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Vitucci, C., Sundmark, D., Jagemar, M., Danielsson, J., Larsson, A. & Nolte, T. (2023). Fault Management Impacts on the Networking Systems Hardware Design. In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference): . Paper presented at 49th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2023, Singapore, 16 October through 19 October 2023. IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fault Management Impacts on the Networking Systems Hardware Design
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2023 (English)In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), IEEE Computer Society, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Processing capacity distribution has become widespread in the fog computing era. End-user services have multiplied, from consumer products to Industry 5.0. In this scenario, the services must have a very high-reliability level. But in a system with such displacement of hardware, the reliability of the service necessarily passes through the hardware design. Devices shall have a high quality, but they shall also efficiently support fault management. Hardware design must take into account all fault management functions and participate in creating a fault management policy to ensure that the ultimate goal of fault management is fulfilled, namely to increase a system's reliability. Efficiently and sustainably, both in the system's performance and the product's cost. This paper analyzes the hardware design techniques that efficiently contribute to the realization of fault management and, consequently, guarantee a high level of reliability and availability for the services offered to the end customer. We describe hardware requirements and how they affect the choice of devices in the hardware design of networking systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2023
Keywords
availability, fault management, hardware design, networking system, reliability, requirements, serviceability, Design, Failure analysis, Fog computing, Capacity distribution, End-users, Networking systems, Processing capacities, Requirement, System hardware, User services, Consumer products
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65181 (URN)10.1109/IECON51785.2023.10312698 (DOI)2-s2.0-85179525819 (Scopus ID)9798350331820 (ISBN)
Conference
49th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2023, Singapore, 16 October through 19 October 2023
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2023-12-21Bibliographically approved
Vitucci, C., Sundmark, D., Danielsson, J., Marcus, J., Larsson, A. & Nolte, T. (2023). Run Time Memory Error Recovery Process in Networking System. In: Int. Conf. Syst. Reliab. Saf., ICSRS: . Paper presented at 2023 7th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety, ICSRS 2023 (pp. 590-597). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Run Time Memory Error Recovery Process in Networking System
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2023 (English)In: Int. Conf. Syst. Reliab. Saf., ICSRS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 590-597Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

System memory errors have always been problematic; today, they cause more than forty percent of confirmed hardware errors in repair centers for both data centers and telecommunications network nodes. Therefore, it is somewhat expected that, in recent years, device manufacturers improved the hardware features to support hardware-assisted fault management implementation. For example, the new standard, DDR5, includes both data redundancy, the so-called Error Correcting Code (ECC), and physical redundancy, the post-package repair (PPR), as mandatory features. Production and repair centers mainly use physical redundancy to replace faulty memory rows. In contrast, field use still needs to be improved, mainly due to a need for integrated system solutions for network nodes. This paper aims to compensate for this shortcoming and presents a system solution for handling memory errors. It is a multi-technology proposition (mixed use of ECC and PPR) based on multi-layer (hardware, firmware, and software) error information exchange.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
Keywords
Error Correcting Code, Fault Management, Memory Faults, Post-Package Repair, Run Time Fault Recovering, Error correction, Failure analysis, Firmware, Repair, Hardware error, Memory error, Network node, Runtimes, System solution, Redundancy
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65954 (URN)10.1109/ICSRS59833.2023.10381346 (DOI)2-s2.0-85183463653 (Scopus ID)9798350306057 (ISBN)
Conference
2023 7th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety, ICSRS 2023
Available from: 2024-02-07 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-02-07Bibliographically approved
Vitucci, C., Sundmark, D., Jagemar, M., Danielsson, J., Larsson, A. & Nolte, T. (2022). A Reliability-oriented Faults Taxonomy and a Recovery-oriented Methodological Approach for Systems Resilience. In: Proceedings - 2022 IEEE 46th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference, COMPSAC 2022: . Paper presented at 2022 IEEE 46th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference, Online, 27/6-1/7 2022 (pp. 48-55). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Reliability-oriented Faults Taxonomy and a Recovery-oriented Methodological Approach for Systems Resilience
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2022 (English)In: Proceedings - 2022 IEEE 46th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference, COMPSAC 2022, IEEE, 2022, p. 48-55Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fault management is an important function that impacts the design of any digital system, from the simple kiosk in a shop to a complex 6G network. It is common to classify fault conditions into different taxonomies using terms like fault or error. Fault taxonomies are often suitable for managing fault detection, fault reporting, and fault localization but often neglect to support all different functions required by a fault management process. A correctly implemented fault management process must be able to distinguish between defects and faults, decide upon ap-propriate actions to recover the system to an ideal state, and avoid an error condition. Fault management is a multi-disciplinary process where recovery actions are deployed promptly by com-bined hardware, firmware, and software orchestration. The importance of fault management processes significantly increases with modern nanometer technologies, which suffer the risk of so-called soft errors, a corruption of a bit cells that can happen due to spurious disturbance, like cosmic radiation. Modern fault management implementations must support recovery actions for soft errors to ensure a steady system. This paper describes an extended fault classification model that emphasizes fault management and recovery actions. We aim to show how the reliability-based fault taxonomy definition is more suitable for the overall fault management process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Fault management, Fault taxonomy, Fault topology, Reliability
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59894 (URN)10.1109/COMPSAC54236.2022.00016 (DOI)000855983300008 ()2-s2.0-85136988154 (Scopus ID)9781665488105 (ISBN)
Conference
2022 IEEE 46th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference, Online, 27/6-1/7 2022
Note

Export Date: 8 September 2022; Conference Paper

Available from: 2022-09-08 Created: 2022-09-08 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Abbas, M., Ferrari, A., Shatnawi, A., Enoiu, E. P., Saadatmand, M. & Sundmark, D. (2022). Correction to: On the relationship between similar requirements and similar software A case study in the railway domain (Jan, 10.1007/s00766-021-00370-4, 2022) [Letter to the editor]. Requirements Engineering, 27(3), 399-399
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correction to: On the relationship between similar requirements and similar software A case study in the railway domain (Jan, 10.1007/s00766-021-00370-4, 2022)
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2022 (English)In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 399-399Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2022
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62975 (URN)10.1007/s00766-022-00376-6 (DOI)000761319400001 ()2-s2.0-85125270067 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-08 Created: 2023-06-08 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Vitucci, C., Sundmark, D., Jagemar, M., Danielsson, J., Larsson, A. & Nolte, T. (2022). Fault Management Framework and Multi-layer Recovery Methodology for Resilient System. In: 2022 6th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety, ICSRS 2022: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety, ICSRS 2022, Venice 23 November 2022 through 25 November 2022 (pp. 32-39). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fault Management Framework and Multi-layer Recovery Methodology for Resilient System
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2022 (English)In: 2022 6th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety, ICSRS 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 32-39Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fault management is a key function to guarantee the quality of the service. Research has done a lot to improve fault supervision, and investigation is ongoing in fault prediction, thanks to the potentials of artificial intelligence and machine learning. In this study, we propose a fault management framework that puts an emphasis on fault recovery: a framework developed on multi-layer function and a fault recovery methodology distributed over several technological layers. The basic principle of our proposal is that the system's complexity exposes it to a higher probability of temporary error. Newfound attention to the fault recovery phase is the key to keeping the service's quality high and saving maintenance costs by decreasing the return rate. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
Fault Management, Recovery methodology, Resilient system, Artificial intelligence, Artificial intelligence learning, Fault prediction, Fault recovery, Machine-learning, Management frameworks, Management IS, Multi-layers, Resilient systems, Failure analysis
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62284 (URN)10.1109/ICSRS56243.2022.10067849 (DOI)000981836500005 ()2-s2.0-85151674429 (Scopus ID)9781665470926 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety, ICSRS 2022, Venice 23 November 2022 through 25 November 2022
Available from: 2023-04-19 Created: 2023-04-19 Last updated: 2023-05-31Bibliographically approved
Thörn, J., Strandberg, P. E., Sundmark, D. & Afzal, W. (2022). Quality assuring the quality assurance tool: Applying safety-critical concepts to test framework development. PeerJ Computer Science, 8, e1131-e1131, Article ID e1131.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality assuring the quality assurance tool: Applying safety-critical concepts to test framework development
2022 (English)In: PeerJ Computer Science, E-ISSN 2376-5992, Vol. 8, p. e1131-e1131, article id e1131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The quality of embedded systems is demonstrated by the performed tests. The quality of such tests is often dependent on the quality of one or more testing tools, especially in automated testing. Test automation is also central to the success of agile development. It is thus critical to ensure the quality of testing tools. This work explores how industries with agile processes can learn from safety-critical system development with regards to the quality assurance of the test framework development. Safety-critical systems typically need adherence to safety standards that often suggests substantial upfront documentation, plans and a long-term perspective on several development aspects. In contrast, agile approaches focus on quick adaptation, evolving software and incremental deliveries. This article identifies several approaches of quality assurance of software development tools in functional safety development and agile development. The extracted approaches are further analyzed and processed into candidate solutions, i.e., principles and practices for the test framework quality assurance applicable in an industrial context. An industrial focus group with experienced practitioners further validated the candidate solutions through moderated group discussions. The two main contributions from this study are: (i) 48 approaches and 25 derived candidate solutions for test framework quality assurance in four categories (development, analysis, run-time measures, and validation and verification) with related insights, e.g., a test framework should be perceived as a tool-chain and not a single tool, (ii) the perceived value of the candidate solutions in industry as collected from the focus group. 

Keywords
Agile processes, Case study, Hybrid processes, Quality assurance, Safety-critical development, Test automation.
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61206 (URN)10.7717/peerj-cs.1131 (DOI)000965374500001 ()2-s2.0-85143867287 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-12 Created: 2022-12-12 Last updated: 2023-05-03Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, P. E., Afzal, W. & Sundmark, D. (2022). Software test results exploration and visualization with continuous integration and nightly testing. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 24(2), 261-285
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software test results exploration and visualization with continuous integration and nightly testing
2022 (English)In: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 261-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software testing is key for quality assurance of embedded systems. However, with increased development pace, the amount of test results data risks growing to a level where exploration and visualization of the results are unmanageable. This paper covers a tool, Tim, implemented at a company developing embedded systems, where software development occurs in parallel branches and nightly testing is partitioned over software branches, test systems and test cases. Tim aims to replace a previous solution with problems of scalability, requirements and technological flora. Tim was implemented with a reference group over several months. For validation, data were collected both from reference group meetings and logs from the usage of the tool. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The main contributions from the study include the implementation of eight views for test results exploration and visualization, the identification of four solutions patterns for these views (filtering, aggregation, previews and comparisons), as well as six challenges frequently discussed at reference group meetings (expectations, anomalies, navigation, integrations, hardware details and plots). Results are put in perspective with related work and future work is proposed, e.g., enhanced anomaly detection and integrations with more systems such as risk management, source code and requirements repositories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2022
Keywords
Software testing, Test results, Visual analytics
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-57571 (URN)10.1007/s10009-022-00647-1 (DOI)000757730900001 ()2-s2.0-85125759542 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-03-09 Created: 2022-03-09 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Fattouh, A., Bohlin, M. & Sundmark, D. (2021). A Real-Time Optimization Model for Production Planning in Quarry Sites. In: 2021 IEEE 8th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications, ICIEA 2021: . Paper presented at 8th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications, ICIEA 2021, 23 April 2021 through 26 April 2021 (pp. 32-36). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 9436725.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Real-Time Optimization Model for Production Planning in Quarry Sites
2021 (English)In: 2021 IEEE 8th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications, ICIEA 2021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021, p. 32-36, article id 9436725Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A quarry site is used to produce gravel with different granularities based on the customer's needs. The production process consists of different stages that need to be planned in order to achieve high productivity and low cost. During the operation of the quarry site, the operating parameters change, and the site productivity could be affected, therefore, a replanning of the production is needed. This paper presents a real-time optimization model for production planning in a quarry site. The optimization model consists of three modules, a productivity monitoring module, a simulation model, and an optimization algorithm. The productivity monitoring module produces the site productivity based on the current operating parameters of the quarry site. Once the site productivity reaches a specific threshold, the optimization algorithm is run on an updated simulation model to find the optimal values of the site parameters. The proposed real-time optimization model is applied to a real quarry site simulated on a high-fidelity simulator. The case study shows that the proposed optimization model can effectively improve the productivity of the quarry site and hence reduces the wastes and improve environmental sustainability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021
Keywords
autonomous haulers, discrete-event simulation (DES), genetic algorithm, optimization, production planning, productivity, quarry site, simulation, Planning, Production control, Sustainable development, Different granularities, Environmental sustainability, High-fidelity simulators, Operating parameters, Optimization algorithms, Optimization modeling, Real-time optimization, Quarries
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-55121 (URN)10.1109/ICIEA52957.2021.9436725 (DOI)2-s2.0-85107556655 (Scopus ID)9781665428958 (ISBN)
Conference
8th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications, ICIEA 2021, 23 April 2021 through 26 April 2021
Available from: 2021-06-24 Created: 2021-06-24 Last updated: 2023-09-13Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Causevic, A. & Sundmark, D. (2021). Automatic Property-based Testing of GraphQL APIs. In: Proceedings - 2021 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2021: . Paper presented at 2nd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2021, Virtual, Online, 20 May 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic Property-based Testing of GraphQL APIs
2021 (English)In: Proceedings - 2021 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2021, 2021Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, GraphQL has become a popular way to expose web APIs. With its raise of adoption in industry, the quality of GraphQL APIs must be also assessed, as with any part of a software system, and preferably in an automated manner. However, there is currently a lack of methods to automatically generate tests to exercise GraphQL APIs.

In this paper, we propose a method for automatically producing GraphQL queries to test GraphQL APIs. This is achieved using a property-based approach to create a generator for queries based on the GraphQL schema of the system under test.

Our evaluation on a real world software system shows that this approach is both effective, in terms of finding real bugs, and efficient, as a complete schema can be covered in seconds. In addition, we evaluate the fault finding capability of the method when seeding known faults. 73% of the seeded faults were found, with room for improvements with regards to domain-specific behavior, a common oracle challenge in automatic test generation.

National Category
Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-54267 (URN)10.1109/AST52587.2021.00009 (DOI)000695707800001 ()2-s2.0-85113790213 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2nd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automation of Software Test, AST 2021, Virtual, Online, 20 May 2021
Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Causevic, A., Sundmark, D. & Larsson, M. (2021). Model-based Automated Testing of Mobile Applications: An Industrial Case Study. In: Proceedings: 2021 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021. Paper presented at 14th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021, 12 April 2021 - 16 April 2021 (pp. 130-137).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based Automated Testing of Mobile Applications: An Industrial Case Study
2021 (English)In: Proceedings: 2021 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021, 2021, p. 130-137Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automatic testing of mobile applications has been a well-researched area in recent years. However, testing in industry is still a very manual practice, as research results have not been fully transferred and adopted. Considering mobile applications, manual testing has the additional burden of adequate testing posed by a large number of available devices and different configurations, as well as the maintenance and setup of such devices.

In this paper, we propose and evaluate the use of a model-based test generation approach, where generated tests are executed on a set of cloud-hosted real mobile devices. By using a model-based approach we generate dynamic, less brittle, and implementation simple test cases. The test execution on multiple real devices with different configurations increase the confidence in the implementation of the system under test. Our evaluation shows that the used approach produces a high coverage of the parts of the application related to user interactions. Nevertheless, the inclusion of external services in test generation is required in order to additionally increase the coverage of the complete application. Furthermore, we present the lessons learned while transferring and implementing this approach in an industrial context and applying it to the real product.

Keywords
Automated testing; Model-based testing; Test-case generation
National Category
Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-54265 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW52544.2021.00033 (DOI)000680833800020 ()2-s2.0-85108030099 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-4456-9 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021, 12 April 2021 - 16 April 2021
Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5032-2310

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