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Axelsson, J. (2018). An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems. In: 12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018, 24 April 2018 through 26 April 2018 (pp. 1-8). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems
2018 (English)In: 12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As systems-of-systems start to be more common in commercial applications, an analysis of emergent properties related to utility and cost for all stakeholders becomes critical. This paper describes an approach for this based on network simulation and game theory, which is applied to truck highway platooning. The emergent properties of energy efficiency and transport efficiency are studied as a consequence of the strategies for platoon formation, and it is shown that having information about the route planning of other vehicles has a significant positive effect on the properties. This indicates the need for a mediator in the platooning system-of-systems architecture. Its role is to communicate plans of the constituent systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40194 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2018.8369506 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048862825 (Scopus ID)9781538636640 (ISBN)
Conference
12th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2018, 24 April 2018 through 26 April 2018
Available from: 2018-07-05 Created: 2018-07-05 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J., Fröberg, J. & Eriksson, P. (2018). Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.0. In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018: . Paper presented at 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018 (pp. 576-582). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.0
2018 (English)In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 576-582Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Road construction is a very large business segment, consuming enormous public funding every year and with significant environmental impacts. However, the rate of efficiency improvement during the last few decades has been negligible, whereas other industries, such as manufacturing, have seen very large improvements by applying automation and Leanbased flow optimization across the production system. In this paper, we outline a system-of-systems concept for road construction which applies similar principles as have previously proved successful in other industries. The paper identifies efficiency attributes and wastes in current practices, which lead to a conceptual solution that focuses on improved coordination of working machines. Technical elements from Industry 4.0 are considered as potential building blocks in this concept, identifying similarities and differences between the construction domain and other industries. Finally, challenges are identified, in particular within knowledge representation and information management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Keywords
Architecture, Industry 40, Lean, Road construction, System-of-systems, Efficiency, Environmental impact, Industry 4.0, Information management, Knowledge representation, Roads and streets, System of systems, Construction efficiency, Current practices, Efficiency improvement, Flow optimization, Large business, Potential building blocks, Production system, Systems engineering
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40743 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2018.8428698 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052331727 (Scopus ID)9781538648766 (ISBN)
Conference
13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018
Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2017). Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 18(5), 1033-1045
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review
2017 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1033-1045Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicle platooning has been studied for several decades, with objectives such as improved traffic throughput on existing infrastructure or reduced energy consumption. All the time, it has been apparent that safety is an important issue. However, there are no comprehensive analyses of what is needed to achieve safety in platooning, but only scattered pieces of information. This paper investigates, through a systematic literature review, what is known about safety for platooning, including what analysis methods have been used, what hazards and failures have been identified, and solution elements that have been proposed to improve safety. Based on this, a gap analysis is performed to identify outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future research. These include dealing with a business ecosystem of actors that cooperate and compete around platooning, refining safety analysis methods to make them suitable for systems-of-systems, dealing with variability in vehicles, and finding solutions to various human factors issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Road vehicles, platooning, safety, systems-of-systems
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35523 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2016.2598873 (DOI)000400901400001 ()2-s2.0-84983032315 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved
Papatheocharous, E., Petersen, K., Axelsson, J., Wohlin, C., Carlson, J., Ciccozzi, F., . . . Cicchetti, A. (2017). The GRADE Decision Canvas for Classification and Reflection on Architecture Decisions. In: 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17: . Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17, 28 Apr 2017, Porto, Portugal (pp. 187-194).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The GRADE Decision Canvas for Classification and Reflection on Architecture Decisions
Show others...
2017 (English)In: 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17, 2017, p. 187-194Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces a decision canvas for capturing architecture decisions in software and systems engineer- ing. The canvas leverages a dedicated taxonomy, denoted GRADE, meant for establishing the basics of the vocabulary for assessing and choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas serves as a template for practitioners to discuss and document architecture decisions, i.e., capture, understand and communicate decisions among decision-makers and to others. It also serves as a way to re- flect on past decision-making activities devoted to both tentative and concluding decisions in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas has been assessed by means of preliminary internal and external evaluations with four scenarios. The results are promising as the canvas fulfills its intended objectives while satisfying most of the needs of the subjects participating in the evaluation.

Keywords
Software engineering, architecture knowledge, decision documentation, decision canvas, decision template
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35496 (URN)2-s2.0-85025451151 (Scopus ID)9789897582509 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE17, 28 Apr 2017, Porto, Portugal
Projects
ORION - Decision Support for Component-Based Software Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S., Wallin, P., Fröberg, J. & Axelsson, J. (2016). Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site. In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016: . Paper presented at IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 12-16 Jun 2016, Kongsberg, Norway. , Article ID 7542936.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site
2016 (English)In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 2016, article id 7542936Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

Keywords
system-of-systems, autonomous vehicles, construction equipment, automotive systems
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32877 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2016.7542936 (DOI)000389776900050 ()2-s2.0-84985993616 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8727-9 (ISBN)978-1-4673-8726-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 12-16 Jun 2016, Kongsberg, Norway
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsSARPA - Safe and Robust Platform for Automated Vehicles
Available from: 2016-08-30 Created: 2016-08-24 Last updated: 2017-01-05Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2015). A Systematic Mapping of the Research Literature on System-of-Systems Engineering. In: 10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE: . Paper presented at 10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE, 17 May 2015, San Antonio, Texas, United States (pp. 18-23).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic Mapping of the Research Literature on System-of-Systems Engineering
2015 (English)In: 10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE, 2015, p. 18-23Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The research area systems-of-systems engineering has increased rapidly over the last decade and now contains a substantial body of literature. To get an overview of the field, a systematic mapping of the literature has been done, covering over 3000 papers. It revealed a field massively dominated by US researchers, with an emphasis on military and space systems. A large number of people are involved, but few researchers focus on the area, and citations are fairly low compared to other fields. Important research topics include architecture, modeling and simulation, integration and interoperability, communication, sustainability, and safety and security. There are signs of immaturity within the research area, and it is recommended that existing venues are complemented with an international scientific event with very high standards for submissions.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29629 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2015.7151918 (DOI)2-s2.0-84941131183 (Scopus ID)9781479976119 (ISBN)
Conference
10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE, 17 May 2015, San Antonio, Texas, United States
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S., Axelsson, J. & Fröberg, J. (2015). An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles. In: 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015, 13 April 2015 through 16 April 2015 (pp. 582-588).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles
2015 (English)In: 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, p. 582-588Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It has been suggested in the literature to organize software in autonomous vehicles as hierarchical layers where each layer makes its own decisions based on its own world model. This paper presents two alternative designs for autonomous construction vehicles based on the layered framework 4D/RCS. As a first step, the typical use cases for these vehicles were defined. Then one use case for a hauler was traversed through the two alternatives to see how they supported safety, flexibility and the use of a product platform. We found that the coordination between bucket control and motion control must be done at a low level in the hierarchy and that the relationship between the vehicle actuators and the built-in autonomous system is important for how the software is organized. 

Keywords
automotive systems, autonomous vehicles, system architecture, systems engineering, systems-of-systems, Amphibious vehicles, Vehicles, Alternative designs, Autonomous constructions, Autonomous systems, Layered system architecture, System architectures, Systems of systems, Computer architecture
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29127 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2015.7116814 (DOI)000380537800088 ()2-s2.0-84941309612 (Scopus ID)9781479959273 (ISBN)
Conference
9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015, 13 April 2015 through 16 April 2015
Available from: 2015-09-24 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2016-12-22Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2015). Architectural Allocation Alternatives and Associated Concerns in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study. In: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops: . Paper presented at 1st International Workshop on Software Architectures for Next-generation Cyber-physical Systems SANCS 2015, 7-11 Sep 2015, Dubrovnik/Cavtat, Croatia. , Article No.15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural Allocation Alternatives and Associated Concerns in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study
2015 (English)In: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, 2015, Vol. Article No.15Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cyber-physical systems is an extension of traditional embedded systems, where communication to the outside world is given more emphasis. This leads to a new design space also for software development, allowing new allocation strategies for functionality. In traditional embedded systems, all functionality was inside the product, but now it becomes possible to partition the software between the embedded systems and IT systems outside the product. This paper investigates, through a case study from the automotive domain, possible new allocation alternatives where computation is offloaded from the embedded system to a server, and what additional architectural concerns this leads to, including performance, resource utilization, robustness, and lifecycle aspects. In addition, the paper addresses new opportunities created by allocating functionality outside the embedded systems, and thus making data available for extended services, as well as the larger concerns that result on the organizational level, including new competency in architecture and DevOps.

Keywords
Cyber-physical systems, architecture, system-of-systems, allocation, cloud
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-30030 (URN)10.1145/2797433.2797448 (DOI)978-1-4503-3393-1 (ISBN)
Conference
1st International Workshop on Software Architectures for Next-generation Cyber-physical Systems SANCS 2015, 7-11 Sep 2015, Dubrovnik/Cavtat, Croatia
Projects
ORION - Decision Support for Component-Based Software Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems
Available from: 2015-12-19 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2015-12-19Bibliographically approved
Papatheocharous, E., Andersson, J. & Axelsson, J. (2015). Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study. In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Volume 210: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Software Business, ICSOB 2015; Braga; Portugal; 10 June 2015 through 12 June 2015 (pp. 81-95).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study
2015 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Volume 210, 2015, p. 81-95Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper surveys work on ecosystems and open innovation of systems in the context of software engineering for embedded systems. The primary research goal is to develop a research agenda based on the topics identified within the research publications on the topic. The agenda is based on a systematic mapping study of 260 publications obtained from digital libraries and is influenced by a set of areas of interest, i.e., product lines, open source, third party, business models, open innovation, and strategy. The results from the study include analysis of the type of research conducted in the field, its origin and research contribution. The study identifies the need for more solutions to specific open innovation problems such as mapping business models to technical platforms; defining open ecosystem processes that foster open innovation; and improving how ecosystem players can leverage on tool support for open innovation. A direction for future research is also provided.

Keywords
Software ecosystems, Open innovation, Embedded systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29254 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-19593-3_7 (DOI)2-s2.0-84937424455 (Scopus ID)9783319195926 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference on Software Business, ICSOB 2015; Braga; Portugal; 10 June 2015 through 12 June 2015
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2017-10-31Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J. (2015). Systems-of-systems for border-crossing innovation in the digitized society: A strategic research and innovation agenda for Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems-of-systems for border-crossing innovation in the digitized society: A strategic research and innovation agenda for Sweden
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report constitutes a strategic research and innovation agenda for the area systems-of-systems. The agenda has been developed during the first half of 2015 in a project led by SICS Swedish ICT AB, in collaboration with INCOSE Sweden and a large number of representatives from industry and academia, with financial support from Vinnova. The overall conclusion of the agenda is: Sweden needs a world-leading capability to rapidly develop trustworthy systems-of-systems A system-of-systems (SoS) can informally be defined as a group of independent collaborating systems. The elements of an SoS, called constituent systems, retain an operational and managerial independence, but when combined in a certain way, they provide together a new capability that is emergent from their cooperation. There are many applications of SoS, often as a consequence of the digitization of society which opens new possibilities for system integration. Examples can be found within command and control systems for defense and civilian crisis management; construction and mining; manufacturing and the reindustrialization; transportation; and health care. System integration is traditionally a Swedish area of strength, and by improving SoS knowledge, competitive advantages can be reached. SoS is also an important enabler for innovation, through the ability to combine existing technical products, processes, and organizations in new ways. Having the ability for rapid SoS development is very important for businesses to bring new innovations to market. However, to advance the practice of SoS engineering, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including improving the theoretical foundations; the socio-technical aspects; architecture; modeling and simulation; interoperability; trust; business and legal aspects; development processes and methods; and standardization. As part of the agenda project, a survey has been done of international and Swedish research in the area. Internationally, the SoS field is dominated by US researchers, with a very strong focus on military and space applications. A large number of people are involved, but few persons focus on the area. In comparison, Sweden has entered the research area much later, and only now is attention growing. As is the case internationally, few researchers focus on SoS, and many of them do not even call their research SoS. Activities are scattered over many organizations throughout the country. Many of the researchers in SoS in Sweden come from a background in Software Engineering or Control Engineering, and this is in contrast with the international research, which has its basis in Systems Engineering. In Sweden, research topics such as business aspects (in particular innovation), control systems, governance, and Internet of Things are more pronounced than internationally. However, there is little research in Sweden on the underlying, fundamental principles of SoS engineering. This is likely to be in part a consequence of the funding strategies currently implemented. The analysis shows a broad but scattered Swedish research community lacking critical mass. There is a high competence in software and control engineering, and in empirical research methods, but the lack of systems engineering competence is alarming, since it is fundamental for desired advances, such as in the reindustrialization (Industry 4.0). To achieve the desired capability in SoS development requires knowledge, competence, and capacity, which are provided through substantially increased research and education actions. It is suggested that research in the area is organized as a national SoS center-of-centers that coordinates activities at different academic member organizations. This requires increased research funding. There is also an urgent need for education in systems engineering, systems thinking, and SoS. It is proposed that the center-of-centers also takes responsibility for this, by developing joint courses in those disciplines, including on-line courses for practitioners, and PhD schools for industrial and academic doctoral students. To complement this, societal actions are needed to remove obstacles for building SoS, and enforcing standards. Finally, it is necessary to create meeting places, including triple helix flagship projects, that can fuel the interactions between individuals and organizations interested in SoS.

Series
SICS Technical Report ; T2015:07
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29255 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3986-1196

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