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Leander, B., Causevic, A. & Hansson, H. (2019). Applicability of the IEC 62443 standard in Industry 4.0 / IIoT. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ARES 2019; University of KentCanterbury; United Kingdom; 26 August 2019 through 29 August 2019. Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applicability of the IEC 62443 standard in Industry 4.0 / IIoT
2019 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today’s industrial automation systems are undergoing a digital transformation that implies a shift towards the Internet of Things (IoT), leading to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigm. Existing Industrial Automated Control Systems (IACS), enriched with a potentially large number of IoT devices are expected to make systems more efficient, flexible, provide intelligence, and ultimately enable autonomous control. In general, the majority of such systems come with high level of criticality that calls for well-established methods and approaches when achieving cybersecurity, preferably prescribed by a standard. IEC 62443 is an industrial standard that provides procedures to manage risks related to cybersecurity threats in IACS. Given the new IIoT paradigm, it is likely that existing standards are not sufficiently aligned with the challenges related to developing and maintaining cybersecurity in such systems. In this paper we review the applicability of the IEC 62443 standard in IIoT contexts and discuss potential challenges the process owners might encounter. Our analysis underlines that some areas within the standard could prove difficult to reach compliance with. In particular, handling of cross zone communication and software updates require additional guidance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2019
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45365 (URN)10.1145/3339252.3341481 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071722239 (Scopus ID)9781450371643 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ARES 2019; University of KentCanterbury; United Kingdom; 26 August 2019 through 29 August 2019
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Bakhshi Valojerdi, Z., Rodriguez-Navas, G. & Hansson, H. (2019). Dependable Fog Computing: A Systematic Literature Review. In: : . Paper presented at SEAA 2019 : 45th EUROMICRO SEAA Conference, Aug 28, 2019 - Aug 30, 2019, Thessaloniki / Chalkidiki, Greece.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dependable Fog Computing: A Systematic Literature Review
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fog computing has been recently introduced to bridge the gap between cloud resources and the network edge. Fog enables low latency and location awareness, which is considered instrumental for the realization of IoT, but also faces reliability and dependability issues due to node mobility and resource constraints. This paper focuses on the latter, and surveys the state of the art concerning dependability and fog computing, by means of a systematic literature review. Our findings show the growing interest in the topic but the relative immaturity of the technology, without any leading research group. Two problems have attracted special interest: guaranteeing reliable data storage/collection in systems with unreliable and untrusted nodes, and guaranteeing efficient task allocation in the presence of varying computing load. Redundancy-based techniques, both static and dynamic, dominate the architectures of such systems. Reliability, availability and QoS are the most important dependability requirements for fog, whereas aspects such as safety and security, and their important interplay, have not been investigated in depth.

National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45152 (URN)
Conference
SEAA 2019 : 45th EUROMICRO SEAA Conference, Aug 28, 2019 - Aug 30, 2019, Thessaloniki / Chalkidiki, Greece
Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-04Bibliographically approved
Pozo Pérez, F. M., Rodriguez-Navas, G. & Hansson, H. (2019). Methods for large-scale time-triggered network scheduling. Electronics (Switzerland), 8(7), Article ID 738.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for large-scale time-triggered network scheduling
2019 (English)In: Electronics (Switzerland), ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 738Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Future cyber–physical systems may extend over broad geographical areas, like cities or regions, thus, requiring the deployment of large real-time networks. A strategy to guarantee predictable communication over such networks is to synthesize an offline time-triggered communication schedule. However, this synthesis problem is computationally hard (NP-complete), and existing approaches do not scale satisfactorily to the required network sizes. This article presents a segmented offline synthesis method which substantially reduces this limitation, being able to generate time-triggered schedules for large hybrid (wired and wireless) networks. We also present a series of algorithms and optimizations that increase the performance and compactness of the obtained schedules while solving some of the problems inherent to segmented approaches. We evaluate our approach on a set of realistic large-size multi-hop networks, significantly larger than those considered in the existing literature. The results show that our segmentation reduces the synthesis time by up to two orders of magnitude.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Cyber-physical systems, Real-time networks, Scheduling, SMT solvers, Time-triggered
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45101 (URN)10.3390/electronics8070738 (DOI)000482063200063 ()2-s2.0-85070718684 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
Pozo Pérez, F. M., Rodriguez-Navas, G. & Hansson, H. (2019). Schedule reparability: Enhancing time-triggered network recovery upon link failures. In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 24th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2018: . Paper presented at 24th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2018; Hakodate; Japan; 29 August 2018 through 31 August 2018 (pp. 147-156). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Schedule reparability: Enhancing time-triggered network recovery upon link failures
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 24th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 147-156Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The time-triggered communication paradigm has been shown to satisfy temporal isolation while providing end to end delay guarantees through the synthesis of an offline schedule. However, this paradigm has severe flexibility limitations as any unpredicted change not anticipated by the schedule, such as a component failure, might result in a loss of frames. A typical solution is to use redundancy or replace and update the schedule offline anew. With the ever increase in size of networks and the need to reduce costs, supplementary solutions that enhance the reliability of such networks are also desired. In this paper, we introduce a repair algorithm capable of reacting to unpredicted link failures. The algorithm quickly modifies the schedule such that all frames are transmitted again within their timing guarantees. We found that the success of our algorithm increases significantly with the existence of empty slots spread over the schedule, an opposite approach compared to packing frames, commonly used in the literature. We propose a new ILP formulation that includes a maximization of frame and link intermissions to stretch empty slots over the schedule. Our results show that we can repair with 90% success rate within milliseconds to a valid schedule compared to a few minutes needed to re-schedule the whole network. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42810 (URN)10.1109/RTCSA.2018.00026 (DOI)000458980300017 ()2-s2.0-85061771050 (Scopus ID)9781538677599 (ISBN)
Conference
24th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2018; Hakodate; Japan; 29 August 2018 through 31 August 2018
Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
Pozo Pérez, F. M., Rodriguez-Navas, G. & Hansson, H. (2019). Semi-Distributed Self-Healing Protocol for Online Schedule Repair after Network Failures.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semi-Distributed Self-Healing Protocol for Online Schedule Repair after Network Failures
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Adaptive requirements for networks with strict timing restrictions do challenge the static nature of the time-triggered communication paradigm. Continuous changes in the network topology during operation require frequent rescheduling, followed by schedule distribution, a process that is excessively time-consuming as it was intended to be performed only during the design phase. The fully-distributed Self-Healing Protocol introduced a collaborative method to quickly modify the local schedules of the nodes during runtime, after link failures. This protocol gets the network back to correct operation in milliseconds, but it assumes that only the nodes are able to modify their local schedules, which limited the achieved improvement. This paper proposes to shift to a semi-distributed strategy, where high-performance nodes are responsible for the nodes and links within a small network segment. These nodes rely on their privileged view of the system in order to reduce the response time, increase the healing success rate, and extend the fault model to include switch failures. 

National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45162 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-06 Created: 2019-09-06 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Abbaspour Asadollah, S., Daniel, S., Eldh, S. & Hansson, H. (2018). A Runtime Verification Tool for Detecting Concurrency Bugs in FreeRTOS Embedded Software. In: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018: . Paper presented at 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018 (pp. 172-179). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8452035.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Runtime Verification Tool for Detecting Concurrency Bugs in FreeRTOS Embedded Software
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 172-179, article id 8452035Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article presents a runtime verification tool for embedded software executing under the open source real-time operating system FreeRTOS. The tool detects and diagnoses concurrency bugs such as deadlock, starvation, and suspension based-locking. The tool finds concurrency bugs at runtime without debugging and tracing the source code. The tool uses the Tracealyzer tool for logging relevant events. Analysing the logs, our tool can detect the concurrency bugs by applying algorithms for diagnosing each concurrency bug type individually. In this paper, we present the implementation of the tool, as well as its functional architecture, together with illustration of its use. The tool can be used during program testing to gain interesting information about embedded software executions. We present initial results of running the tool on some classical bug examples running on an AVR 32-bit board SAM4S. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Series
International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing
Keywords
Bug Detector, Concurrency Bugs, Embedded Software, FreeRTOS, Runtime Verification Tool, Computer operating systems, Distributed computer systems, Locks (fasteners), Open source software, Open systems, Program diagnostics, Software testing, Verification, Functional architecture, Interesting information, Real time operating system, Run-time verification, Software execution, Program debugging
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41125 (URN)10.1109/ISPDC2018.2018.00032 (DOI)000447280800023 ()2-s2.0-85053906243 (Scopus ID)9781538653302 (ISBN)
Conference
17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-10-25Bibliographically approved
Lisova, E., Causevic, A., Hänninen, K., Thane, H. & Hansson, H. (2018). A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis. In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018: . Paper presented at 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018; Parc Alvisse, Hotel Luxembourg City; Luxembourg; 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018 (pp. 166-171). Luxembourg, Luxemburg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic Way to Incorporate Security in Safety Analysis
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018, Luxembourg, Luxemburg, 2018, p. 166-171Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today's systems are being built to connect to public or semi-public networks, are able to communicate with other systems, e.g., in the context of Internet-of-Things (IoT), involve multiple stakeholders, have dynamic system reconfigurations, and operate in increasingly unpredictable environments. In such complex systems, assuring safety and security in a continuous and joint effort is a major challenge, not the least due to the increasing number of attack surfaces arising from the increased connectivity. In this paper we present an approach that aims to bridge the gap between safety and security engineering. The potential of the approach is illustrated on the example of E-gas system, discussing the cases when unintentional faults as well as malicious attacks are taken into consideration when assuring safety of the described system. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luxembourg, Luxemburg: , 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39268 (URN)10.1109/DSN-W.2018.00058 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051231991 (Scopus ID)9781538655955 (ISBN)
Conference
48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2018; Parc Alvisse, Hotel Luxembourg City; Luxembourg; 25 June 2018 through 28 June 2018
Projects
Closing the safety-security gap in software intensive systemsSAFSEC-CPS -- Securing the safety of autonomous cyber-physical systemsSerendipity - Secure and dependable platforms for autonomy
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Yin, H. & Hansson, H. (2018). Fighting CPS Complexity by Component-Based Software Development of Multi-Mode Systems. Designs, 2(4), 39-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fighting CPS Complexity by Component-Based Software Development of Multi-Mode Systems
2018 (English)In: Designs, ISSN 2411-9660, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 39-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Growing software complexity is an increasing challenge for the software development of modern cyber-physical systems. A classical strategy for taming this complexity is to partition system behaviors into different operational modes specified at design time. Such a multi-mode system can change behavior by switching between modes at run-time. A complementary approach for reducing software complexity is provided by component-based software engineering (CBSE), which reduces complexity by building systems from composable, reusable and independently developed software components. CBSE and the multi-mode approach are fundamentally conflicting in that component-based development conceptually is a bottom-up approach, whereas partitioning systems into operational modes is a top-down approach with its starting point from a system-wide perspective. In this article, we show that it is possible to combine and integrate these two fundamentally conflicting approaches. The key to simultaneously benefiting from the advantages of both approaches lies in the introduction of a hierarchical mode concept that provides a conceptual linkage between the bottom-up component-based approach and system level modes. As a result, systems including modes can be developed from reusable mode-aware components. The conceptual drawback of the approach—the need for extensive message exchange between components to coordinate mode-switches—is eliminated by an algorithm that collapses the component hierarchy and thereby eliminates the need for inter-component coordination. As this algorithm is used from the design to implementation level (“compilation”), the CBSE design flexibility can be combined with efficiently implemented mode handling, thereby providing the complexity reduction of both approaches, without inducing any additional design or run-time costs. At the more specific level, this article presents (1) a mode mapping mechanism that formally specifies the mode relation between composable multi-mode components and (2) a mode transformation technique that transforms component modes to system-wide modes to achieve efficient implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: DPI, 2018
Keywords
component-based software engineering, mode, mode-switch
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41727 (URN)10.3390/designs2040039 (DOI)
Projects
ARROWS - Design Techniques for Adaptive Embedded Systems
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Hansson, H. (2018). Message from the ICST 2018 General Chair. Paper presented at 11th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2018; Vasteras; Sweden; 9 April 2018 through 13 April 2018. 11th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2018, xii-xiii
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Message from the ICST 2018 General Chair
2018 (English)In: 11th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2018, p. xii-xiiiArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39980 (URN)10.1109/ICST.2018.00005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048414125 (Scopus ID)
Conference
11th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2018; Vasteras; Sweden; 9 April 2018 through 13 April 2018
Available from: 2018-06-21 Created: 2018-06-21 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Sljivo, I., Gallina, B., Carlson, J., Hansson, H. & Puri, S. (2018). Tool-Supported Safety-Relevant Component Reuse: From Specification to Argumentation. In: 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018: . Paper presented at 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018 , 18 Jun 2018, Lisbon, Portugal (pp. 19-33). , 10873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tool-Supported Safety-Relevant Component Reuse: From Specification to Argumentation
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2018 (English)In: 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018, 2018, Vol. 10873, p. 19-33Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Contracts are envisaged to support compositional verification of a system as well as reuse and independent development of their implementations. But reuse of safety-relevant components in safety-critical systems needs to cover more than just the implementations. As many safety-relevant artefacts related to the component as possible should be reused together with the implementation to assist the integrator in assuring that the system they are developing is acceptably safe. Furthermore, the reused assurance information related to the contracts should be structured clearly to communicate the confidence in the component. In this work we present a tool-supported methodology for contract-driven assurance and reuse. We define the variability on the contract level in the scope of a trace-based approach to contract-based design. With awareness of the hierarchical nature of systems subject to compositional verification, we propose assurance patterns for arguing confidence in satisfaction of requirements and contracts. We present an implementation extending the AMASS platform to support automated instantiation of the proposed patterns, and evaluate its adequacy for assurance and reuse in a real-world case study.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40845 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-92432-8_2 (DOI)000465823000002 ()2-s2.0-85049018625 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-92431-1 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018 , 18 Jun 2018, Lisbon, Portugal
Projects
Future factories in the CloudSafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless CommunicationAMASS - Architecture-driven, Multi-concern and Seamless Assurance and Certification of Cyber-Physical Systems
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2018-09-12 Created: 2018-09-12 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7235-6888

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