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Publications (10 of 34) Show all publications
Leander, B., Causevic, A. & Hansson, H. (2019). Applicability of the IEC 62443 standard in Industry 4.0 / IIoT. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ARES 2019; University of KentCanterbury; United Kingdom; 26 August 2019 through 29 August 2019. Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applicability of the IEC 62443 standard in Industry 4.0 / IIoT
2019 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today’s industrial automation systems are undergoing a digital transformation that implies a shift towards the Internet of Things (IoT), leading to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigm. Existing Industrial Automated Control Systems (IACS), enriched with a potentially large number of IoT devices are expected to make systems more efficient, flexible, provide intelligence, and ultimately enable autonomous control. In general, the majority of such systems come with high level of criticality that calls for well-established methods and approaches when achieving cybersecurity, preferably prescribed by a standard. IEC 62443 is an industrial standard that provides procedures to manage risks related to cybersecurity threats in IACS. Given the new IIoT paradigm, it is likely that existing standards are not sufficiently aligned with the challenges related to developing and maintaining cybersecurity in such systems. In this paper we review the applicability of the IEC 62443 standard in IIoT contexts and discuss potential challenges the process owners might encounter. Our analysis underlines that some areas within the standard could prove difficult to reach compliance with. In particular, handling of cross zone communication and software updates require additional guidance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2019
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45365 (URN)10.1145/3339252.3341481 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071722239 (Scopus ID)9781450371643 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ARES 2019; University of KentCanterbury; United Kingdom; 26 August 2019 through 29 August 2019
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, B., Leander, B., Causevic, A., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2019). Classification of PROFINET I/O Configurations utilizing Neural Networks. In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA: . Paper presented at 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019 (pp. 1321-1324). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of PROFINET I/O Configurations utilizing Neural Networks
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2019 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1321-1324Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In process automation installations, the I/O system connect the field devices to the process controller over a fieldbus, a reliable, real-time capable communication link with signal values cyclical being exchanged with a 10-100 millisecond rate. If a deviation from intended behaviour occurs, analyzing the potentially vast data recordings from the field can be a time consuming and cumbersome task for an engineer. For the engineer to be able to get a full understanding of the problem, knowledge of the used I/O configuration is required. In the problem report, the configuration description is sometimes missing. In such cases it is difficult to use the recorded data for analysis of the problem.In this paper we present our ongoing work towards using neural network models as assistance in the interpretation of an industrial fieldbus communication recording. To show the potential of such an approach we present an example using an industrial setup where fieldbus data is collected and classified. In this context we present an evaluation of the suitability of different neural net configurations and sizes for the problem at hand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Field devices, Fieldbus, In-process, Neural network model, Process controllers, PROFInet, Real time, Signal value, Factory automation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47118 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2019.8869024 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074197516 (Scopus ID)9781728103037 (ISBN)
Conference
24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019
Available from: 2020-02-20 Created: 2020-02-20 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Leander, B., Causevic, A. & Hansson, H. (2019). Cybersecurity Challenges in Large Industrial IoT Systems. In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA: . Paper presented at 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019 (pp. 1035-1042). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cybersecurity Challenges in Large Industrial IoT Systems
2019 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1035-1042Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To achieve efficient and flexible production at affordable prices, industrial automation is pushed towards a digital transformation. Such a transformation assumes an enhancement of current Industrial Automated Control Systems with a large amount of IoT-devices, forming an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The aim is to enable a shift from automatic towards autonomous control in such systems. This paper discusses some of the main challenges IIoT systems are facing with respect to cybersecurity. We discuss our findings in an example of a flow-control loop, where we apply a simple threat model based on the STRIDE method to deduce cybersecurity requirements in an IIoT context. Moreover, the identified requirements are assessed in the light of current state of the art solutions, and a number of challenges are discussed with respect to a large-scale IIoT system, together with some suggestions for future work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Factory automation, Affordable prices, Automated control systems, Autonomous control, Digital transformation, Flexible production, Industrial automation, State of the art, Threat modeling, Internet of things
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47120 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2019.8869162 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074191852 (Scopus ID)9781728103037 (ISBN)
Conference
24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019
Available from: 2020-02-20 Created: 2020-02-20 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., El Hachem, J. & Causevic, A. (2019). Investigating attack propagation in a SoS via a service decomposition. In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2019: . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2019, 8 July 2019 through 13 July 2019 (pp. 9-14). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating attack propagation in a SoS via a service decomposition
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 9-14Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A term systems of systems (SoS) refers to a setup in which a number of independent systems collaborate to create a value that each of them is unable to achieve independently. Complexity of a SoS structure is higher compared to its constitute systems that brings challenges in analyzing its critical properties such as security. An SoS can be seen as a set of connected systems or services that needs to be adequately protected. Communication between such systems or services can be considered as a service itself, and it is the paramount for establishment of a SoS as it enables connections, dependencies, and a cooperation. Given that reliable and predictable communication contributes directly to a correct functioning of an SoS, communication as a service is one of the main assets to consider. Protecting it from malicious adversaries should be one of the highest priorities within SoS design and operation. This study aims to investigate the attack propagation problem in terms of service-guarantees through the decomposition into sub-services enriched with preconditions and postconditions at the service levels. Such analysis is required as a prerequisite for an efficient SoS risk assessment at the design stage of the SoS development life cycle to protect it from possibly high impact attacks capable of affecting safety of systems and humans using the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Attack propagation, Autonomous quarry, Security, Service, System decomposition, System of systems, Life cycle, Risk assessment, Critical properties, Design and operations, Independent systems, Malicious adversaries, Service decompositions
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46539 (URN)10.1109/SERVICES.2019.00017 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072778028 (Scopus ID)9781728138510 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 IEEE World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2019, 8 July 2019 through 13 July 2019
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Causevic, A., Lisova, E., Ashjaei, S. M. & Ashgar, S. U. (2019). On incorporating security parameters in service level agreements. In: CLOSER 2019 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science: . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, CLOSER 2019, 2 May 2019 through 4 May 2019 (pp. 48-57). SciTePress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On incorporating security parameters in service level agreements
2019 (English)In: CLOSER 2019 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, SciTePress , 2019, p. 48-57Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With development of cloud computing new ways for easy, on-demand, Internet-based access to computing resources have emerged. In such context a Service Level Agreement (SLA) enables contractual agreements between service providers and users. Given an SLA, service users are able to establish trust in that the service outcome corresponds to what they have demanded during the service negotiation process. However, an SLA provides a limited support outside of basic Quality of Service (QoS) parameters, especially when it comes to security. We find security as an important factor to be included in adjusting an SLA according to user defined objectives. Incorporating it in an SLA is challenging due to difficulty to provide complete and quantifiable metrics, thus we propose to focus on a systematic way of addressing security using the security process. In this paper we investigate ways in which security might be incorporated already in the service negotiation process and captured in an SLA. We propose a corresponding process to develop and maintain an SLA that considers both design-, and run-time. To demonstrate the approach we built upon the existing SLAC language and extend its syntax to support security. An example of a service being provided with security guarantees illustrates the concept.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2019
Keywords
Cloud computing, Run-time monitoring, Security, Security process, Service level agreement, SLAC, Outsourcing, Contractual agreements, Negotiation process, Quality of Service parameters, Runtime Monitoring, Security parameters, Service Level Agreements, Quality of service
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44880 (URN)10.5220/0007658000480057 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067500149 (Scopus ID)9789897583650 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, CLOSER 2019, 2 May 2019 through 4 May 2019
Note

Conference code: 148430; Export Date: 11 July 2019; Conference Paper

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Moradi, F., Sedaghatbaf, A., Abbaspour Asadollah, S., Causevic, A. & Sirjani, M. (2019). On-Off Attack on a Blockchain-based IoT System. In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA: . Paper presented at 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019 (pp. 1768-1773). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-Off Attack on a Blockchain-based IoT System
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2019 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1768-1773Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a growing interest in using the Blockchain for resolving IoT security and trustworthiness issues existing in today's complex systems. Blockchain concerns trust in peer to peer networks by providing a distributed tamper-resistant ledger. However, the combination of these two emerging technologies might create new problems and vulnerabilities that attackers might abuse.In this paper, we aim to investigate the trust mechanism of Lightweight Scalable BlockChain (LSB), that is a Blockchain specifically designed for Internet of Things networks, to show that a malicious participant in a Blockchain architecture have possibility to pursue an On-Off attack and downgrade the integrity of the distributed ledger. We choose a remote software update process as an instance to represent this violation. Finally, using the actor-based language Rebeca, we provide a model of a system under attack and verify the described attack scenario.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Blockchain, Distributed Trust, IoT, On-Off Attack, Security, Factory automation, Network security, Peer to peer networks, Attack scenarios, Emerging technologies, Malicious participant, Software updates, Tamper resistant, Internet of things
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46532 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2019.8868238 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074214755 (Scopus ID)9781728103037 (ISBN)
Conference
24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Sljivo, I. & Causevic, A. (2019). Safety and Security Co-Analyses: A Systematic Literature Review. IEEE Systems Journal, 13(3), 2189-2200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety and Security Co-Analyses: A Systematic Literature Review
2019 (English)In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 2189-2200Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Latest technological trends lead toward systems connected to public networks even in critical domains. Bringing together safety and security work is becoming imperative, as a connected safety-critical system is not safe if it is not secure. The main objective of this study is to investigate the current status of safety and security co-analysis in system engineering by conducting a systematic literature review. The steps of the review are the following: the research questions identification; agreement upon a search string; applying the search string to chosen databases; a selection criterion formulation for the relevant publications filtering; selected papers categorization and analysis. We focused on the early system development stages and identified 33 relevant publications categorized as follows: combined safety and security approaches that consider the mutual influence of safety and security; safety-informed security approaches that consider influence of safety on security; and security-informed safety approaches that consider influence of security on safety. The results showed that a number of identified approaches are driven by needs in fast developing application areas, e.g., automotive, while works focusing on combined analysis are mostly application area independent. Overall, the study shows that safety and security co-analysis is still a developing domain.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43114 (URN)10.1109/JSYST.2018.2881017 (DOI)000482628500012 ()2-s2.0-85072714471 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Causevic, A., Papadopoulos, A. & Sirjani, M. (2019). Towards a Framework for Safe and Secure Adaptive Collaborative Systems. In: The 9th IEEE International Workshop on Industrial Experience in Embedded Systems Design IEESD 2019: . Paper presented at The 9th IEEE International Workshop on Industrial Experience in Embedded Systems Design IEESD 2019, 15 Jul 2019, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Framework for Safe and Secure Adaptive Collaborative Systems
2019 (English)In: The 9th IEEE International Workshop on Industrial Experience in Embedded Systems Design IEESD 2019, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43936 (URN)10.1109/COMPSAC.2019.10201 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072656696 (Scopus ID)9781728126074 (ISBN)
Conference
The 9th IEEE International Workshop on Industrial Experience in Embedded Systems Design IEESD 2019, 15 Jul 2019, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
Projects
Future factories in the CloudSAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systemsSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
El Hachem, J., Sedaghatbaf, A., Lisova, E. & Causevic, A. (2019). Using Bayesian Networks for a Cyberattacks Propagation Analysis in Systems-of-Systems. In: : . Paper presented at 26th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC 2019; Putrajaya; Malaysia; 2 December 2019 through 5 December 2019 (pp. 363-370).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Bayesian Networks for a Cyberattacks Propagation Analysis in Systems-of-Systems
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

System of Systems (SoS) represent a set of independent Constituent Systems (CS) that collaborate in order to provide functionalities that they are unable to achieve independently. We consider SoS as a set of connected services that needs to be adequately protected. The integration of these independent, evolutionary and distributed systems, intensifies SoS complexity and emphasizes the behavior uncertainty, which makes an SoS security analysis a critical challenge. One of the major priorities when designing SoS, is to analyze the unknown dependencies among CS services and vulnerabilities leading to potential cyberattacks. The aim of this work is to investigate how Software Engineering approaches could be leveraged to analyze the cyberattack propagation problem within an SoS. Such analysis is essential for an efficient SoS risk assessment performed early at the SoS design phase and required to protect the SoS from possibly high impact attacks affecting its safety and security. In order to achieve our objective, we present a model-driven analysis approach, based on Bayesian Networks, a sensitivity analysis and Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) with aim to discover potential cyberattacks propagation and estimate the probability of a security failure and its impact on SoS services. W

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45500 (URN)10.1109/APSEC48747.2019.00056 (DOI)000517102200046 ()2-s2.0-85078167773 (Scopus ID)9781728146485 (ISBN)
Conference
26th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC 2019; Putrajaya; Malaysia; 2 December 2019 through 5 December 2019
Projects
SAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systemsSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2019-10-28 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2020-03-19Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Hänninen, K., Thane, H. & Hansson, H. (2018). A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis. In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018: . Paper presented at 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018; Parc Alvisse, Hotel Luxembourg City; Luxembourg; 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018 (pp. 166-171). Luxembourg, Luxemburg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018, Luxembourg, Luxemburg, 2018, p. 166-171Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today's systems are being built to connect to public or semi-public networks, are able to communicate with other systems, e.g., in the context of Internet-of-Things (IoT), involve multiple stakeholders, have dynamic system reconfigurations, and operate in increasingly unpredictable environments. In such complex systems, assuring safety and security in a continuous and joint effort is a major challenge, not the least due to the increasing number of attack surfaces arising from the increased connectivity. In this paper we present an approach that aims to bridge the gap between safety and security engineering. The potential of the approach is illustrated on the example of E-gas system, discussing the cases when unintentional faults as well as malicious attacks are taken into consideration when assuring safety of the described system. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luxembourg, Luxemburg: , 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39268 (URN)10.1109/DSN-W.2018.00058 (DOI)000494277000045 ()2-s2.0-85051231991 (Scopus ID)9781538655955 (ISBN)
Conference
48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018; Parc Alvisse, Hotel Luxembourg City; Luxembourg; 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018
Projects
Closing the safety-security gap in software intensive systemsSAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systemsSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2019-12-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5293-3804

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