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Publications (10 of 52) Show all publications
Xiong, R., Li, X., Li, H., Zhu, B. & Avelin, A. (2024). Neural network and physical enable one sensor to estimate the temperature for all cells in the battery pack. Journal of Energy Storage, 80, Article ID 110387.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neural network and physical enable one sensor to estimate the temperature for all cells in the battery pack
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 80, article id 110387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is sensitive to the operating temperature, and the design and operation of battery thermal management systems reply on accurate information of LIBs' temperature. This study proposes a data-driven model based on neural network (NN) for estimating the temperature profile of a LIB module. Only one temperature measurement is needed for the battery module, which can assure a low cost. The method has been tested for battery modules consisting of prismatic and cylindrical batteries. In general, a good accuracy can be observed that the root mean square error (RMSE) of esitmated temperatures is less than 0.8 °C regardless of the different operating conditions, ambient temperatures, and heat dissipation conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Battery energy storage, Lithium-ion battery, Neural network, Temperature estimation, Thermal model, Battery management systems, Battery Pack, Digital storage, Information management, Mean square error, Temperature, Temperature measurement, Battery modules, Battery thermal managements, Design and operations, Neural-networks, Operating temperature, Performance, Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65797 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2023.110387 (DOI)001155780900001 ()2-s2.0-85182875892 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Lu, S. M., Yang, D., Anderson, M. C., Zainali, S., Stridh, B., Avelin, A. & Campana, P. E. (2024). Photosynthetically active radiation separation model for high-latitude regions in agrivoltaic systems modeling. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 16(1), Article ID 013503.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photosynthetically active radiation separation model for high-latitude regions in agrivoltaic systems modeling
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 013503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photosynthetically active radiation is a key parameter for determining crop yield. Separating photosynthetically active radiation into direct and diffuse components is significant to agrivoltaic systems. The varying shading conditions caused by the solar panels produce a higher contribution of diffuse irradiance reaching the crops. This study introduces a new separation model capable of accurately estimating the diffuse component from the global photosynthetically active radiation and conveniently retrievable meteorological parameters. The model modifies one of the highest-performing separation models for broadband irradiance, namely, the Yang2 model. Four new predictors are added: atmospheric optical thickness, vapor pressure deficit, aerosol optical depth, and surface albedo. The proposed model has been calibrated, tested, and validated at three sites in Sweden with latitudes above 58 °N, outperforming four other models in all examined locations, with R2 values greater than 0.90. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated using data retrieved from Sweden's first agrivoltaic system. A variety of data availability cases representative of current and future agrivoltaic systems is tested. If on-site measurements of diffuse photosynthetically active radiation are not available, the model calibrated based on nearby stations can be a suitable first approximation, obtaining an R2 of 0.89. Utilizing predictor values derived from satellite data is an alternative method, but the spatial resolution must be considered cautiously as the R2 dropped to 0.73.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66129 (URN)10.1063/5.0181311 (DOI)001163102700001 ()2-s2.0-85185347410 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 52693-1Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2021/0005Swedish Energy Agency, 51000-1Swedish Energy Agency, P2022-00809
Available from: 2024-02-26 Created: 2024-02-26 Last updated: 2024-04-10Bibliographically approved
Zainali, S., Qadir, O., Parlak, S. C., Lu, S. M., Avelin, A., Stridh, B. & Campana, P. E. (2023). Computational fluid dynamics modelling of microclimate for a vertical agrivoltaic system. Energy Nexus, 9, Article ID 100173.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational fluid dynamics modelling of microclimate for a vertical agrivoltaic system
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2023 (English)In: Energy Nexus, ISSN 2772-4271, Vol. 9, article id 100173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing worldwide population is leading to a continuous increase in energy and food demand. These increasing demands have led to fierce land-use conflicts as we need agricultural land for food production while striving towards renewable energy systems such as large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, which also require in most of the cases agricultural flat land for implementation. It is therefore essential to identify the interrelationships between the food, and energy sectors and develop sustainable solutions to achieve global goals such as food and energy security. A technology that has shown promising potential in supporting food and energy security, as well as supporting water security, is agrivoltaic (AV) systems. This technology combines conventional farm activities with PV systems on the same land. Understanding the microclimatic conditions in an AV system is essential for an accurate assessment of crop yield potential as well as for the energy performance of the PV systems. Nevertheless, the complex mechanisms governing the microclimatic conditions under agrivoltaic systems represent an underdeveloped research area. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for a vertical AV system is developed and validated. The CFD model showed PV module temperature estimation errors in the order of 0–2 °C and ground temperature errors in the order of 0–1 °C. The shading caused by the vertical PV system resulted in a reduction of solar irradiance by 38%. CFD modelling can be seen as a robust approach to analysing microclimatic parameters and assessing AV system performance.

National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61951 (URN)10.1016/j.nexus.2023.100173 (DOI)001133749800001 ()2-s2.0-85151588794 (Scopus ID)
Funder
SOLVE, 52693-1Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2021/0005Swedish Energy Agency, 51000-1
Available from: 2023-02-21 Created: 2023-02-21 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved
Zainali, S., Ma Lu, S., Stridh, B., Avelin, A., Amaducci, S., Colauzzi, M. & Campana, P. E. (2023). Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layouts. Applied Energy, 339, Article ID 120981.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct and diffuse shading factors modelling for the most representative agrivoltaic system layouts
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2023 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 339, article id 120981Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agrivoltaic systems are becoming increasingly popular as a crucial technology for attaining multiple sustainable development goals, such as affordable and clean energy, zero hunger, clean water and sanitation, and climate action. However, a comprehensive understanding of the shading effects on crops is essential for choosing an optimal agrivoltaic system, as an incorrect choice can result in significant crop yield reductions. In this study, fixed vertical, one-axis tracking, and two-axis tracking photovoltaic arrays were developed for agrivoltaic applications to analyse the shading conditions on the ground used for crop production. The models demonstrated remarkable accuracy in comparison to commercial software such as PVsyst® and SketchUp®. These models will help to reduce crop yield uncertainty under agrivoltaic systems by providing accurate photosynthetically active radiation distribution at the crop level. The photosynthetically active radiation distribution was further analysed using a light homogeneity index, and the results showed that homogeneity and photosynthetically active radiation reduction varied significantly depending on the agrivoltaic system design, ranging from 86% to 95%, and 11% to 22%, respectively. Studying the effect of shading with distribution analysis is crucial for identifying the most suitable agrivoltaic system layout for specific crops and geographical locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Agrivoltaics, Beam Shading Factor, Diffuse Shading Factor, Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Photovoltaics, Tracking
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62207 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.120981 (DOI)000967301400001 ()2-s2.0-85151327591 (Scopus ID)
Funder
SOLVE, 52693-1Swedish Energy Agency, 51000-1Swedish Research Council Formas, FR-2021/0005
Available from: 2023-04-12 Created: 2023-04-12 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Majidi Nezhad, M., Neshat, M., Maher, A., Avelin, A., Piras, G. & Astiaso Garcia, D. (2023). Offshore wind farm layouts designer software's. e-Prime - Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy, 4, Article ID 100169.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Offshore wind farm layouts designer software's
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2023 (English)In: e-Prime - Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy, ISSN 2772-6711, Vol. 4, article id 100169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Offshore wind energy can be considered one of the renewable energy sources with high force potential installed in marine areas. Consequently, the best wind farm layouts identified for constructing combined offshore renewable energy farms are crucial. To this aim, offshore wind potential analysis is essential to highlight the best offshore wind layouts for farm installation and development. Furthermore, the offshore wind farm layouts must be designed and developed based on the offshore wind accurate assessment to identify previously untapped marine regions. In this case, the wind speed distribution and correlation, wind direction, gust speed and gust direction for three sites have been analyzed, and then two offshore wind farm layout scenarios have been designed and analyzed based on two offshore wind turbine types in the Northwest Persian Gulf. In this case, offshore wind farm layouts software and tools have been reviewed as ubiquitous software tools. The results show Beacon M28 and Sea Island buoys location that the highest correlation between wind and gust speeds is between 87% and 98% in Beacon M28 and Sea Island Buoy, respectively. Considerably, the correlation between wind direction and wind speed is negligible. The Maximum likelihood algorithm, the WAsP algorithm, and the Least Squares algorithm have been used to analyze the wind energy potential in offshore buoy locations of the Northwest Persian Gulf. In addition, the wind energy generation potential has been evaluated in different case studies. For example, the Umm Al-Maradim buoy area has excellent potential for offshore wind energy generation based on the Maximum likelihood algorithm, WAsP algorithm, and Least Squares algorithm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Layouts designer software's, Offshore wind farm layouts, Persian gulf, Wind energy
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62699 (URN)10.1016/j.prime.2023.100169 (DOI)2-s2.0-85159610460 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-31 Created: 2023-05-31 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Ma Lu, S., Zainali, S., Sundström, E., Nygren, A., Stridh, B., Avelin, A. & Campana, P. E. (2023). Validation of Vertical Bifacial Agrivoltaic and Other Systems Modelling: Effect of Dynamic Albedo on Irradiance and Power Output Estimations. In: : . Paper presented at The World Conference AgriVoltaics, 2023 April 12-14 Daegu, South Korea & Online.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of Vertical Bifacial Agrivoltaic and Other Systems Modelling: Effect of Dynamic Albedo on Irradiance and Power Output Estimations
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In agrivoltaic systems combining solar photovoltaic and agricultural activities, ground albedo is mainly characterized by the crop and its seasonal variations. This study examines the effects of using fixed, satellite-derived, and hourly measured albedo on the performance of a vertical bifacial system and a 1-axis tracking system using a bifacial photovoltaic model (AgriOptiCE®). The model is developed with Matlab® and partially based on the open-source package pvlib. AgriOptiCE® is firstly validated by comparing estimated front and rear irradiances with on-site measurements for specific periods from a 1-axis tracker site in Golden, USA and a vertical agrivoltaic system in Västerås, Sweden. Furthermore, photovoltaic system power output estimations using AgriOptiCE® are also validated for the vertical agrivoltaic system and the conventional ground-mounted fixed-tilt system at the same location. The validations demonstrate the high accuracy of the proposed model in estimating front and rear irradiances and power output, obtaining R2 > 0.85 for all the studied cases. The study results indicate that measured albedo provides the highest accuracy, while satellite- derived albedo has poorer results due to the broader spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. Fixed albedo is not recommended for yearly assessment of bifacial PV systems because it cannot account for snow events and daily variations, resulting in lower overall accuracy. 

Keywords
Agrivoltaics, Albedo, Agri-OptiCE, Modelling and Simulation, Bifacial PV
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-66406 (URN)
Conference
The World Conference AgriVoltaics, 2023 April 12-14 Daegu, South Korea & Online
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 52693-1
Note

Accepted manuscript

Available from: 2024-04-10 Created: 2024-04-10 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Ma Lu, S., Zainali, S., Stridh, B., Avelin, A., Amaducci, S., Colauzzi, M. & Campana, P. E. (2022). Photosynthetically active radiation decomposition models for agrivoltaic systems applications. Solar Energy, 244, 536-549
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photosynthetically active radiation decomposition models for agrivoltaic systems applications
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2022 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 244, p. 536-549Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decomposition models of solar irradiance estimate the magnitude of diffuse horizontal irradiance from global horizontal irradiance. These two radiation components are well known to be essential for predicting the performance of solar photovoltaic systems. In open-field agrivoltaic systems (i.e., the dual use of land for both agricultural activities and solar power conversion), cultivated crops receive unequal amounts of direct, diffuse, and reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). These uneven amounts depend on where the crops are growing due to the non-homogenous shadings caused by the presence of the installed solar panels (above the crops or vertically mounted). It is known that, per unit of total PAR, diffuse PAR is more efficient for canopy photosynthesis than is direct PAR. For this reason, it is essential to estimate the diffuse PAR component when agrivoltaic systems are being assessed, in order to properly predict the crop yield. Since PAR is the electro-magnetic radiation in the 400-700 nm waveband that can be used for photosynthesis by the crops, several stand-alone decomposition models typically used to split global horizontal irradiance are selected in this study to decompose PAR into direct and diffuse. These models are applied and validated in three locations in Sweden (Lanna, Hyltemossa and Norunda) using the coefficients stated on the models' original publications and locally fitted coefficients. The results showed weaker performances in all stand-alone models for non-locally fitted coefficients (nRMSE ranging from 27% to 43%). However, performances improve with re-parameterization, with a highest nRMSE of 35.24% in Lanna. The Y(ANG)2 decomposition model is the best-performing one, with the lowest nRMSE of 23.75% in Norunda when applying re-estimated coefficients. Country level sets of coefficients for the best-performing models (Y(ANG)2 and STARKE) are given after parameterization using combined data for all three locations in Sweden. These Sweden-fitted models are tested and show an nRMSE of 25.08% (Y(ANG)2) and 28.60% (STARKE). These results can be used to perform estimations of the PAR diffuse component in Sweden wherever ground measurements are not available. The overall methodology can be similarly applied to other countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2022
Keywords
Agrivoltaic, Photosynthetically active radiation, Decomposition models, Diffuse fraction, Integrated Carbon Observation System
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-60198 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2022.05.046 (DOI)000860998200002 ()2-s2.0-85134749111 (Scopus ID)
Funder
SOLVE
Available from: 2022-10-12 Created: 2022-10-12 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Campana, P. E., Avelin, A. & Thorin, E. (2021). A multi-criteria analysis to assess the optimal flexibility pathway for regional energy systems with high share of renewables. In: : . Paper presented at International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 12th.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A multi-criteria analysis to assess the optimal flexibility pathway for regional energy systems with high share of renewables
2021 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-54035 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 12th
Available from: 2021-04-29 Created: 2021-04-29 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Campana, P. E., Avelin, A., Jurasz, J. & Thorin, E. (2021). Impacts of integrating pyrolysis with existing CHP plants and onsite renewable-based hydrogen supply on the system flexibility. Energy Conversion and Management, 43, Article ID 114407.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of integrating pyrolysis with existing CHP plants and onsite renewable-based hydrogen supply on the system flexibility
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2021 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 43, article id 114407Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The share of renewable energy sources in the primary energy use is increasing worldwide. Given the intermittency of the energy supply from renewables, it is important to increase flexibility in the system to respond to the imbalances between energy demand and supply. Several flexibility options such as power storage and energy integration are currently in use, mostly at small scales. The increased energy supply from renewables and the flexibility solutions can influence the production planning of existing thermal energy conversion plants. In this study, integration of energy technologies including a hydrotreated pyrolysis oil production integrated with existing CHP plants is investigated as a flexibility solution. The system interacts with potential power generation from rooftop PV systems integrated with power-to-hydrogen storage. A cost-optimization model is developed using MILP method. The study focuses on the system flexibility and operational strategy of the existing CHP plants considering market trends, climate changes, and future energy developments with increased penetration of heat pumps and electric vehicles but less fossil fuels use. The results indicate that the suggested integrated system can increase the local energy supply by 33 GWh. Moreover, the power-to-hydrogen storage and onsite hydrogen use can increase the share of renewables in energy supply by 6%. Optimization of the developed scenarios for future energy-related changes indicates that the market trends could significantly reduce the performance of the system by 21% but increase the penetration of renewables in the system by 8%. Overall, scenario analysis shows the potential of using such a polygeneration system for flexible energy supply including existing CHP plants. 

National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-54036 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2021.114407 (DOI)000679381500008 ()2-s2.0-85108584322 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-29 Created: 2021-04-29 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Rahman, M., Avelin, A. & Kyprianidis, K. (2020). A review on the modeling, control and diagnostics of continuous pulp digesters. Processes, 8(10), 1-26, Article ID 1231.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review on the modeling, control and diagnostics of continuous pulp digesters
2020 (English)In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 1-26, article id 1231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Being at the heart of modern pulp mills, continuous pulp digesters have attracted much attention from the research community. In this article, a comprehensive review in the area of modeling, control and diagnostics of continuous pulp digesters is conducted. The evolution of research focus within these areas is followed and discussed. Particular effort has been devoted to identifying the state-of-the-art and the research gap in a summarized way. Finally, the current and future research directions in the areas have been analyzed and discussed. To date, digester modeling following the Purdue approach, Kappa number control using model predictive controllers and health index-based diagnostic approaches by utilizing different statistical methods have dominated the field. While the rising research interest within the field is evident, we anticipate further developments in advanced sensors and integration of these sensors for improving model prediction and controller performance; and the exploration of different AI-based approaches will be at the core of future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2020
Keywords
Control, Diagnostics, Kraft pulping, Modeling, Pulp digester
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-52388 (URN)10.3390/pr8101231 (DOI)000586953400001 ()2-s2.0-85093655713 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-10 Created: 2020-11-10 Last updated: 2021-11-30Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8191-4901

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