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Tran, H. V., Åkerberg, J., Björkman, M. & Tran, H.-V. (2019). RF energy harvesting: an analysis of wireless sensor networks for reliable communication. Wireless networks, 25(1), 185-199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RF energy harvesting: an analysis of wireless sensor networks for reliable communication
2019 (English)In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 185-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we consider a wireless energy harvesting network consisting of one hybrid access point (HAP) having multiple antennas, and multiple sensor nodes each equipped with a single antenna. In contrast to conventional uplink wireless networks, the sensor nodes in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to recharge the energy from the wireless signals broadcasted by the HAP in order to communicate. Based on the point-to-point and multipoints-to-point model, we propose two medium access control protocols, namely harvesting at the header of timeslot (HHT) and harvesting at the dedicated timeslot (HDT), in which the sensor nodes harvest energy from the HAP in the downlink, and then transform its stored packet into bit streams to send to the HAP in the uplink. Considering a deadline for each packet, the cumulative distribution functions of packet transmission time of the proposed protocols are derived for the selection combining and maximal ratio combining (MRC) techniques at the HAP. Subsequently, analytical expressions for the packet timeout probability and system reliability are obtained to analyze the performance of proposed protocols. Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as energy harvesting efficiency coefficient, sensor positions, transmit signal-to-noise ratio, and the length of energy harvesting time on the packet timeout probability and the system reliability are extensively investigated. Our results show that the performance of the HDT protocol outperforms the one using the HHT protocol, and the HDT protocol with the MRC technique has the best performance and it can be a potential solution to enhance the reliability for wireless sensor networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
Keywords
Energy harvesting, Wireless power transfer, Wireless sensor networks, Packet transmission time, Reliable communication
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42765 (URN)10.1007/s11276-017-1546-6 (DOI)000457945500014 ()2-s2.0-85025069932 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved
Ericsson, N., Lennvall, T., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2018). Custom simulation of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network for improved efficiency during Research and Development. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Limassol, Cyprus, September, 2017. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Custom simulation of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network for improved efficiency during Research and Development
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Trends like the Cloud, Internet of Things and 5G are pushing for an increase in connectivity, but, introducing a new type of network in an industrial distributed control system is a big investment with high risks. Time to market with sufficient quality is crucial. However, when getting through the Research and Development (R&D) phases, a lot of time is spent on isolated activates, e.g., simulations, collecting requirements, design, coding, debugging, creating testbeds, and performing various tests. Therefore, there is a need to improve efficiency when moving between the R&D phases. For verification and validation of communication software, the most common network evaluation method in industry are real testbeds, mostly since a testbed can be very similar to the deployed system. Testbeds are, however, hard to debug and costly to maintain. Other network evaluation methods like simulators, have some strengths that testbeds are lacking, like repeatability, control over the network, and lower cost. However, code from simulators can seldom be reused, especially in industrial time-sensitive target systems, due to different abstraction levels, run-time behavior and system timing. This paper presents findings from a case study that targets improved efficiency, getting from research theories, to deployed devices in a homogeneous Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (IWSAN). We propose a small subset of network simulators features which eases changeability, reuse, and debugging of communication software. The selected simulator features are evaluated with a proof of concept implementation that is customized to a research platform. The findings indicate improved efficiency when moving back and forth between activities in different R&D phases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018. p. 8
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37210 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2017.8247657 (DOI)000427812000092 ()2-s2.0-85044463234 (Scopus ID)9781509065059 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, Limassol, Cyprus, September, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-05 Created: 2017-11-05 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Ericsson, N., Lennvall, T., Åkerberg, J. & Mats, B. (2017). A flexible communication stack design for time sensitive embedded systems. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2017, 23 March 2017 through 25 March 2017 (pp. 1112-1117).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A flexible communication stack design for time sensitive embedded systems
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2017, p. 1112-1117Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Trends like Internet of Things (IoT), 5G and Cloud are pushing for device connectivity to the Internet, which affects industrial embedded systems with e.g., an increase in code base and functionality. Due to different application requirements, there are relative little reuse between embedded systems with different run-time context (from super loop to multi-threaded), and different types of communication (best effort and real time). In order to improve code reuse and changeability, we propose a flexible communication stack design, that can be configured for time sensitive communication with a real-time operating system (RTOS), or configured for best effort communication with either a super loop or an operating system (OS). Experiments demonstrate the flexibility and simplicity of the design with different configurations, e.g., super loop, single threaded, multi-threaded. Measurements show that the variations in performance related to run-time context scales as expected. 

National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35633 (URN)10.1109/ICIT.2017.7915518 (DOI)000404252400184 ()2-s2.0-85019610278 (Scopus ID)9781509053209 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2017, 23 March 2017 through 25 March 2017
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-11-05Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Uhlemann, E., Åkerberg, J. & Mats, B. (2017). Delay attack versus clock synchronization - A time chase. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2017, 23 March 2017 through 25 March 2017 (pp. 1136-1141).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delay attack versus clock synchronization - A time chase
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2017, p. 1136-1141Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Clock synchronization is one of the most essential assets for distributed real-time systems, as sensing, control and actuation require synchronized communication to meet real-time deadlines. We propose a distributed monitoring method to detect if an adversary is interfering with the clock synchronization protocol. The monitor uses certain network indicators and a set of rules to decide about switching between Normal, Quarantine or Attack Detected states. Further, we propose a way to define thresholds for decision-making based on theoretical analysis of the indicator values influenced by an attack. In addition, we formulate the problem of adversary influence detection in the network as a detection theory problem and use it to derive an additional indicator for the network monitor. Finally, we analyze the time chase between the monitor and an adversary to investigate which factors influence the final outcome. 

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35632 (URN)10.1109/ICIT.2017.7915522 (DOI)000404252400188 ()2-s2.0-85019646283 (Scopus ID)9781509053209 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2017, 23 March 2017 through 25 March 2017
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-07-27Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Uhlemann, E., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2017). Monitoring of Clock Synchronization in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Sensitivity Analysis. In: International Conference on Internet of Things, Embedded Systems and Communications 2017 IINTEC 2017: . Paper presented at International Conference on Internet of Things, Embedded Systems and Communications 2017 IINTEC 2017, 20 Oct 2017, Gafsa, Tunisia (pp. 134-139).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring of Clock Synchronization in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Sensitivity Analysis
2017 (English)In: International Conference on Internet of Things, Embedded Systems and Communications 2017 IINTEC 2017, 2017, p. 134-139Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Clock synchronization is a core asset to protect when securing cyber-physical systems with a time-triggered architecture. One of the most challenging attacks to protect against is a delay attack, where an adversary delays one of the synchronization messages, making node offset calculations incorrect for keeping clocks synchronized. One way to detect a breach of clock synchronization is by monitoring the offsets calculated in a node according to the clock synchronization algorithm. The analysis in this work assumes that the distributed nodes need to share the same notion of time and for this reason, uses the IEEE 1588 standard. Using this approach, a monitor needs to make a decision about if and when a node is under attack, in which case rules and methods for decision making should be put in place. There are many aspects to consider when setting thresholds for the monitored values in order to make such a decision. In this work we conduct an analysis of monitor indicators and an investigation of their applicability. Further, we identify dependencies within the proposed monitoring approach and conduct a sensitivity analysis of the parameters needed to make a decision about a system being under attack. The analysis outcomes allow to identify important parameters to consider while thresholding indicators and enables a greater generality in their applicability.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37090 (URN)10.1109/IINTEC.2017.8325927 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050601209 (Scopus ID)9781538621134 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Internet of Things, Embedded Systems and Communications 2017 IINTEC 2017, 20 Oct 2017, Gafsa, Tunisia
Projects
READY - Research Environment for Advancing Low Latency InternetSafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2017-10-26 Last updated: 2019-04-18Bibliographically approved
Yu, K., Gidlund, M., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2017). Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 1410-1420, Article ID 7506102.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks
2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, p. 1410-1420, article id 7506102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) offer significant advantages to industrial automation. However, high reliability demands and hard communication deadlines pose challenges to its practical applications. To achieve this goal, flooding is considered as a promising approach due to multipath diversity and simplicity. In this paper, an enhanced version of REALFLOW, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSANs is presented. Compared to the original REALFLOW, network management and network stability are improved. REALFLOW is compared with four other flooding protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that REALFLOW has better performance in terms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors when considering deadlines. Compared with normal flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparable reliability performance with decreased redundancy. Measurements from a prototype implementation conducted in an industrial manufacturing workshop reveal that high reliability and low application failure rates can be achieved, giving more confidence in providing reliable wireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35450 (URN)10.1109/TII.2016.2587842 (DOI)000402929700048 ()2-s2.0-85020631300 (Scopus ID)
Projects
READY - Research Environment for Advancing Low Latency Internet
Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2017-06-29Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, A., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2017). Poster: Feasibility of ICN in automation networks. In: Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Challenged Networks, co-located with MobiCom 201720 October 2017: . Paper presented at 12th Workshop on Challenged Networks, CHANTS 2017; Snowbird; United States; 20 October (pp. 33-34). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poster: Feasibility of ICN in automation networks
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Challenged Networks, co-located with MobiCom 201720 October 2017, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 33-34Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an industrial automation environment, there are many sensors generating large volumes of data. Both time-critical data for realtime control as well as less time-critical data for central monitoring and log data need to co-exist in the system with often harsh wireless environments. Thus, available capacity may be low, causing congestion problems and long latencies for by traffic with less stringent timing requirements. In this paper, we consider the feasibility of using Information Centric Networking in industrial automation networks in order to improve efficiency in distribution of data and reduce latency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2017
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38715 (URN)10.1145/3124087.3124098 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041547383 (Scopus ID)
Conference
12th Workshop on Challenged Networks, CHANTS 2017; Snowbird; United States; 20 October
Available from: 2018-03-01 Created: 2018-03-01 Last updated: 2018-03-01Bibliographically approved
Yu, K., Yue, J., Lin, Z., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2016). Achieving reliable and efficient transmission by using network coding solution in industrial wireless sensor networks. In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics: . Paper presented at 25th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2016, 8 June 2016 through 10 June 2016 (pp. 1162-1167).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving reliable and efficient transmission by using network coding solution in industrial wireless sensor networks
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2016 (English)In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2016, p. 1162-1167Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When deploying wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for industrial applications, to provide reliable data transmission as a stringent requirement must be fulfilled. However, due to dynamic industrial environments, interferences and node failures, to achieve this goal faces a number of challenges. Moreover, reliable transmission solution should also be resource efficient, so more wireless sensor nodes can be supported in a network especially when network resources are limited. In this paper, we applied network coding techniques based on a controlled flooding transmission scheme for industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs). Network and channel coding are joint designed for data transmission. We analyzed the theoretical performance of the proposed scheme and compared the performance of our method with the original transmission method in terms of reliability and efficiency. Comparison results showed that by using our proposed network coding solution, the reliability gain can be achieved and the network resource efficiency can be improved.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-34427 (URN)10.1109/ISIE.2016.7745059 (DOI)000390697400173 ()2-s2.0-85000977843 (Scopus ID)9781509008735 (ISBN)
Conference
25th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2016, 8 June 2016 through 10 June 2016
Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Ray, A., Åkerberg, J., Björkman, M. & Gidlund, M. (2016). Assessing Security, Capacity and Reachability of a Heterogeneous Industrial Network during Planning Phase. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Security and Safety, 16(7)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Security, Capacity and Reachability of a Heterogeneous Industrial Network during Planning Phase
2016 (English)In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Security and Safety, ISSN 2032-9393, Vol. 16, no 7Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an industrial plant, there is usually a mix of devices with different levels of security features and computation capabilities. If a mix of devices with various degrees of security features and capabilities communicate, the overall network dynamics with respect to security and network performance will be complex. A secure communication path with high latency and low bandwidth may not satisfy the operational requirements in a plant. Therefore, there is a need to assess the relation of security and network performance for overall plant operation. In this work we focus on identifying an optimal flow path between two devices in a multi-hop heterogeneous network. We propose a model and an algorithm to estimate and generate a network path identified by flow performance indicators of a heterogeneous communication network. Through an example, we show how the flow performance metrics change with security, capacity and reachability of the devices in the network.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33069 (URN)
Available from: 2016-09-05 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Ray, A., Åkerberg, J., Björkman, M. & Gidlund, M. (2016). Balancing Network Performance and Network Security in a Smart Grid Application. In: 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN 2016: . Paper presented at 14th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2016; Palais des Congres du FuturoscopePoitiers; France; 19 July 2016 through 21 July 2016; Category numberCFP16INI-ART; Code 126001 (pp. 618-624). , jan, Article ID 7819235.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing Network Performance and Network Security in a Smart Grid Application
2016 (English)In: 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN 2016, 2016, Vol. jan, p. 618-624, article id 7819235Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A key aspect of realizing the future smart grid communication solution is a balanced approach between the network performance and the network security during the network deployment. A high security communication flow path is not useful when the network path cannot support capacity and reachability requirements. The deployment phase in communication network can facilitate an optimal network path by focusing on both the network performance and the network security at the same time. In this paper, we describe a use case of smart grid application where security, network capacity and reachability needs to be optimal for successful network operation. We explain our proposed balancing approach of the network performance and the network security which can be useful for the optimal smart grid secure system design.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), ISSN 1935-4576
Keywords
Smart Grid, Network Assessment, Planning, Security, Network Performance
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32872 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2016.7819235 (DOI)000393551200094 ()2-s2.0-85012867806 (Scopus ID)9781509028702 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2016; Palais des Congres du FuturoscopePoitiers; France; 19 July 2016 through 21 July 2016; Category numberCFP16INI-ART; Code 126001
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-24 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7159-7508

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