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Axelsson, J. (2019). A refined terminology on system-of-systems substructure and constituent system states. In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019: . Paper presented at 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019; Anchorage; United States; 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019 May 2019 through 22 May 2019 (pp. 31-36). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A refined terminology on system-of-systems substructure and constituent system states
2019 (English)In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 31-36Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the field of systems-of-systems (SoS) engineering, there is broad agreement on a few characterizations, and these are currently being standardized. However, many aspects in the field still lack an established terminology. In particular, there are unclarities related to the internal structure of an SoS, and on the internal states of constituent systems. In this paper, a refined terminology is therefore proposed, which covers the internal substructure of an SoS; the states of constituent systems in relation to those substructures; and how it relates to hierarchical levels. This terminology can also be used to classify the characteristics of an SoS through different metrics. The terminology is illustrated through three examples of SoS applications in various domains. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44969 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2019.8753846 (DOI)000483472500006 ()2-s2.0-85069778063 (Scopus ID)9781728104577 (ISBN)
Conference
14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019; Anchorage; United States; 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019 May 2019 through 22 May 2019
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2019). Business models and roles for mediating services in a truck platooning system-of-systems. In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019: . Paper presented at 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019; Anchorage; United States; 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019 (pp. 113-118). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business models and roles for mediating services in a truck platooning system-of-systems
2019 (English)In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 113-118Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Platooning of trucks on motorways has been proposed as a method of reducing fuel consumption. It requires communication between the trucks to control the distance between them. However, this system-of-systems (SoS) cannot only contain the trucks, but also needs to include mediating off-board services for match-making to find suitable constellations of trucks, and for creating platooning incentives by distributing the profit made equally among the constituent systems. This paper analyzes what actors in the SoS would be suitable to operate these services, and also business models that cover the cost for their implementation and operation. It concludes that the truck OEMs have a vital role in creating the mediating services, and that a suitable business model would be based on usage fees for the services rather than upfront payment for platooning equipment. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44970 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2019.8753887 (DOI)000483472500020 ()2-s2.0-85069759573 (Scopus ID)9781728104577 (ISBN)
Conference
14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019; Anchorage; United States; 19 May 2019 through 22 May 2019
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2019). Experiences of Using Linked Data and Ontologies for Operational Data Sharing in Systems-of-Systems. In: 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference SysCon2019: . Paper presented at 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference SysCon2019, 08 Apr 2019, Orlando, Florida, United States. Orlando, Florida, United States
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of Using Linked Data and Ontologies for Operational Data Sharing in Systems-of-Systems
2019 (English)In: 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference SysCon2019, Orlando, Florida, United States, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the problem of exchanging complex data between the constituent systems in a system-of-systems. This is necessary to ensure that they have compatible understandings of the world surrounding them and entails a need for semantic interoperability between the constituents. Through a case study of a road construction system-of-systems, the world wide web technologies of linked data and ontologies are explored as a framework for data representation and exchange. This data includes several broad categories, such as assets, interfaces, organizations, capabilities, missions, and observations, as well as various properties of those. It is also discussed how the constituents can use this data for reasoning and decision making. The results have been validated through a simulation-based research prototype of the road construction case, from which experiences are reported.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Orlando, Florida, United States: , 2019
Keywords
system-of-systems, linked data, ontology, semantic interoperability, road construction, Industry 4.0
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45048 (URN)
Conference
13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference SysCon2019, 08 Apr 2019, Orlando, Florida, United States
Projects
Construction Factory
Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2019). Game Theory Applications in Systems-of-Systems Engineering: A Literature Review and Synthesis. Paper presented at 17th Annual Conference on Systems Engineering Research CSER2019, 03 Apr 2019, Washington DC, United States. Procedia Computer Science, 153, 154-165
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game Theory Applications in Systems-of-Systems Engineering: A Literature Review and Synthesis
2019 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 153, p. 154-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Systems-of-systems (SoS) are becoming increasingly common in more and more domains, spreading from the initial focus on government-controlled areas such as defense to open market industries. This implies that collaborative SoS are becoming more important, where the constituents need to be given incentives to join and remain within the SoS. Game theory has been proposed as a framework to model and analyze such SoS mechanisms. It aims at providing such incentives to the independently operated and managed constituents. This paper presents a systematic literature review on the applications of game theory to SoS engineering, together with a synthesis aiming at capturing the best practices for such an analysis. The main conclusions are that game theory can be applied to SoS in a wide range of application areas, and deal with problems related to acquisition, design, and operations. In particular, the operational formation of SoS are well suited for this kind of analysis, and this often requires the use of simulation techniques. However, most results in the field lack a validation in practice.

Keywords
System-of-systems, game theory, literature review
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45049 (URN)10.1016/j.procs.2019.05.066 (DOI)
Conference
17th Annual Conference on Systems Engineering Research CSER2019, 03 Apr 2019, Washington DC, United States
Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2018). An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems. In: 12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018, 24 April 2018 through 26 April 2018 (pp. 1-8). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems
2018 (English)In: 12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As systems-of-systems start to be more common in commercial applications, an analysis of emergent properties related to utility and cost for all stakeholders becomes critical. This paper describes an approach for this based on network simulation and game theory, which is applied to truck highway platooning. The emergent properties of energy efficiency and transport efficiency are studied as a consequence of the strategies for platoon formation, and it is shown that having information about the route planning of other vehicles has a significant positive effect on the properties. This indicates the need for a mediator in the platooning system-of-systems architecture. Its role is to communicate plans of the constituent systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40194 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2018.8369506 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048862825 (Scopus ID)9781538636640 (ISBN)
Conference
12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018, 24 April 2018 through 26 April 2018
Available from: 2018-07-05 Created: 2018-07-05 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J., Fröberg, J. & Eriksson, P. (2018). Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.0. In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018: . Paper presented at 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018 (pp. 576-582). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.0
2018 (English)In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 576-582Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Road construction is a very large business segment, consuming enormous public funding every year and with significant environmental impacts. However, the rate of efficiency improvement during the last few decades has been negligible, whereas other industries, such as manufacturing, have seen very large improvements by applying automation and Leanbased flow optimization across the production system. In this paper, we outline a system-of-systems concept for road construction which applies similar principles as have previously proved successful in other industries. The paper identifies efficiency attributes and wastes in current practices, which lead to a conceptual solution that focuses on improved coordination of working machines. Technical elements from Industry 4.0 are considered as potential building blocks in this concept, identifying similarities and differences between the construction domain and other industries. Finally, challenges are identified, in particular within knowledge representation and information management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Keywords
Architecture, Industry 40, Lean, Road construction, System-of-systems, Efficiency, Environmental impact, Industry 4.0, Information management, Knowledge representation, Roads and streets, System of systems, Construction efficiency, Current practices, Efficiency improvement, Flow optimization, Large business, Potential building blocks, Production system, Systems engineering
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40743 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2018.8428698 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052331727 (Scopus ID)9781538648766 (ISBN)
Conference
13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018
Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2017). Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 18(5), 1033-1045
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review
2017 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1033-1045Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicle platooning has been studied for several decades, with objectives such as improved traffic throughput on existing infrastructure or reduced energy consumption. All the time, it has been apparent that safety is an important issue. However, there are no comprehensive analyses of what is needed to achieve safety in platooning, but only scattered pieces of information. This paper investigates, through a systematic literature review, what is known about safety for platooning, including what analysis methods have been used, what hazards and failures have been identified, and solution elements that have been proposed to improve safety. Based on this, a gap analysis is performed to identify outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future research. These include dealing with a business ecosystem of actors that cooperate and compete around platooning, refining safety analysis methods to make them suitable for systems-of-systems, dealing with variability in vehicles, and finding solutions to various human factors issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Road vehicles, platooning, safety, systems-of-systems
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35523 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2016.2598873 (DOI)000400901400001 ()2-s2.0-84983032315 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved
Papatheocharous, E., Petersen, K., Axelsson, J., Wohlin, C., Carlson, J., Ciccozzi, F., . . . Cicchetti, A. (2017). The GRADE Decision Canvas for Classification and Reflection on Architecture Decisions. In: 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17: . Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17, 28 Apr 2017, Porto, Portugal (pp. 187-194).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The GRADE Decision Canvas for Classification and Reflection on Architecture Decisions
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2017 (English)In: 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17, 2017, p. 187-194Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces a decision canvas for capturing architecture decisions in software and systems engineer- ing. The canvas leverages a dedicated taxonomy, denoted GRADE, meant for establishing the basics of the vocabulary for assessing and choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas serves as a template for practitioners to discuss and document architecture decisions, i.e., capture, understand and communicate decisions among decision-makers and to others. It also serves as a way to re- flect on past decision-making activities devoted to both tentative and concluding decisions in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas has been assessed by means of preliminary internal and external evaluations with four scenarios. The results are promising as the canvas fulfills its intended objectives while satisfying most of the needs of the subjects participating in the evaluation.

Keywords
Software engineering, architecture knowledge, decision documentation, decision canvas, decision template
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35496 (URN)2-s2.0-85025451151 (Scopus ID)9789897582509 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17, 28 Apr 2017, Porto, Portugal
Projects
ORION - Decision Support for Component-Based Software Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S., Wallin, P., Fröberg, J. & Axelsson, J. (2016). Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site. In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016: . Paper presented at IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 12-16 Jun 2016, Kongsberg, Norway. , Article ID 7542936.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site
2016 (English)In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 2016, article id 7542936Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

Keywords
system-of-systems, autonomous vehicles, construction equipment, automotive systems
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32877 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2016.7542936 (DOI)000389776900050 ()2-s2.0-84985993616 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8727-9 (ISBN)978-1-4673-8726-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 12-16 Jun 2016, Kongsberg, Norway
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsSARPA - Safe and Robust Platform for Automated Vehicles
Available from: 2016-08-30 Created: 2016-08-24 Last updated: 2017-01-05Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2015). A Systematic Mapping of the Research Literature on System-of-Systems Engineering. In: 10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE: . Paper presented at 10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE, 17 May 2015, San Antonio, Texas, United States (pp. 18-23).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic Mapping of the Research Literature on System-of-Systems Engineering
2015 (English)In: 10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE, 2015, p. 18-23Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The research area systems-of-systems engineering has increased rapidly over the last decade and now contains a substantial body of literature. To get an overview of the field, a systematic mapping of the literature has been done, covering over 3000 papers. It revealed a field massively dominated by US researchers, with an emphasis on military and space systems. A large number of people are involved, but few researchers focus on the area, and citations are fairly low compared to other fields. Important research topics include architecture, modeling and simulation, integration and interoperability, communication, sustainability, and safety and security. There are signs of immaturity within the research area, and it is recommended that existing venues are complemented with an international scientific event with very high standards for submissions.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29629 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2015.7151918 (DOI)2-s2.0-84941131183 (Scopus ID)9781479976119 (ISBN)
Conference
10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE, 17 May 2015, San Antonio, Texas, United States
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3986-1196

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