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Publications (10 of 136) Show all publications
Seceleanu, T., Xiong, N., Enoiu, E. P. & Seceleanu, C. (2024). Building a Digital Twin Framework for Dynamic and Robust Distributed Systems. In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.: . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2023, Västerås, 16 October 2023 through 18 October 2023 (pp. 254-258). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building a Digital Twin Framework for Dynamic and Robust Distributed Systems
2024 (English)In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, p. 254-258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Digital Twins (DTs) serve as the backbone of Industry 4.0, offering virtual representations of actual systems, enabling accurate simulations, analysis, and control. These representations help in predicting system behaviour, facilitating multiple real-time tests, and reducing risks and costs while identifying optimization areas. DTs meld cyber and physical realms, accelerating the design and modelling of sustainable innovations. Despite their potential, the complexity of DTs presents challenges in their industrial application. We sketch here an approach to build an adaptable and trustable framework for building and operating DT systems, which is the basis for the academia-industry project A Digital Twin Framework for Dynamic and Robust Distributed Systems (D-RODS). D-RODS aims to address the challenges above, aiming to advance industrial digitalization and targeting areas like system efficiency, incorporating AI and verification techniques with formal support. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2024
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 14390 LNCS
Keywords
AI, digital twins, industrial automation, resource utilization, verification and validation, Actual system, Analysis and controls, Distributed systems, Resources utilizations, Simulation analysis, Simulation control, System behaviors, Verification-and-validation, Virtual representations, Artificial intelligence
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65247 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-49252-5_22 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180149728 (Scopus ID)9783031492518 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2023, Västerås, 16 October 2023 through 18 October 2023
Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Kofroň, J., Seceleanu, C. & Margaria, T. (2024). Preface. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2023, Västerås, 16 October 2023 through 18 October 2023. Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 14390
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preface
2024 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, Vol. 14390Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2024
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65240 (URN)2-s2.0-85180298994 (Scopus ID)9783031492518 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, ECBS 2023, Västerås, 16 October 2023 through 18 October 2023
Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Salari, M. E., Enoiu, E. P., Afzal, W. & Seceleanu, C. (2023). An Experiment in Requirements Engineering and Testing using EARS Notation for PLC Systems. In: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 16th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2023: . Paper presented at 16th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2023, Dublin, Ireland, 16 April 2023 through 20 April 2023 (pp. 10-17). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Experiment in Requirements Engineering and Testing using EARS Notation for PLC Systems
2023 (English)In: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 16th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 10-17Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Regulatory standards for engineering safety-critical systems often demand both traceable requirements and specification-based testing, during development. Requirements are often written in natural language, yet for specification purposes, this may be supplemented by formal or semi-formal descriptions, to increase clarity. However, the choice of notation of the latter is often constrained by the training, skills, and preferences of the designers.The Easy Approach to Requirements Syntax (EARS) addresses the inherent imprecision of natural language requirements with respect to potential ambiguity and lack of accuracy. This paper investigates requirement formalization using EARS and specification-based testing of embedded software written in the IEC 61131-3 language, a programming standard used for developing Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). Further, we investigate, by means of an experiment, how human participants translate natural language requirements into EARS and how they use the latter to test PLC software. We report our observations during the experiments, including the type of EARS patterns participants use to structure natural language requirements and challenges during the specification phase, as well as present the results of testing based on EARS-formalized requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
EARS, PLC, Requirement Engineering, Testing, Natural language processing systems, Safety engineering, Safety testing, Software testing, Specifications, Well testing, Controller systems, Easy approach to requirement syntax, Engineering safety, Natural language requirements, Natural languages, Regulatory standards, Safety critical systems, Specification Based Testing, Traceable requirements, Programmable logic controllers
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63856 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW58534.2023.00016 (DOI)001009223100002 ()2-s2.0-85163061454 (Scopus ID)9798350333350 (ISBN)
Conference
16th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2023, Dublin, Ireland, 16 April 2023 through 20 April 2023
Available from: 2023-07-12 Created: 2023-07-12 Last updated: 2023-08-16Bibliographically approved
Dust, L., Persson, E., Ekström, M., Mubeen, S., Seceleanu, C. & Gu, R. (2023). Experimental Evaluation of Callback Behavior in ROS 2 Executors. In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA: . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evaluation of Callback Behavior in ROS 2 Executors
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Robot operating system 2 (ROS 2) is increasingly popular both in research and commercial robotic systems. ROS 2 is designed to allow real-time execution and data communication, enabling rapid prototyping and deployment of robotic systems. In order to predict and calculate execution times in ROS 2, one needs to analyze its internal scheduler, called executor. The executor has been updated in various distributions of ROS 2, which is shown to impact significantly the periodic execution invoked by the underlying operating system's timers, potentially causing unexpected latencies. To expose the mentioned impact due to executor differences, in this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of the execution behavior of ROS 2's schedulable entities, namely callbacks, among the existing versions of the executor. We visualize the differences of callback execution order via simulation, and we create design-level scenarios that impact the execution of periodically scheduled callbacks, negatively. Moreover, we show how such negative impact can be mitigated by using multi-threaded executors. Finally, we illustrate the observed behavior on a real-world centralized multi-agent robot system. Our work aims to raise awareness within the ROS 2 developer community, regarding possible problems of timer blocking, and propose a mitigation solution of the latter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Multi agent systems, Real time systems, Data-communication, Design levels, Experimental evaluation, Multithreaded, Rapid deployments, Rapid-prototyping, Real time execution, Real-time data, Real-world, Robotic systems, Robot Operating System
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64706 (URN)10.1109/ETFA54631.2023.10275668 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175439932 (Scopus ID)9798350339918 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Lorber, F., Seceleanu, C. & Türker, U. C. (2023). Message from the A-MOST 2023 Workshop Chairs. In: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 16th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2023: . Paper presented at 16th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2023, Dublin, Ireland, 16 April 2023 through 20 April 2023 (pp. XIII). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Message from the A-MOST 2023 Workshop Chairs
2023 (English)In: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE 16th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. XIII-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63854 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW58534.2023.00005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163089102 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2023, Dublin, Ireland, 16 April 2023 through 20 April 2023
Note

Conference code: 189070; Export Date: 12 July 2023; Editorial

Available from: 2023-07-12 Created: 2023-07-12 Last updated: 2023-07-12Bibliographically approved
Dust, L., Gu, R., Seceleanu, C., Ekström, M. & Mubeen, S. (2023). Pattern-Based Verification of ROS 2 Nodes Using UPPAAL. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at 28th International Conference on Formal Methods in Industrial Critical Systems, FMICS 2023, Antwerp, Belgium, 20 September - 22 September 2023 (pp. 57-75). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pattern-Based Verification of ROS 2 Nodes Using UPPAAL
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2023 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 57-75Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a pattern-based modeling and Uppaal-based verification of latencies and buffer overflow in distributed robotic systems that use ROS 2. We apply pattern-based modeling to simplify the construction of formal models for ROS 2 systems. Specifically, we propose Timed Automata templates for modeling callbacks in Uppaal, including all versions of the single-threaded executor in ROS 2. Furthermore, we demonstrate the differences in callback scheduling and potential errors in various versions of ROS 2 through experiments and model checking. Our formal models of ROS 2 systems are validated in experiments, as the behavior of ROS 2 presented in the experiments is also exposed by the execution traces of our formal models. Moreover, model checking can reveal potential errors that are missed in the experiments. The paper demonstrates the application of pattern-based modeling and verification in distributed robotic systems, showcasing its potential in ensuring system correctness and uncovering potential errors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 14290 LNCS
Keywords
Model Checking, Pattern-Based Modeling, Robot Operating System 2, Errors, Robot Operating System, Buffer overflows, Distributed robotic systems, Execution trace, Formal modeling, Models checking, Pattern-based models, Potential errors, Single-threaded, Timed Automata
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64592 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-43681-9_4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174439033 (Scopus ID)9783031436802 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International Conference on Formal Methods in Industrial Critical Systems, FMICS 2023, Antwerp, Belgium, 20 September - 22 September 2023
Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
Salari, M. E., Enoiu, E. P., Afzal, W. & Seceleanu, C. (2023). PyLC: A Framework for Transforming and Validating PLC Software using Python and Pynguin Test Generator. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing: . Paper presented at 38th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC 2023, Tallinn, Estonia, 27 March 2023 through 31 March 2023 (pp. 1476-1485). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PyLC: A Framework for Transforming and Validating PLC Software using Python and Pynguin Test Generator
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, p. 1476-1485Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many industrial application domains utilize safety-critical systems to implement Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) software. These systems typically require a high degree of testing and stringent coverage measurements that can be supported by state-of-the-art automated test generation techniques. However, their limited application to PLCs and corresponding development environments can impact the use of automated test generation. Thus, it is necessary to tailor and validate automated test generation techniques against relevant PLC tools and industrial systems to efficiently understand how to use them in practice. In this paper, we present a framework called PyLC, which handles PLC programs written in the Function Block Diagram and Structured Text languages such that programs can be transformed into Python. To this end, we use PyLC to transform industrial safety-critical programs, showing how our approach can be applied to manually and automatically create tests in the CODESYS development environment. We use behaviour-based, translation rules-based, and coverage-generated tests to validate the PyLC process. Our work shows that the transformation into Python can help bridge the gap between the PLC development tools, Python-based unit testing, and test generation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2023
Keywords
code translation, FBD, IEC 61131-3, PLC, pynguin, python, ST, translation validation, Accident prevention, Application programs, Automation, Programmable logic controllers, Software testing, Applications domains, Automated test generations, Development environment, Generation techniques
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63850 (URN)10.1145/3555776.3577698 (DOI)2-s2.0-85162895923 (Scopus ID)9781450395175 (ISBN)
Conference
38th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC 2023, Tallinn, Estonia, 27 March 2023 through 31 March 2023
Available from: 2023-07-12 Created: 2023-07-12 Last updated: 2023-07-12Bibliographically approved
Backeman, P., Kunnappilly, A. & Seceleanu, C. (2023). Supporting 5G Service Orchestration with Formal Verification. Computer Science and Information Systems, 29(1), 329-357
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting 5G Service Orchestration with Formal Verification
2023 (English)In: Computer Science and Information Systems, ISSN 1820-0214, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 329-357Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 5G communication technology has the ability to create logical net-works, called network slices, which are specifically carved to serve particular application domains. Due to the mix of different application criticality, it becomes crucial to verify if the applications’ service level agreements are met. In this pa-per, we propose a novel framework for modeling and verifying 5G orchestration, considering simultaneous access and admission of new requests to slices as well as virtual network function scheduling and routing. By combining modeling in user-friendly UML, with UPPAAL model checking and satisfiability-modulo-theories-based model finding, our framework supports both modeling and formal verification of service orchestration. We demonstrate our approach on a e-health case study showing how a user, with no knowledge of formal methods, can model a system in UML and verify that the application meets its requirements. © 2023, ComSIS Consortium. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ComSIS Consortium, 2023
Keywords
5G, model checking, SMT, UML
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62094 (URN)10.2298/CSIS211001059B (DOI)000935481500020 ()2-s2.0-85149146840 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-15 Created: 2023-03-15 Last updated: 2023-03-22Bibliographically approved
Salari, M. E., Enoiu, E. P., Afzal, W. & Seceleanu, C. (2022). Choosing a Test Automation Framework for Programmable Logic Controllers in CODESYS Development Environment. In: Proceedings - 2022 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2022: . Paper presented at 14th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2022, 4 April 2022 through 13 April 2022 (pp. 277-284). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choosing a Test Automation Framework for Programmable Logic Controllers in CODESYS Development Environment
2022 (English)In: Proceedings - 2022 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 277-284Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Programmable Logic Controllers are computer devices often used in industrial control systems as primary components that provide operational control and monitoring. The software running on these controllers is usually programmed in an Integrated Development Environment using a graphical or textual language defined in the IEC 61131-3 standard. Although traditionally, engineers have tested programmable logic controllers' software manually, test automation is being adopted during development in various compliant development environments. However, recent studies indicate that choosing a suitable test automation framework is not trivial and hinders industrial applicability. In this paper, we tackle the problem of choosing a test automation framework for testing programmable logic controllers, by focusing on the COntroller DEvelopment SYStem (CODESYS) development environment. CODESYS is deemed popular for device-independent programming according to IEC 61131-3. We explore the CODESYS-supported test automation frameworks through a grey literature review and identify the essential criteria for choosing such a test automation framework. We validate these criteria with an industry practitioner and compare the resulting test automation frameworks in an industrial case study. Next, we summarize the steps for selecting a test automation framework and the identification of 29 different criteria for test automation framework evaluation. This study shows that CODESYS Test Manager and CoUnit are mentioned the most in the grey literature review results. The industrial case study aims to increase the know-how in automated testing of programmable logic controllers and help other researchers and practitioners identify the right framework for test automation in an industrial context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
Automation framework Comparison, CODESYS, Grey Literature Review, PLC, test automation framework, Automation, Computer circuits, Computer control systems, Controllers, Programmed control systems, Software testing, Technology transfer, Controller development, Controller development system, Development systems, Framework comparisons, Gray literature review, Grey literature, Literature reviews, Test automation frameworks, Programmable logic controllers
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59583 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW55395.2022.00055 (DOI)000861805200042 ()2-s2.0-85133222470 (Scopus ID)9781665496285 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2022, 4 April 2022 through 13 April 2022
Available from: 2022-07-13 Created: 2022-07-13 Last updated: 2022-11-18Bibliographically approved
Gu, R., Jensen, P. G., Seceleanu, C., Enoiu, E. P. & Lundqvist, K. (2022). Correctness-Guaranteed Strategy Synthesis and Compression for Multi-Agent Autonomous Systems. Science of Computer Programming, Article ID 102894.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correctness-Guaranteed Strategy Synthesis and Compression for Multi-Agent Autonomous Systems
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2022 (English)In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, article id 102894Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Planning is a critical function of multi-agent autonomous systems, which includes path finding and task scheduling. Exhaustive search-based methods such as model checking and algorithmic game theory can solve simple instances of multi-agent planning. However, these methods suffer from the state-space explosion when the number of agents is large. Learning-based methods can alleviate this problem but lack a guarantee of the correctness of the results. In this paper, we introduce MoCReL, a new version of our previously proposed method that combines model checking with reinforcement learning in solving the planning problem. The approach takes advantage of reinforcement learning to synthesize path plans and task schedules for large numbers of autonomous agents, and of model checking to verify the correctness of the synthesized strategies. Further, MoCReL can compress large strategies into smaller ones that have down to 0.05% of the original sizes, while preserving their correctness, which we show in this paper. MoCReL is integrated into a new version of UPPAAL Stratego that supports calling external libraries when running learning and verification of timed games models. 

National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-58045 (URN)10.1016/j.scico.2022.102894 (DOI)000878770800001 ()2-s2.0-85141847506 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-04-19 Created: 2022-04-19 Last updated: 2023-04-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2870-2680

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