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Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2018). Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems? Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site. In: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018; Rome Marriott Park HotelRoma; Italy; 1 October 2018 through 3 October 2018; Category numberCFP18SYM-ART; Code 143143. (4), Article ID 8544433.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems? Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site
2018 (English)In: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings, 2018, no 4, article id 8544433Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automation is becoming prevalent in more and more industrial domains due to the potential benefits in cost reduction as well as the new approaches/solutions they enable. When machines are automated and utilized in system-of-systems, a thorough analysis of potential critical scenarios is necessary to derive appropriate design solutions that are safe as well. Hazard analysis methods like PHA, FTA or FMEA help to identify and follow up potential risks for the machine operators or bystanders and are well-established in the development process for safety critical machinery. However, safety certified individual machines can no way guarantee safety in the context of system-of-systems since their integration and interactions could bring forth newer hazards. Hence it is paramount to understand the application sce- narios of the system-of-systems and to apply a structured method to identify all potential hazards. In this paper, we 1) provide an overview of proposed hazard analysis methods for system-of- systems, 2) describe a case from construction equipment domain, and 3) apply the well-known System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA)f to our case. Our experiences during the case study and the analysis of results clearly point out certain inadequacies of STPA in the context of system-of-systems and underlines the need for the development of improved techniques for safety analysis of system-of-systems.

Keywords
Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, System- of-Systems, Autonomous Machines, STPA, Safety
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41719 (URN)10.1109/SysEng.2018.8544433 (DOI)000469921000047 ()2-s2.0-85059989681 (Scopus ID)
Conference
4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018; Rome Marriott Park HotelRoma; Italy; 1 October 2018 through 3 October 2018; Category numberCFP18SYM-ART; Code 143143
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2018). Defining a Method to Perform Effective Hazard Analysis for a Directed SoS Based on STPA. In: Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018: . Paper presented at Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 22 Nov 2018, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining a Method to Perform Effective Hazard Analysis for a Directed SoS Based on STPA
2018 (English)In: Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

—Automating a quarry site as developed within the electric site research project at Volvo Construction Equipment is an example of a directed system-of-systems (SoS). In our case automated machines and connected smart systems are utilized to improve the work-flow at the site. We currently work on conducting hazard and safety analyses on the SoS level. Performing a hazard analysis on a SoS has been a challenge in terms of complexity and work effort. We elaborate on the suitability of methods, discuss requirements on a feasible method, and propose a tailoring of the STPA method to leverage complexity.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45142 (URN)
Conference
Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 22 Nov 2018, Linköping, Sweden
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2017). Analyzing Hazards in System-of-Systems: Described in a Quarry Site Automation Context. In: 11th Annual IEEE International Systems conference SysCon: . Paper presented at 11th Annual IEEE International Systems conference SysCon17, 24 Apr 2017, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (pp. 544-551).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing Hazards in System-of-Systems: Described in a Quarry Site Automation Context
2017 (English)In: 11th Annual IEEE International Systems conference SysCon, 2017, p. 544-551Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Methods for analyzing hazards related to individual systems are well studied and established in industry today. When system-of-systems are set up to achieve new emergent behavior, hazards specifically caused by malfunctioning behavior of the complex interactions between the involved systems may not be revealed by just analyzing single system hazards. A structured process is required to reduce the complexity to enable identification of hazards when designing system-of-systems. In this paper we first present how hazards are identified and analyzed using hazard and risk assessment (HARA) methodology by the industry in the context of single systems. We describe systems-of-systems and provide a quarry site automation example from the construction equipment domain. We propose a new structured process for identifying potential hazards in systems-of-systems (HISoS), exemplified in the context of the provided example. Our approach helps to streamline the hazard analysis process in an efficient manner thus helping faster certification of system-of-systems.

Series
Annual IEEE Systems Conference
Keywords
Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, System-of-Systems, Autonomous Machines, Safety, Certification
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35503 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2017.7934783 (DOI)000403403400078 ()2-s2.0-85021435169 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4623-2 (ISBN)
Conference
11th Annual IEEE International Systems conference SysCon17, 24 Apr 2017, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsSafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S., Wallin, P., Fröberg, J. & Axelsson, J. (2016). Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site. In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016: . Paper presented at IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 12-16 Jun 2016, Kongsberg, Norway. , Article ID 7542936.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site
2016 (English)In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 2016, article id 7542936Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

Keywords
system-of-systems, autonomous vehicles, construction equipment, automotive systems
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32877 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2016.7542936 (DOI)000389776900050 ()2-s2.0-84985993616 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8727-9 (ISBN)978-1-4673-8726-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 12-16 Jun 2016, Kongsberg, Norway
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsSARPA - Safe and Robust Platform for Automated Vehicles
Available from: 2016-08-30 Created: 2016-08-24 Last updated: 2017-01-05Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S. & Fröberg, J. (2016). Dealing with uncertainty in early architectural decisions: Applications for autonomous construction vehicles. In: 4th International Commercial Vehicle Technology Symposium CVT2016: . Paper presented at 4th International Commercial Vehicle Technology Symposium CVT2016, 08 Mar 2016, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dealing with uncertainty in early architectural decisions: Applications for autonomous construction vehicles
2016 (English)In: 4th International Commercial Vehicle Technology Symposium CVT2016, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32813 (URN)
Conference
4th International Commercial Vehicle Technology Symposium CVT2016, 08 Mar 2016, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-08-24 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S. & Fröberg, J. (2016). Functional Safety in Product Lines - A Systematic Mapping Study. In: 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016: . Paper presented at 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016, 31 Aug 2016, Cyprus (pp. 313-322).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional Safety in Product Lines - A Systematic Mapping Study
2016 (English)In: 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016, 2016, p. 313-322Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software product line engineering is a widely used approach to plan and manage reuse of software. When safety critical products are developed, achieving functional safety standard compliance must be shown. The requirements stated in the functional safety standards also apply when safety critical products are developed in product lines. Managing functional safety in industrial product lines is challenging and work around solutions are applied in practice. The objective of this research is to collect and review reported research publications focusing on achieving safety in product lines and to identify gaps in todays research. We conduct a systematic mapping study of research publications reported until January 2016.We identify 39 research articles to be included in a list of primary studies and analyze how product lines are documented, which safety-related topics are covered and which evaluation method the studies apply. Generally, we find that the area of how to achieve functional safety in product lines needs more attention. Our study provides an overview on which topics have been discussed until now and which safety-related topics need more attention.

Keywords
Functional Safety, Product Line Engineering, Systematic Mapping Study
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33756 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2016.58 (DOI)000386649000045 ()2-s2.0-85020754628 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-2819-1 (ISBN)
Conference
42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016, 31 Aug 2016, Cyprus
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2017-06-29Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S., Axelsson, J. & Fröberg, J. (2015). An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles. In: 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015, 13 April 2015 through 16 April 2015 (pp. 582-588).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles
2015 (English)In: 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, p. 582-588Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It has been suggested in the literature to organize software in autonomous vehicles as hierarchical layers where each layer makes its own decisions based on its own world model. This paper presents two alternative designs for autonomous construction vehicles based on the layered framework 4D/RCS. As a first step, the typical use cases for these vehicles were defined. Then one use case for a hauler was traversed through the two alternatives to see how they supported safety, flexibility and the use of a product platform. We found that the coordination between bucket control and motion control must be done at a low level in the hierarchy and that the relationship between the vehicle actuators and the built-in autonomous system is important for how the software is organized. 

Keywords
automotive systems, autonomous vehicles, system architecture, systems engineering, systems-of-systems, Amphibious vehicles, Vehicles, Alternative designs, Autonomous constructions, Autonomous systems, Layered system architecture, System architectures, Systems of systems, Computer architecture
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29127 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2015.7116814 (DOI)000380537800088 ()2-s2.0-84941309612 (Scopus ID)9781479959273 (ISBN)
Conference
9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015, 13 April 2015 through 16 April 2015
Available from: 2015-09-24 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2015). Enhancing Model-Based Engineering of Product Lines by Adding Functional Safety. In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1487: . Paper presented at International Workshop on Modelling in Automotive Software Engineering MASE'15, 27 Sep 2015, Ottawa, Canada (pp. 53-62).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing Model-Based Engineering of Product Lines by Adding Functional Safety
2015 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1487, 2015, p. 53-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today's industrial product lines in the automotive and construction equipment domain face the challenge to show functional safety standard compliance and argue for the absence of failures for all derived product variants. The product line approaches are not su cient to support practitioners to trace safety-related characteristics through development. We aim to provide aid in creating a safety case for a certain con guration in a product line such that overall less e ort is necessary for each con guration. In this paper we 1) discuss the impact of functional safety on product line development, 2) propose a model-based approach to capture safety-related characteristics during concept phase for product lines and 3) analyze the usefulness of our proposal.

Series
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073 ; 1487
Keywords
Product Line Engineering, Functional Safety, Model-based, Systems Engineering, ISO 26262
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-30443 (URN)2-s2.0-84955292376 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Workshop on Modelling in Automotive Software Engineering MASE'15, 27 Sep 2015, Ottawa, Canada
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsSafeCer - Safety Certification of Software-Intensive Systems with Reusable Components
Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2016-03-04Bibliographically approved
Fröberg, J., Larsson, S., Dersten, S. & Nordlander, P.-A. -. (2014). Defining a method for identifying architectural candidates as part of engineering a system architecture. In: 8th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2014 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 8th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2014, 31 March 2014 through 3 April 2014, Ottawa, ON (pp. 266-271).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining a method for identifying architectural candidates as part of engineering a system architecture
2014 (English)In: 8th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2014 - Proceedings, 2014, p. 266-271Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Engineering system architectures for complex systems involves the tasks of analyzing architectural drivers, identifying architectural concerns, identifying valid architecture candidates, and evaluation of alternatives. One problem to overcome when architecting a system is the identification of valid of architectural candidates. We have developed a step-wise method for performing system architecture analysis and tested it on a sub-system in a project developing a drive system for heavy automotive applications. In this paper we present the complete method of nine steps for engineering an architecture and we elaborate in detail on the procedure to identify architectural candidates based on previously identified architectural drivers. We present a diagram depicting the proposed information model, its concepts and their relationships. In addition, the expectations on such a method as expressed by practitioners have been elicited, and we elaborate on the validity by examining how well the method indicate fulfillment. Our conclusion is that the proposed method does not fail to deliver on any of the needs and this gives an indication of usefulness. When identifying architectural candidates it is important to use proper criteria in the process. Our conclusion is that the practitioners should focus on candidates that affect the system at hand (within system boundaries), and on the candidates that address the architecturally significant system use. This is reflected in our method where we prescribe evaluation of the design candidates by validating that they solve only the right problem and by ensuring that they address the system at hand.

Series
8th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2014 - Proceedings
Keywords
architectural candidate, architecture analysis, architecture evaluation, system architecture
National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25595 (URN)10.1109/SysCon.2014.6819268 (DOI)000341949700040 ()2-s2.0-84902489588 (Scopus ID)9781479920877 (ISBN)
Conference
8th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2014, 31 March 2014 through 3 April 2014, Ottawa, ON
Available from: 2014-07-04 Created: 2014-07-04 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2014). Industrial Challenges to Achieve Functional Safety Compliance in Product Lines. In: 2014 40TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE SERIES ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS (SEAA 2014): . Paper presented at 40th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), AUG 27-29, 2014, Verona, ITALY (pp. 356-360).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Challenges to Achieve Functional Safety Compliance in Product Lines
2014 (English)In: 2014 40TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE SERIES ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS (SEAA 2014), 2014, p. 356-360Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Developing safety critical products demands a clear safety argumentation for each product in spite of whether it has been derived from a product line or not. The functional safety standards do not explain how to develop safety critical products in product lines, and the product line concept is lacking specific approaches to develop safety critical products. Nonetheless, product lines are well-established concepts even in companies developing safety critical products. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study interviewing 15 practitioners from 6 different companies. We identify typical challenges and approaches from industry and discuss their suitability. The challenges and approaches brought out by this study help us to identify and enhance applicable methods from the product line engineering domain that can meet the challenges in the safety critical domain as well.

Series
EUROMICRO Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1089-6503
Keywords
Functional Safety, Software Product Line Engineering, Qualitative Study, Safety-Critical Software
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28745 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2014.81 (DOI)000358153200054 ()2-s2.0-84916607620 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-5795-8 (ISBN)
Conference
40th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), AUG 27-29, 2014, Verona, ITALY
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-21 Last updated: 2016-03-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8891-033X

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