An economic analysis is carried out to compare the profitability of agrivoltaic versus conventional ground-mounted photovoltaic systems and, using a Monte Carlo Analysis, to identify the parameters that most affect the profitability. Despite the agrivoltaic systems’ supporting structures and photovoltaic modules producing an average ∼25% reduction in photosynthetically active radiation at ground level, no statistically significant difference was observed between the yield of the samples under the agrivoltaic system compared to the yield of the samples in the reference area. The agrivoltaic system attained land equivalent ratios of 1.27 and 1.39 in 2021 and 2022, respectively. The validation results of the integrated modelling platform show that the sub-model concerning the crop yield response to shading conditions tends to underestimate ∼7% the actual average crop yield under the agrivoltaic system. The results of the economic analysis show that, from a net present value perspective, agrivoltaic systems have a profitability that is ∼30 times higher than a conventional crop rotation in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Agrivoltaic, Integrated modelling, Leaf area index, Profitability, Shading, Soil moisture, Validation, Crop rotation, Economic analysis, Crop yield, Economic aspects, Economics analysis, Integrated modeling, Model validation, Modeling platforms
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66092 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.140235 (DOI)001164475200001 ()2-s2.0-85184738863 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-20 Created: 2024-02-20 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Lu, S. M., Yang, D., Anderson, M. C., Zainali, S., Stridh, B., Avelin, A. & Campana, P. E. (2024). Photosynthetically active radiation separation model for high-latitude regions in agrivoltaic systems modeling. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 16(1), Article ID 013503.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photosynthetically active radiation separation model for high-latitude regions in agrivoltaic systems modeling
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 013503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photosynthetically active radiation is a key parameter for determining crop yield. Separating photosynthetically active radiation into direct and diffuse components is significant to agrivoltaic systems. The varying shading conditions caused by the solar panels produce a higher contribution of diffuse irradiance reaching the crops. This study introduces a new separation model capable of accurately estimating the diffuse component from the global photosynthetically active radiation and conveniently retrievable meteorological parameters. The model modifies one of the highest-performing separation models for broadband irradiance, namely, the Yang2 model. Four new predictors are added: atmospheric optical thickness, vapor pressure deficit, aerosol optical depth, and surface albedo. The proposed model has been calibrated, tested, and validated at three sites in Sweden with latitudes above 58 °N, outperforming four other models in all examined locations, with R2 values greater than 0.90. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated using data retrieved from Sweden's first agrivoltaic system. A variety of data availability cases representative of current and future agrivoltaic systems is tested. If on-site measurements of diffuse photosynthetically active radiation are not available, the model calibrated based on nearby stations can be a suitable first approximation, obtaining an R2 of 0.89. Utilizing predictor values derived from satellite data is an alternative method, but the spatial resolution must be considered cautiously as the R2 dropped to 0.73.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66129 (URN)10.1063/5.0181311 (DOI)001163102700001 ()2-s2.0-85185347410 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 52693-1Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2021/0005Swedish Energy Agency, 51000-1Swedish Energy Agency, P2022-00809
Available from: 2024-02-26 Created: 2024-02-26 Last updated: 2024-04-10Bibliographically approved
Zainali, S., Qadir, O., Parlak, S. C., Lu, S. M., Avelin, A., Stridh, B. & Campana, P. E. (2023). Computational fluid dynamics modelling of microclimate for a vertical agrivoltaic system. Energy Nexus, 9, Article ID 100173.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational fluid dynamics modelling of microclimate for a vertical agrivoltaic system
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2023 (English)In: Energy Nexus, ISSN 2772-4271, Vol. 9, article id 100173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing worldwide population is leading to a continuous increase in energy and food demand. These increasing demands have led to fierce land-use conflicts as we need agricultural land for food production while striving towards renewable energy systems such as large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, which also require in most of the cases agricultural flat land for implementation. It is therefore essential to identify the interrelationships between the food, and energy sectors and develop sustainable solutions to achieve global goals such as food and energy security. A technology that has shown promising potential in supporting food and energy security, as well as supporting water security, is agrivoltaic (AV) systems. This technology combines conventional farm activities with PV systems on the same land. Understanding the microclimatic conditions in an AV system is essential for an accurate assessment of crop yield potential as well as for the energy performance of the PV systems. Nevertheless, the complex mechanisms governing the microclimatic conditions under agrivoltaic systems represent an underdeveloped research area. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for a vertical AV system is developed and validated. The CFD model showed PV module temperature estimation errors in the order of 0–2 °C and ground temperature errors in the order of 0–1 °C. The shading caused by the vertical PV system resulted in a reduction of solar irradiance by 38%. CFD modelling can be seen as a robust approach to analysing microclimatic parameters and assessing AV system performance.

National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61951 (URN)10.1016/j.nexus.2023.100173 (DOI)001133749800001 ()2-s2.0-85151588794 (Scopus ID)
Funder
SOLVE, 52693-1Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2021/0005Swedish Energy Agency, 51000-1
Available from: 2023-02-21 Created: 2023-02-21 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved
Zainali, S., Ma Lu, S., Stridh, B., Avelin, A., Amaducci, S., Colauzzi, M. & Campana, P. E. (2023). Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layouts. Applied Energy, 339, Article ID 120981.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layouts
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2023 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 339, article id 120981Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agrivoltaic systems are becoming increasingly popular as a crucial technology for attaining multiple sustainable development goals, such as affordable and clean energy, zero hunger, clean water and sanitation, and climate action. However, a comprehensive understanding of the shading effects on crops is essential for choosing an optimal agrivoltaic system, as an incorrect choice can result in significant crop yield reductions. In this study, fixed vertical, one-axis tracking, and two-axis tracking photovoltaic arrays were developed for agrivoltaic applications to analyse the shading conditions on the ground used for crop production. The models demonstrated remarkable accuracy in comparison to commercial software such as PVsyst® and SketchUp®. These models will help to reduce crop yield uncertainty under agrivoltaic systems by providing accurate photosynthetically active radiation distribution at the crop level. The photosynthetically active radiation distribution was further analysed using a light homogeneity index, and the results showed that homogeneity and photosynthetically active radiation reduction varied significantly depending on the agrivoltaic system design, ranging from 86% to 95%, and 11% to 22%, respectively. Studying the effect of shading with distribution analysis is crucial for identifying the most suitable agrivoltaic system layout for specific crops and geographical locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Agrivoltaics, Beam Shading Factor, Diffuse Shading Factor, Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Photovoltaics, Tracking
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62207 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.120981 (DOI)000967301400001 ()2-s2.0-85151327591 (Scopus ID)
Funder
SOLVE, 52693-1Swedish Energy Agency, 51000-1Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2021/0005
Available from: 2023-04-12 Created: 2023-04-12 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Vörösmarty, C. J., Campana, P. E., Jewitt, G., Lawford, R. & Wuebbles, D. (2023). Editorial: Food-energy-water systems: achieving climate resilience and sustainable development in the 21st century. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 11, Article ID 1334892.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial: Food-energy-water systems: achieving climate resilience and sustainable development in the 21st century
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 11, article id 1334892Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
climate change, climate impact mitigation and adaptation, climate variability and extremes, environmental and resource management, food-energy-water nexus, regional climate, societal impact
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65798 (URN)10.3389/fenvs.2023.1334892 (DOI)001155019400001 ()2-s2.0-85182862682 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Campana, P. E., Stridh, B., Zainali, S., Ma Lu, S., Andersson, U., Nordström, J., . . . Svensson, S.-E. (2023). Evaluation of the first agrivoltaic system in Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the first agrivoltaic system in Sweden
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Utvärdering av det första agrivoltaiska systemet i Sverige
Abstract [en]

Photovoltaic (PV) systems in Sweden have primarily been seen as an energy efficiency measure to reduce the amount of purchased electricity for buildings, both residential and commercial. Only recently utility-scale solar systems have begun to increase their share of the solar market to support national energy and emissions targets. Due to the economies of scale, conventional ground-mounted PV (CGMPV) installations represent the best solution for producing electricity at the lowest specific initial investment costs. This relatively new solar market segment, with large-scale ground-mounted solar farms on agricultural land, has faced several challenges with the permitting process. Agricultural land that is suitable for cultivation is of "national importance" according to the Swedish Environmental Code. Cultivable agricultural land may be exploited for other purposes on a permanent basis only if it is necessary to satisfy essential societal interests and there is no other possible land to use within the area in question. Traditionally, ground-mounted solar farms have increased competition for land resources for food production and drawn criticism in the so-called "food-versus-fuel (electricity)" debate over whether agricultural land should be used for electricity generation or food production. Agrivoltaic (APV) systems represent an intelligent solution to avoid land use competition by combining arable farming and electricity production on the same agricultural land. The main objective of this project was to study how APV systems perform from an energy, agricultural and economic perspective compared to CGMPV systems and agriculture production. The project aimed to highlight advantages and disadvantages of APV systems at northern latitudes with an energy-food-water perspective. The aim was pursued by establishing an APV test site, the first APV system in Sweden, monitoring its performance both from an energy and agricultural point of view, and developing new techno-economic models. Data from the APV test site were used to better understand how APV systems at northern latitudes affect: 1) the efficiency of the solar modules; 2) crop productivity, and 3) the financial return for ground-based solar PV systems. The first agrivoltaic system in Sweden has been built on a permanent ley grass field, at Kärrbo Prästgård, Västerås, and research activities have been carried out on the ley grass during 2021 and 2022. As in previous research studies in other countries, we defined three sub-fields: 1) a sub-field is covered only by the ley grass (reference area), 2) a sub-field is a CGMPV system 11.8 kWp solar PV system with two rows of solar modules with a 30° tilt and 3) the last subfield is a  22.8 kWp APV system with three rows of vertically mounted solar modules, with ley grass between the modules. This field set-up allowed for comparisons between practices (agriculture and electricity generation) and technologies (CGMPV systems versus APV systems). The calculated specific electricity production during a typical meteorological year for the APV system and the CGMPV system was 1,067 kWh/kWp/year and 1,116 kWh/kWp/year, respectively. Nevertheless, the APV system tends to have higher efficiency than the CGMPV systems due to the solar irradiation patterns on the solar cell surfaces and wind cooling of the PV modules. The main results of the project in terms of shadow effects on the ley grass showed that the APV system did not significantly affect the productivity of the forage grass in 2021-2022. There was no statistically significant difference between the yield of the samples taken in the APV system and the reference area. Even so, the yield per hectare is reduced by approximatively 10%, when the distance between the vertically mounted solar modules is 10 meters, due to the area under the solar modules that cannot be mechanically harvested. The measurements performed at the test site allowed us to validate the earlier developed model for both electricity production and the effects of shading on crop production. Having a model to assess crop yields under APV systems is of utmost importance to be able to pre-assess the system's effects on food production, which is one of the main goals of APV system regulations worldwide. From an economic perspective, APV systems cannot compete with CGMPV systems due to lower electricity production per hectare, lower density of the solar modules per hectare, and higher investment costs per hectare. Nevertheless, APV systems can be the solution to overcome the legal obstacles that prohibit or hinder the use of agricultural land for electricity generation with PV systems. 

Abstract [sv]

Solceller i Sverige har främst setts som en energieffektiviseringsåtgärd för att minska mängden köpt el för byggnader, både bostäder och kommersiella. Först nyligen har solcellssystem i bruksskala börjat öka sin andel på solcellsmarknaden för att stödja de nationella energi- och utsläppsmålen. På grund av stordriftsekonomins fördelar representerar markmonterade solcellsanläggningar den bästa lösningen för att producera el till lägsta initiala investeringskostnader. Detta relativt nya marknadssegment för solel, med storskaliga markmonterade solcellsparker på jordbruksmark har ställts inför flera utmaningar med tillståndsprocessen. Jordbruksmark som är lämplig för odling är av "nationell betydelse" enligt svenska Miljöbalken. Odlingsvärd jordbruksmark får varaktigt exploateras för andra ändamål endast om det behövs för att tillgodose väsentliga samhällsintressen och det inte finns någon annan möjlig mark att använda inom det aktuella området. Traditionellt har markmonterade solcellsparker ökat konkurrensen om markresurser för livsmedelsproduktion och väckt kritik i den så kallade "mat-mot-elproduktion"-debatten, dvs om marken ska användas för elproduktion eller livsmedelsproduktion. Agrivoltaiska (APV) solcellssystem representerar en intelligent lösning för att undvika konkurrensen om markanvändning genom att kombinera odling och elproduktion på samma markområde.  Huvudmålet med detta projekt var att studera hur APV-system presterar ur ett energi-, jordbruks- och ekonomiskt perspektiv jämfört med konventionella markbaserade solcellssystem och vanlig jordbruksproduktion. Projektet syftade till att belysa fördelar och nackdelar med APV-system på nordliga breddgrader med ett energi-mat-vatten-perspektiv. Syftet var att etablera en APV-testplats, det första APV-systemet i Sverige, övervaka dess prestanda både ur energi- och jordbrukssynpunkt och utveckla nya teknoekonomiska modeller. I synnerhet användes data från APV-testplatsen, Kärrbo Prästgård, Västerås, för att bättre förstå hur APV-system på nordliga breddgrader påverkar: 1) effektiviteten hos solcellsmoduler; 2) grödans produktivitet och 3) den ekonomiska avkastningen för markbaserade solcellsanläggningar. Det första agrivoltaiska systemet i Sverige har byggts på en permanent vall och forskningsverksamhet har genomförts på vallgrödan under 2021 och 2022. Liksom i tidigare forskningsstudier i andra länder, definierade vi tre delfält på försöksplatsen: 1) ett delfält med enbart odling av vallgrödan (referensområdet), 2) ett delfält med ett konventionellt markbaserat 11,8 kWp solcellssystem med två rader av solcellsmoduler med 30 graders lutning och 3) det sista delfältet med ett 22,8 kWp APV-system med tre rader av vertikalt monterade solcellsmoduler, med odling av vallgrödan mellan de tre raderna av solcellsmoduler. Denna fältuppsättning möjliggjorde jämförelser mellan praxis (jordbruk och elproduktion) och teknik (markmonterade solcellssystem kontra APV-system). Den beräknade specifika elproduktionen under ett typiskt meteorologiskt år för det agrivoltaiska systemet och det konventionella solcellssystemet var 1067 kWh/kWp/år respektive 1116 kWh/kWp/år. Ändå tenderar det agrivoltaiska systemet att ha högre verkningsgrad än de konventionella solcellssystemen på grund av solinstrålningsmönstren på solcellsytorna och vindkylning av modulerna. Projektets huvudresultat, när det gäller skuggeffekter på skördens storlek, visade att det agrivoltaiska systemet inte förändrade vallgräsets produktivitet under 2021–2022. Det fanns ingen statistisk säkerställd skillnad mellan skördeutbytet av proverna som tagits i det agrivoltaiska systemet och referensområdet. Trots detta minskar skördeutbytet per hektar med ca 10 %, när det är 10 meter mellan raderna av solcellsmodulerna i APV-systemet, på grund av den yta under solcellsmodulerna som inte kan skördas maskinellt.  Mätningarna som utfördes vid testanläggningen gjorde det möjligt för oss att validera den sen tidigare utvecklade modellen för elproduktion och effekterna av skuggning på grödan mellan solcellspanelerna. Att ha en modell för att bedöma skörden i agrivoltaiska system är av yttersta vikt för att i förväg kunna bedöma APV-systemets effekter på livsmedelsproduktionen, vilket är ett av de viktigaste målen i regelverk för agrivoltaiska system över hela världen. 

Publisher
p. 60
Keywords
Agrivoltaiska solcellssystem, elproduktion, jordbruk, odling, samverkan energi, mat och vatten
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64682 (URN)
Available from: 2023-11-07 Created: 2023-11-07 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Zainali, S., Yang, D., Landelius, T. & Campana, P. E. (2023). Site adaptation with machine learning for a Northern Europe gridded global solar irradiance product. Energy and AI, 15, Article ID 100331.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Site adaptation with machine learning for a Northern Europe gridded global solar irradiance product
2023 (English)In: Energy and AI, ISSN 2666-5468, Vol. 15, article id 100331Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gridded global horizontal irradiance (GHI) databases are fundamental for analysing solar energy applications' technical and economic aspects, particularly photovoltaic applications. Today, there exist numerous gridded GHI databases whose quality has been thoroughly validated against ground-based irradiance measurements. Nonetheless, databases that generate data at latitudes above 65˚ are few, and those available gridded irradiance products, which are either reanalysis or based on polar orbiters, such as ERA5, COSMO-REA6, or CM SAF CLARA-A2, generally have lower quality or a coarser time resolution than those gridded irradiance products based on geostationary satellites. Amongst the high-latitude gridded GHI databases, the STRÅNG model developed by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) is likely the most accurate one, providing data across Sweden. To further enhance the product quality, the calibration technique called "site adaptation" is herein used to improve the STRÅNG dataset, which seeks to adjust a long period of low-quality gridded irradiance estimates based on a short period of high-quality irradiance measurements. This study introduces a novel approach for site adaptation of solar irradiance based on machine learning techniques, which differs from the conventional statistical methods used in previous studies. Seven machine-learning algorithms have been analysed and compared with conventional statistical approaches to identify Sweden's most accurate algorithms for site adaptation. Solar irradiance data gathered from three weather stations of SMHI is used for training and validation. The results show that machine learning can substantially improve the STRÅNG model's accuracy. However, due to the spatiotemporal heterogeneity in model performance, no universal machine learning model can be identified, which suggests that site adaptation is a location-dependant procedure.

Keywords
Machine learning, Global horizontal irradiance, STRÅNG, Site adaptation, Agrivoltaic, Sweden
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65211 (URN)10.1016/j.egyai.2023.100331 (DOI)001144841300001 ()2-s2.0-85180603961 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 52693-1Swedish Energy Agency, 51000-1Swedish Energy Agency, P2022-00809Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2021/0005Vinnova, 2020-03395SOLVE
Available from: 2023-12-22 Created: 2023-12-22 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved
Gorjian, S., Jalili Jamshidian, F., Gorjian, A., Faridi, H., Vafaei, M., Zhang, F., . . . Campana, P. E. (2023). Technological advancements and research prospects of innovative concentrating agrivoltaics. Applied Energy, 337, Article ID 120799.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technological advancements and research prospects of innovative concentrating agrivoltaics
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2023 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 337, article id 120799Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agrivoltaic is a strategic and innovative approach that combines photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion with agricultural production, enabling synergies in the production of food, energy, and water, as well as the preservation of the ecological landscape. Shading management, intensity adjustment, and spectral distribution allow innovative PV systems to generate significant amounts of electricity without affecting agricultural production. Demonstration projects have already been developed around the world and there is a wealth of experience with various design solutions for commercial use. One of these new technologies is concentrator photovoltaics (CPV). The CPV has excellent spectral processing capabilities and highly concentrated power generation efficiency, which makes it a perfect solution for integrating with photosynthesis. This study aims to present the working principle of CPV modules considering agricultural applications and discuss the recent advancements in concentrating agrivoltaics. In this method, the problem of shading is mitigated by two main strategies: (i) parabolic glasses covered with a multilayer dichroic polymer film that reflects near-infrared (NIR) radiation onto the solar cells installed at the focal area and transmits photons in the range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and (ii) highly transparent sun-tracking louvers or Fresnel lenses that concentrate direct sunlight onto the solar cells to generate electricity. In the latter solution, the remaining diffuse sunlight is directed to the ground for use by growing plants. Although the CPV development trend has been slow due to the lower cost of crystalline silicon, the development of CPV for agriculture with accurate spectral separation could revitalize this industry. In this regard, more research and development are needed to evaluate the suitability of materials that split solar radiation and their impacts on the electrical performance of CPV modules, taking into account the physiology of plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Agrivoltaics, Concentrating photovoltaic, Dichroic material, Shading management, Spectrum splitting, Agriculture, Butyric acid, Infrared devices, Plants (botany), Power generation, Semiconducting films, Solar panels, Solar power generation, Agricultural productions, Concentrator photovoltaics, Photovoltaic modules, Technological advancement, Technological researches, Polymer films
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62034 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.120799 (DOI)000948692900001 ()2-s2.0-85148853503 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-08 Created: 2023-03-08 Last updated: 2023-04-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1351-9245

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