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Forsberg, H., Schwierz, A. & Lundqvist, K. (2019). Assurance Strategy for New Computing Platforms in Safety-Critical Avionics. In: Aerospace Technology Congress 2019 FT2019: . Paper presented at Aerospace Technology Congress 2019 FT2019, 08 Oct 2019, Stockholm, Sweden (pp. 137-144). Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assurance Strategy for New Computing Platforms in Safety-Critical Avionics
2019 (English)In: Aerospace Technology Congress 2019 FT2019, Stockholm, Sweden, 2019, p. 137-144Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An assurance strategy for new computing platforms in safety-critical avionics has to be flexible and take into account different types of commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) hardware technologies. Completely new COTS technologies are already being introduced and successfully used in other domains. Good examples are heterogeneous platforms, hardware-based machine learning and approximate computing. Current avionics certification guidance material cannot cope with next generation of devices. We suggest using the generic assurance approach of the Overarching Properties (OPs) together with assurance cases to argument that COTS assurance objectives are met and to achieve the flexibility required for future computing platforms. We introduce a novel assurance cased-based OP approach in [1] and refine the work into a framework in [2]. Within this framework we are able to integrate COTS technology specific assurance objectives using a five-step process. In this paper, we show through some representative examples of emerging computing platforms that our strategy is a way forward for new platforms in safety-critical avionics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: , 2019
Keywords
safety-critical avionics, assurance strategy, assurance case, COTS assurance, Overarching Properties, computing platforms
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45942 (URN)10.3384/ecp19162015 (DOI)978-91-7519-006-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Aerospace Technology Congress 2019 FT2019, 08 Oct 2019, Stockholm, Sweden
Projects
DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and Control
Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, H., Lundqvist, K. & Forsberg, K. (2019). Methods for Enhancement of a Master of Engineering Programme. In: : . Paper presented at 7:e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Luleå tekniska universitet, 27 november – 28 november 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for Enhancement of a Master of Engineering Programme
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes methods we used to improve our Master of Engineering programme in Dependable Aerospace Systems together with the industry. The target audience is mainly programme coordinators/managers who are in the process to develop their programmes for future demands. The two main questions we address are: Q1 – How do we ensure a good progression within a programme to ensure the industry’s current and future needs in engineering skills? and Q2 – How do we ensure students become acquainted with research during their studies? The results indicate that our suggested method to analyse programme progression through subject abilities supports developer of engineering programmes and that our approach to undergraduate research opportunities is a way forward to introduce students to research early.

Keywords
Engineering education, engineering methods, undergraduate research opportunities, unified engineering
National Category
Engineering and Technology Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46276 (URN)
Conference
7:e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Luleå tekniska universitet, 27 november – 28 november 2019
Projects
AVANS - civilingenjörsprogrammet i tillförlitliga flyg- och rymdsystem
Available from: 2019-12-10 Created: 2019-12-10 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Sundell, J., Torkar, R., Lundqvist, K. & Forsberg, H. (2019). Prediction of Undetected Faults in Safety-Critical Software. In: 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW 2019): . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), 23 Apr 2019, Xi'an, China (pp. 296-304). Xi'an, China
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of Undetected Faults in Safety-Critical Software
2019 (English)In: 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW 2019), Xi'an, China, 2019, p. 296-304Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Safety-critical software systems need to meet exceptionally strict standards in terms of dependability. Best practice to achieve this is to follow and develop the software according to domain specific standards. These standards give guidelines on development and testing activities. The challenge is that even if you follow the steps of the appropriate standard you have no quantification of the amount of faults potentially still lingering in the system. This paper presents a way to statistically estimate the amount of undetected faults, based on test results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Xi'an, China: , 2019
Keywords
software, safety-critical, test, fault prediction.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43940 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2019.00069 (DOI)000477742600045 ()2-s2.0-85068371940 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-0888-9 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), 23 Apr 2019, Xi'an, China
Projects
DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and ControlITS ESS-H Industrial Graduate School in Reliable Embedded Sensor Systems
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Gu, R., Marinescu, R., Seceleanu, C. & Lundqvist, K. (2019). Towards a Two-layer Framework for Verifying Autonomous Vehicles. In: NASA Formal Methods. NFM 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11460: . Paper presented at 11th Annual NASA Formal Methods Symposium NFM 2019, 07 May 2019, Houston, United States.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Two-layer Framework for Verifying Autonomous Vehicles
2019 (English)In: NASA Formal Methods. NFM 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11460, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles rely heavily on intelligent algorithms for path planning and collision avoidance, and their functionality and dependability could be ensured through formal verification. To facilitate the verification, it is beneficial to decouple the static high-level planning from the dynamic functions like collision avoidance. In this paper, we propose a conceptual two-layer framework for verifying autonomous vehicles, which consists of a static layer and a dynamic layer. We focus concretely on modeling and verifying the dynamic layer using hybrid automata and UPPAAL SMC, where a continuous movement of the vehicle as well as collision avoidance via a dipole flow field algorithm are considered. This framework achieves decoupling by separating the verification of the vehicle's autonomous path planning from that of the vehicle autonomous operation in a continuous dynamic environment. To simplify the modeling process, we propose a pattern-based design method, where patterns are expressed as hybrid automata. We demonstrate the applicability of the dynamic layer of our framework on an industrial prototype of an autonomous wheel loader.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 11460
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43924 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-20652-9_12 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066869584 (Scopus ID)9783030206512 (ISBN)
Conference
11th Annual NASA Formal Methods Symposium NFM 2019, 07 May 2019, Houston, United States
Projects
DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and Control
Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Gu, R., Marinescu, R., Seceleanu, C. & Lundqvist, K. (2018). Formal verification of an Autonomous Wheel Loader by model checking. In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering: . Paper presented at 6th ACM/IEEE Conference on Formal Methods in Software Engineering, FormaliSE 2018, co-located with International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2018, 2 June 2018 (pp. 74-83). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formal verification of an Autonomous Wheel Loader by model checking
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, p. 74-83Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an attempt to increase productivity and the workers' safety, the construction industry is moving towards autonomous construction sites, where various construction machines operate without human intervention. In order to perform their tasks autonomously, the machines are equipped with different features, such as position localization, human and obstacle detection, collision avoidance, etc. Such systems are safety critical, and should operate autonomously with very high dependability (e.g., by meeting task deadlines, avoiding (fatal) accidents at all costs, etc.). An Autonomous Wheel Loader is a machine that transports materials within the construction site without a human in the cab. To check the dependability of the loader, in this paper we provide a timed automata description of the vehicle's control system, including the abstracted path planning and collision avoidance algorithms used to navigate the loader, and we model check the encoding in UPPAAL, against various functional, timing and safety requirements. The complex nature of the navigation algorithms makes the loader's abstract modeling and the verification very challenging. Our work shows that exhaustive verification techniques can be applied early in the development of autonomous systems, to enable finding potential design errors that would incur increased costs if discovered later.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Keywords
Autonomous Vehicle, Collision Avoidance, Formal Verification, Model Checking, Timed Automata, UPPAAL, Accident prevention, Automata theory, Construction equipment, Construction industry, Loaders, Mining machinery, Motion planning, Obstacle detectors, Wheels, Autonomous constructions, Autonomous Vehicles, Construction machines, Navigation algorithms, Safety requirements, Verification techniques
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40747 (URN)10.1145/3193992.3193999 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059102764 (Scopus ID)9781450357180 (ISBN)
Conference
6th ACM/IEEE Conference on Formal Methods in Software Engineering, FormaliSE 2018, co-located with International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2018, 2 June 2018
Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2019-12-16Bibliographically approved
Šurković, A., Hanić, D., Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Lundqvist, K., Wenslandt, D. & Falk, C. (2018). Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018; Västerås; Sweden; 18 September 2018 through 21 September 2018 (pp. 31-41). Springer Verlag, 11094
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process
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2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11094, p. 31-41Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Systems of systems (SoS) are built as a collection of systems capable of fulfilling their own function, as well as contributing to other functionalities. They are expected to increase production efficiency and possibly decrease human involvement in harmful environments, and in many cases such systems are safety-critical. For SoS it is a paramount to provide both safety and security assurance. It is not sufficient to analyze and provide assurance of these properties independently due to their mutual connection. Hence, a joint effort addressing safety and security that provides joint guarantees on both properties, is required. In this paper we provide a safety and security assurance argument by incorporating an adversary point of view, and identify potential failures coming from the security domain that might lead to an already identified set of hazards. In this way system assets, vulnerabilities and ways to exploit them can be assessed. As an outcome mitigation strategies coming from security considerations can be captured by the safety requirements. The approach is illustrated on an autonomous quarry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 11094
Keywords
Safety engineering, Systems engineering, Increase productions, Mitigation strategy, Potential failures, Safety and securities, Safety requirements, Security considerations, Security domains, Systems of systems, System of systems
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41127 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99229-7_4 (DOI)000458807000004 ()2-s2.0-85053870453 (Scopus ID)9783319992280 (ISBN)
Conference
ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018; Västerås; Sweden; 18 September 2018 through 21 September 2018
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Zhou, J., Hänninen, K. & Lundqvist, K. (2017). A Hazard Modeling Language for Safety-Critical Systems Based on the Hazard Ontology. In: 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'17: . Paper presented at 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'17, 30 Aug 2017, Vienna, Austria (pp. 301-304).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Hazard Modeling Language for Safety-Critical Systems Based on the Hazard Ontology
2017 (English)In: 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'17, 2017, p. 301-304Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a key safety-concerned activity, applied during the early stages of safety-critical systems development process, aiming to provide stakeholders with a general understanding of potential hazards. The identified hazards will be described and serve as a basis to further identify mitigation mechanisms in the subsequent development process. However, since various stakeholders will be involved in the identification process, a common understanding of the nature of hazards among stakeholders, such as what a hazard consists of and how to describe it without ambiguities, is of crucial importance to achieve the goal of PHA. In this work, we propose a hazard modeling language (HML) based on a hazard domain ontology, i.e., the Hazard Ontology, in order to facilitate the specification of identified hazards. In addition, we present an approach to the transformation from natural language hazard descriptions into the HML specification. Finally, an industrial PHA example is used to illustrate the usefulness of our work.

Keywords
hazard ontologyhazard modeling languagesafety-critical systempreliminary hazard analysis
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35513 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2017.48 (DOI)000426074600044 ()9781538621400 (ISBN)
Conference
43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'17, 30 Aug 2017, Vienna, Austria
Projects
DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and Control
Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Provenzano, L., Hänninen, K., Zhou, J. & Lundqvist, K. (2017). An Ontological Approach to Elicit Safety Requirements. In: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2017: . Paper presented at 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2017, 04 Dec 2017, Nanjing, China (pp. 713-718).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Ontological Approach to Elicit Safety Requirements
2017 (English)In: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2017, 2017, p. 713-718Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Safety requirements describe risk mitigations against failures that may cause catastrophic consequences on human life, environment and facilities. To be able to implement the correct risk mitigations, it is fundamental that safety requirements are de- fined based on the results issued from the safety analysis. In this paper, we introduce a heuristic approach to elicit safety requirements based on the knowledge about hazard’s causes, hazard’s sources and hazard’s consequences (i.e. hazard’s components) acquired during the safety analysis. The proposed approach is based on a Hazard Ontology that is used to structure the knowledge about the hazards identified during the safety analysis in order to make it available and accessible for requirements elicitation. We describe how this information can be used to elicit safety requirements, and provide a guidance to derive the safety requirements which are appropriate to deal with the hazards they mitigate.

Keywords
Safety requirements, safety requirements elicitation, ontologies, hazards, hazard's components
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37099 (URN)10.1109/APSEC.2017.91 (DOI)000428733800084 ()2-s2.0-85045921379 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3681-7 (ISBN)
Conference
24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2017, 04 Dec 2017, Nanjing, China
Projects
DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and Control
Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2017-10-26 Last updated: 2018-05-11Bibliographically approved
Zhou, J., Hänninen, K., Lundqvist, K. & Provenzano, L. (2017). An Ontological Approach to Hazard Identification for Safety-Critical Systems. In: 2017 2nd International Conference on Reliability Systems Engineering, ICRSE 2017: . Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Reliability Systems Engineering, ICRSE 2017; Beijing Yanqi Lake International Convention and Exhibition Center (BYCC)Huairou, Beijing; China; 10 July 2017 through 12. Beijing, China, Article ID 8030746.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Ontological Approach to Hazard Identification for Safety-Critical Systems
2017 (English)In: 2017 2nd International Conference on Reliability Systems Engineering, ICRSE 2017, Beijing, China, 2017, article id 8030746Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hazard identification is an essential but very de- manding task for the development of safety-critical systems (SCSs). Current practices suffer from one or several drawbacks listed below: 1) a common hazard conceptualization is missing and thereby ambiguities may arise and, 2) there is still a need to formalize the experience of analysts and lessons learned from previous system development in a structured way to facilitate future reuse. and, 3) some hazard identification techniques require well-known system behaviors represented by models, such as automata and sequence diagrams, to identify hazards, and however such models are typically susceptible to changes or even not available in early stages. In this paper, we propose an ontological approach to support hazard identification in the early stages of the development of SCSs. The approach aims to improve hazard identification results in terms of completeness and unambiguity. A robotic strolling assistant system is used to evaluate the proposed approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Beijing, China: , 2017
Keywords
hazard ontologyhazard identificationpreliminary hazard analysissafety-critical systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35514 (URN)10.1109/ICRSE.2017.8030746 (DOI)000425930200036 ()2-s2.0-85032291985 (Scopus ID)9781538609187 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Reliability Systems Engineering, ICRSE 2017; Beijing Yanqi Lake International Convention and Exhibition Center (BYCC)Huairou, Beijing; China; 10 July 2017 through 12
Projects
DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and Control
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Zhou, J., Hänninen, K., Lundqvist, K. & Provenzano, L. (2017). An Ontological Approach to Identify the Causes of Hazards for Safety-Critical Systems. In: 2017 2nd International Conference on System Reliability and Safety ICSRS'17: . Paper presented at 2017 2nd International Conference on System Reliability and Safety ICSRS'17, 20 Dec 2017, Milan, Italy (pp. 405-413).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Ontological Approach to Identify the Causes of Hazards for Safety-Critical Systems
2017 (English)In: 2017 2nd International Conference on System Reliability and Safety ICSRS'17, 2017, p. 405-413Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a key safety-concerned technique, applied in early stages of safety critical systems development, aiming to provide stakeholders with a general understanding of potential hazards together with their causes. Various studies have asserted that most significant flaws in hazard analysis techniques are related to the omission of causes associated with the identified hazards. In addition, identified causes are sometimes described in too generic terms to provide useful guidance for subsequent activities. In this paper, we propose an approach to explore and identify the causes associated with the hazards from a PHA, aiming to improve the results of hazard causes identification in terms of completeness and usefulness. To achieve the goal, the proposed approach utilizes the hazard-related concepts and relations defined in a hazard domain ontology presented in our previous work. Furthermore, an application scenario of a train control system is used to evaluate our approach.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37069 (URN)10.1109/ICSRS.2017.8272856 (DOI)000426453100069 ()2-s2.0-85046626823 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3322-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 2nd International Conference on System Reliability and Safety ICSRS'17, 20 Dec 2017, Milan, Italy
Projects
DPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and Control
Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0904-3712

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