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Palm, A., Kumm, M. & Ingason, H. (2016). Full Scale Firefighting Tests in the Tistbrottet Mine. Fire technology, 52(5), 1519-1537
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full Scale Firefighting Tests in the Tistbrottet Mine
2016 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1519-1537Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper describes full-scale fire-fighting tests performed in an underground mine. A total of six different methods to fight a full scale fire in a mine tunnel were tested. The methods involved different fire-fighting equipment but were comparable regarding fundamental conditions such as length of response-route, fire-fighting set-up, and smoke and fire size. The aim was to compare different equipment and methods to reach and eventually extinguish the fire. Fire fighters using breathing apparatus (BA) were monitored regarding air consumption, movement speed and local actions and decisions. The results are presented and analyzed in respect to fire-fighting efficiency, front BA operations including moving speed and performed actions, as well as the time to successfully put out the fire. Measurements of heat release rates, temperatures and moving speeds are given in order to quantify the efficiency of the operation. Results indicate that a timespan of 15-30 min is needed for the firefighters to reach the fire source and achieve the extinguishing criteria in five of the tests. The standard equipment and nozzles shows good performance in the tests. A limiting factor on the firefighter's endurance is the amount of air that is available. As a result from these findings the endurance of BA-teams could improve if focus is put on team organization, lightweight equipment and air supply.

Keywords
Full-scale fire experiments, Tunnel, Fire-fighting, Heat release rate (HRR), Oxygen, Moving speed
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32416 (URN)10.1007/s10694-015-0476-z (DOI)000379161700016 ()2-s2.0-84925423920 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-07-28 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A., Vylund, L., Ingason, H., Palm, A., Palmkvist, K., Kumm, M., . . . Fridolf, K. (2016). Recommendations for Firefighting in Underground Facilities. In: Proceedings from the Seventh International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Montréal, Canada March 16-18, 2016: . Paper presented at Seventh International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Montréal, Canada March 16-18, 2016 (pp. 115-125). SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recommendations for Firefighting in Underground Facilities
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings from the Seventh International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Montréal, Canada March 16-18, 2016, SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Borås, 2016, p. 115-125Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The need for a successful fire and rescue operation in an underground facility, e.g., a tunnel, introduces challenges both in the planning phase and during the incident. This is because these types of facilities can be very complex, and thus, specific tactics are needed compared to the more common incidents, e.g. in residential premises. When planning a fire and rescue operation and developing the tactics many different aspects need to be considered: complexity of the facility, the expected number of people involved in the operation, information available about the incident, the purpose of operation, etc. This paper contains recommendations for firefighting in underground facilities. The recommendations are structured in accordance to the sequential time period during which some specific fire safety design measures are taken. These periods are the design phase, the construction phase and finally when the facility is in operation. The recommendations presented in this paper are based on the results of the Swedish TMU research project (Tactics and methodologies for firefighting in underground facilities), results from other research projects and experience from real fire and rescue operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Borås: , 2016
Series
SP Report, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2016:01
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-34566 (URN)978-91-88349-11-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Seventh International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Montréal, Canada March 16-18, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-29 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A., Vylund, L., Ingason, H., Palm, A., Palmkvist, K., Kumm, M., . . . Fridolf, K. (2015). Rekommendationer för räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar. Borås: SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rekommendationer för räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The report contains recommendations for firefighting in underground facilities. This implies results from a research project and the recommendations are based on case studies, interviews, experiments and discussion with different fire departments. The recommendations are structured in accordance to the time period of the actual incident occurrence or the time period during which some specific measures are taken. These periods are project period, construction phase and finally when the facility is in operation. The recommendations are based on the work in the TMU project (Tactics and methodologies for firefighting in underground facilities), results from other research projects and experience from real fire and rescue operations.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, 2015
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2015:19
Keywords
tunnel, fire and rescue service, underground facility, rescue operation, recommendations
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29931 (URN)978-91-88001-49-8 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2016-12-22Bibliographically approved
Ingason, H., Vylund, L., Lönnermark, A., Kumm, M., Fridolf, K., Frantzich, H., . . . Palmkvist, K. (2015). Taktik och Metodik vid brand i Undermarksanläggningar (TMU) - Sammanfattningsrapport. Borås: SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taktik och Metodik vid brand i Undermarksanläggningar (TMU) - Sammanfattningsrapport
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The report compiles the results from the TMU-project. The focus is on fire-fighting performance, capability and organization in underground constructions. The emphasis was on large-scale testing with authentic fire conditions and fire-fighting equipment, development of tools for prediction of hazardous conditions and capabilities of  fire-fighting during different conditions, organizational management and tactics, education and development  of recommendations.  The project was divided into different work packages and these are presented in this final summary report. The test fires performed in the project created severe conditions for fire-fighters who moved in smoke for over 180 m before fighting fully developed fires in a range of 18 to 33 MW. The fires consisted of wood pallets placed in a semi-open steel container, simulating a train wagon fire. The walking speed and connection time for hoses and connections were registered and documented by infra-red cameras. The most important results from these tests is that the time taken to approach the fire depends on parameters as type of equipment, preparation, possibilities for use of infra-red (IR) cameras and the capacity of the extinguishing media. The heat radiation from the fire was found to be important to overcome in order to get close enough to fight the fire. Recommendations and tactics for fighting fires in underground constructions are given. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, 2015
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2015:17
Keywords
tunnel, fire and rescue service, underground facility, rescue operation, recommendations
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29930 (URN)978-91-88001-47-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2016-12-22Bibliographically approved
Kumm, M. & Ingason, H. (2014). Entrainment in a free jet generated by Positive Pressure Ventilator. Fire technology (6), 1499-1515
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrainment in a free jet generated by Positive Pressure Ventilator
2014 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, no 6, p. 1499-1515Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Results of a simple flow model to describe the entrainment into the air cone created by a positive pressure ventilator (PPV) fan are compared to experimental data. Velocity profiles measured in the air cone of a conventional PPV ventilator are used. The entrainment coefficient and the cone angle were determined for the fan investigated. The correspondence between calculated and measured values is discussed and disparities explained. The findings from the tests are turned into practical guidance for the fire brigade and the advantages and limitations of the simplified model are discussed.

Keywords
Entrainment coefficients; Fire brigade; Flow model; Measured values; Positive pressure; Practical guidance; Velocity profiles; Ventilator
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-4091 (URN)10.1007/s10694-013-0331-z (DOI)000343721200010 ()2-s2.0-84921069373 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2005-09-01 Created: 2005-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Palm, A., Kumm, M. & Ingason, H. (2014). Full-scale tests of alternative methods for fire fighting in underground structures. In: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014: . Paper presented at Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Marseille, France, March 12-14, 2014 (pp. 573-582).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full-scale tests of alternative methods for fire fighting in underground structures
2014 (English)In: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014, 2014, p. 573-582Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
full-scale fire experiments, tunnel, fire-fighting, heat release rate (HRR), oxygen, walking speed
National Category
Energy Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24935 (URN)
Conference
Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Marseille, France, March 12-14, 2014
Note

The paper describes the full-scale fire and rescue tests performed in Tistbrottet in Sala, Sweden, in autumn 2013. A total of six different approaches to fight a full scale fire in a tunnel were tested. The six approaches involved different fire-fighting equipment but were performed from an equal point regarding fundamental conditions such as length of response-route, fire-fighting set-up, smoke and fire size. The aim was to compare different equipment and methods to reach and eventually put out the fire. Fire fighters using breathing apparatus (BA) were monitored regarding air consumption, movement speed and local actions and decisions. The results are presented and analyzed in respect to fire-fighting efficiency, front BA operations including moving speed and performed actions, as well as the time to successfully put out the fire. Measurements of heat release rates (HRR) and temperatures are given in order to quantify the efficiency of the operation.

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2015-06-26Bibliographically approved
Lönnermark, A., Claesson, A., Lindström, J., Li, Y. Z., Kumm, M. & Ingason, H. (2014). Gas composition during a fire in a train carriage. In: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014: . Paper presented at Symposium ISTSS 2014 The 6th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security was held in Marseille, France, 12-14th March, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas composition during a fire in a train carriage
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2014 (English)In: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Within the interdisciplinary research project METRO, two full-scale fire tests were performed with ignition inside commuter train carriages in a tunnel. Both tests developed to fully flashover conditions. The fire development was very different in the two tests. The main reason was the difference in initial combustion behaviour between the case with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with a refurbished carriage using aluminium sheet covering the combustible lining as the exposed interior surface. In the case with combustible lining a ceiling flame was developed, radiating towards the seats and the luggage spreading the fire more quickly than in the case without exposed combustible lining. Also in the gas concentrations, significant differences could be observed between the two tests. During the tests, concentrations of O2, CO and CO2 were sampled and analysed at three different heights. The paper focuses on the time resolved results of the gas concentration. The development in gas concentration at different levels is presented and discussed in relation to the fire development in the carriage. Results from calculations of time to incapacitation and fractions of an incapacitating does are also included.

Keywords
tunnel, rail carriage, gas concentrations, full-scale fire experiments, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, METRO
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27240 (URN)
Conference
Symposium ISTSS 2014 The 6th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security was held in Marseille, France, 12-14th March, 2014
Available from: 2014-12-30 Created: 2014-12-30 Last updated: 2016-03-10Bibliographically approved
Kumm, M., Palm, A., Palmkvist, K., Lönnermark, A. & Ingason, H. (2014). Räddningsinsats i tunnelmiljö: Fullskaleförsök i Tistbrottet, Sala. Västerås: Mälardalens högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Räddningsinsats i tunnelmiljö: Fullskaleförsök i Tistbrottet, Sala
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2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I oktober 2013 genomfördes sex fullskaliga brandförsök med kombinerat förflyttnings och släckmoment i Björka Minerals dolomitgruva i Tisbrottet i Sala. Tidigare har dessa två moment inte kombinerats under kontrollerade former där mätningar och observationer dokumenterats i så omfattande grad som i denna försöksserie. Rökdykarnas uppgift vid samtliga av försöken var att avancera in i tunneln och släcka branden. De sex olika försöken utgjordes av konventionell slangutläggning med slangkorgar respektive bärsele, utlägg med tomt system fram till brandplatsen, CAFS, skärsläckare och konventionell slangutläggning med hjälp av materielvagn och depåluft. Försöken visade att konventionell slangutläggning tar lång tid i anspråk, men att utlägg med tomt system och bärsele kan korta tiderna och minska belastningen. Försöken visade också att system med lägre vattenflöden hade möjligheter att slå ner branden, men att mängden vatten var avgörande för att undvika återantändning. Värmekameror är generellt inte anpassade för tunnelmiljöer och ett stort behov finns för vidare utveckling av både utrustning och utbildningsmaterial.

Abstract [en]

In October 2013 six full-scale fire tests were performed with combined movement and extinguishing in the Tistbrottet Mine in Sala. Earlier these two parts have not been combined under controlled test conditions, where measurements and observations have been documented as thouroughly, as in the Tistbrottet test series. The BA fire fighters task, in all performed tests, were to advance into the tunnel and extinguish the fire. The six different tests were represented of conventional hose lay-out with hose baskets, conventional hose lay-out with hose harnesses, full hose lay-out with empty system until reaching the scene of the fire, CAFS, cutting extinguisher and conventional hose lay-out with wagon aided movement and depot air supply. The tests showed that conventional hose lay-out with water filled hoses is time consuming, but that bot hose harnesses and later filling of the hoses can shorten the time. It was also shown that systems with lower water flows initially effectively can fight the fire, but that the amount of applied water is cruicial for if re-ignition occurs or not. Thermal image cameras are generally not customized for use in underground constructions and further development of both equipment and education material is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens högskola, 2014
Series
Studies in Sustainable Technology / Forskningsrapport ; 2014:1
Keywords
Räddningsinsats, tunnel, brand
National Category
Engineering and Technology Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27774 (URN)978-91-7485-197-7 (ISBN)
Projects
Taktik och metodik vid brand under mark
Note

Denna version saknar bilagor, vilka kommer att tillföras i ett senare skede.

Available from: 2015-03-31 Created: 2015-03-31 Last updated: 2016-12-22Bibliographically approved
Kumm, M., Palmkvist, K. & Palm, A. (2014). Värmekamera vid brand under mark: Ett utbildningsmaterial för räddningstjänsten. Västerås: Mälardalens högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Värmekamera vid brand under mark: Ett utbildningsmaterial för räddningstjänsten
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten är framtagen inom ramen för det MSB-finansierade projektet TMU – Taktik och metodik vid brand under mark – och avsedd att användas som ett utbildningsmaterial för räddningstjänsten. Utbildningsmaterialet förutsätter viss grundläggande kunskap om användning av värmekamera vid brand, men kräver ingen tidigare erfarenhet av användning i undermarksmiljö. Rapporten innehåller såväl teoretiska delar som praktiska övningsexempel. Områden som behandlas är användning vid orientering och förflyttning, bedömning av brand, brandgasspridning och värmetransport samt riskbedömning för rökdykarens säkerhet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens högskola, 2014
Series
Studies in Sustainable Technology / Arbetsrapport
National Category
Engineering and Technology Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27781 (URN)978-91-7485-199-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-04-01 Created: 2015-04-01 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Kumm, M., Söderström, J. & Lönnermark, A. (2013). EPS insulated façade fires from a fire and rescue perspective. In: : . Paper presented at 1st International Seminar for Fire Safety of Facades, 14-15 nov 2013, Paris (France) (pp. Article Number: 05003).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EPS insulated façade fires from a fire and rescue perspective
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights the challenges the fire and rescue services can meet at façade fires involving EPS insulation during construction and use of a building. The EPS characteristics are discussed in respect to the fire and rescue operation and results from orientating fire tests performed at a fire and rescue services training and test field are presented. Types of evacuation solutions, involving the fire and rescue services, where façade fires can delay or completely rule out the possibilities for safe evacuation, are presented. The restrictions in the Swedish building codes regarding use of combustible insulation are analysed and reflections over the practical problems with following the instructions to keep an EPS insulated façade safe through the building’s whole lifespan are made. A number of occurred fires involving EPS are discussed and analysed from a fire and rescue perspective. Finally, recommendations are given for the fire and rescue services and future research fields are proposed.

Series
MATEC Web of Conferences, ISSN 2261-236X ; 9
Keywords
EPS, Façade fires, fire and rescue operation, fire spread, evacuation
National Category
Energy Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23148 (URN)10.1051/matecconf/20130905003 (DOI)000342382500033 ()2-s2.0-84903440503 (Scopus ID)978-2-7598-1100-7 (ISBN)
Conference
1st International Seminar for Fire Safety of Facades, 14-15 nov 2013, Paris (France)
Available from: 2013-12-04 Created: 2013-12-04 Last updated: 2014-10-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9598-0958

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