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Markovic, F., Carlson, J. & Dobrin, R. (2019). A Comparison of Partitioning Strategies for Fixed Points-based Limited Preemptive Scheduling. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 15(2), 1070-1081
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparison of Partitioning Strategies for Fixed Points-based Limited Preemptive Scheduling
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 1070-1081Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing industrial demand for handling complex functionalities has influenced the design of hardware architectures for time critical embedded systems, during the past decade. Multi-core systems facilitate the inclusion of many complex functionalities, while, at the same time, inducing cache related overheads, as well as adding partitioning complexity to the overall system schedulability. One of the efficient paradigms for controlling and reducing the cache related costs in real-time systems is Limited Preemptive Scheduling (LPS), with its particular instance Fixed Preemption Points Scheduling (LP-FPPS), that has been shown to outperform other alternatives as well as has been supported by and investigated in the automotive domain. With respect to the partitioning constraints, Partitioned Scheduling has been widely used to pre-runtime allocate tasks to specific cores, resulting in a predictable cache-related preemption delays estimations. In this paper we propose to integrate LP-FPPS and Partitioned Scheduling on fixed-priority multicore real-time systems in order to increase the overall system schedulability.We define a new joint approach for task partitioning and preemption point selection, that is based on the computation of the maximum blocking tolerance upon each allocation, thus being able to quantify the schedulability of the taskset on each processor. Furthermore, we investigate partitioning strategies based on different heuristics, i.e. First Fit Decreasing and Worst Fit Decreasing, and priority and density taskset orderings. The evaluation performed on randomly generated tasksets shows that in the general case, no single partitioning strategy fully dominates the others. However, the evaluation results reveal that certain partitioning strategies perform significantly better with respect to the overall schedulability for specific taskset characteristics. The results also reveal that the proposed partitioning strategies outperform Fully Preemptive and Non-Preemptive partitioned scheduling in terms of successful partitioning.

Keywords
Real-Time Systems, Partitioned Scheduling, Limited Preemptive Scheduling, Fixed Preemption Points
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39827 (URN)10.1109/TII.2018.2848879 (DOI)000458199000043 ()2-s2.0-85048607044 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Jongeling, R., Ciccozzi, F., Cicchetti, A. & Carlson, J. (2019). Lightweight Consistency Checking for Agile Model-Based Development in Practice. Journal of Object Technology, 18(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lightweight Consistency Checking for Agile Model-Based Development in Practice
2019 (English)In: Journal of Object Technology, ISSN 1660-1769, E-ISSN 1660-1769, Vol. 18, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In model-based development projects, models at different abstraction levels capture different aspects of a software system, e.g., specification or design. Inconsistencies between these models can cause inefficient and incorrect development. A tool-based framework to assist developers creating and maintaining models conforming to different languages (i.e. heterogeneous models) and consistency between them is not only important but also much needed in practice. In this work, we focus on assisting developers bringing about multi-view consistency in the context of agile model-based development, through frequent, lightweight consistency checks across views and between heterogeneous models. The checks are lightweight in the sense that they are easy to create, edit, use and maintain, and since they find inconsistencies but do not attempt to automatically resolve them. With respect to ease of use, we explicitly separate the two main concerns in defining consistency checks, being (i) which modelling elements across heterogeneous models should be consistent with each other and (ii) what constitutes consistency between them. We assess the feasibility and illustrate the potential usefulness of our consistency checking approach, from an industrial agile model-based development point-of-view, through a proof-of-concept implementation on a sample project leveraging models expressed in SysML and Simulink. A continuous integration pipeline hosts the initial definition and subsequent execution of consistency checks, it is also the place where the user can view results of consistency checks and reconfigure them.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44918 (URN)10.5381/jot.2019.18.2.a11 (DOI)000473336200012 ()
Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-07-18Bibliographically approved
Campeanu, G., Carlson, J. & Sentilles, S. (2018). Allocation Optimization for Component-based Embedded Systems with GPUs. In: 44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018: . Paper presented at 44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018, 29 Aug 2018, Prague, Czech Republic (pp. 101-110).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Allocation Optimization for Component-based Embedded Systems with GPUs
2018 (English)In: 44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018, 2018, p. 101-110Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Platforms equipped with GPU processors help mitigating the ever-increasing computational demands of modern embedded systems. Such systems can be specifically developed by using component-based development thanks to the concept of flexible components. Through this concept, a component can be transparently executed either on a CPU or a GPU. However, this flexibility complicates the allocation process because it adds additional complexity (i.e., due to the undecided CPU or GPU execution) and constraints to consider (i.e., CPUs and GPUs properties). In this work, we address this problem by providing an optimization model for component-based embedded systems executing on both CPU and GPU. The model addresses important optimization goals, characteristic to the embedded system domain, such as memory usage, energy usage and execution time. A novelty of this work is the formal description of the optimization model, which supports the usage of mixed integer nonlinear programming to compute optimal allocation schemes. To examine the feasibility of the proposed method, we apply the optimization model on a vision system constructed using the industrial Rubus component model.

Series
EUROMICRO Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1089-6503
Keywords
Optimization, component allocation, flexible component, embedded systems, CBD, component-based development, GPU
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39267 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2018.00026 (DOI)000450238900017 ()2-s2.0-85057201129 (Scopus ID)9781538673829 (ISBN)
Conference
44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018, 29 Aug 2018, Prague, Czech Republic
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Jongeling, R., Carlson, J., Cicchetti, A. & Ciccozzi, F. (2018). Continuous integration support in modeling tools. In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2018 MODELS Workshops: ModComp, MRT, OCL, FlexMDE, EXE, COMMitMDE, MDETools, GEMOC, MORSE, MDE4IoT, MDEbug, MoDeVVa, ME, MULTI, HuFaMo, AMMoRe, PAINS, MODELS-WS 2018, 14 October 2018 through 19 October 2018 (pp. 268-276). CEUR-WS, 2245
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous integration support in modeling tools
2018 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2245, p. 268-276Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Continuous Integration (CI) and Model-Based Development (MBD) have both been hailed as practices that improve the productivity of software development. Their combination has the potential to boost productivity even more. The goal of our research is to identify impediments to realizing this combination in industrial collaborative modeling practices. In this paper, we examine certain specific features of modeling tools that, due to their immaturity, may represent impediments to combining CI and MBD. To this end, we identify features of modeling tools that are relevant to enabling CI practices in MBD processes and we review modeling tools with respect to their level of support for each of these features.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CEUR-WS, 2018
Keywords
Belt drives, Industrial research, Productivity, Collaborative model, Continuous integrations, Model based development, Modeling tool, Software design
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42980 (URN)2-s2.0-85063092120 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 MODELS Workshops: ModComp, MRT, OCL, FlexMDE, EXE, COMMitMDE, MDETools, GEMOC, MORSE, MDE4IoT, MDEbug, MoDeVVa, ME, MULTI, HuFaMo, AMMoRe, PAINS, MODELS-WS 2018, 14 October 2018 through 19 October 2018
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Markovic, F., Carlson, J. & Dobrin, R. (2018). Improved Cache-Related Preemption Delay Estimation for Fixed Preemption Point Scheduling. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 10873: . Paper presented at 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies -Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018 , 18 Jun 2018, Lisbon, Portugal (pp. 87-101). , 10873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Cache-Related Preemption Delay Estimation for Fixed Preemption Point Scheduling
2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 10873, 2018, Vol. 10873, p. 87-101Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cache-Related Preemption Delays (CRPD) can significantly increase tasks’ execution time in preemptive real-time scheduling, potentially jeopardising the system schedulability. In order to reduce the cumulative CRPD, Limited Preemptive Scheduling (LPS) has emerged as a scheduling approach which limits the maximum number of preemptions encountered by real-time tasks, thus decreasing CRPD compared to fully preemptive scheduling. Furthermore, an instance of LPS, called Fixed Preemption Point Scheduling (LP-FPP), defines the exact points where the preemptions are permitted within a task, which enables a more precise CRPD estimation. The majority of the research, in the domain of LP-FPP, estimates CRPD with pessimistic upper bounds, without considering the possible sources of over-approximation: 1) accounting for the infeasible preemption combinations, and 2) accounting for the infeasible cache block reloads. In this paper, we improve the analysis by accounting for those two cases towards a more precise estimation of the CRPD upper bounds. The evaluation of the approach on synthetic tasksets reveals a significant reduction of the pessimism in the calculation of the CRPD upper bounds, compared to the existing approaches.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 10873
Keywords
Real-time systems, CRPD Analysis, WCET analysis, Limited Preemptive Scheduling, Fixed Preemption Point Approach
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38962 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-92432-8_6 (DOI)000465823000006 ()2-s2.0-85049013263 (Scopus ID)9783319924311 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies -Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018 , 18 Jun 2018, Lisbon, Portugal
Available from: 2018-05-08 Created: 2018-05-08 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Campeanu, G., Carlson, J. & Sentilles, S. (2018). Optimized Realization of Software Components with Flexible OpenCL Functionality. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, ENASE 2018, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, March 23-24, 2018: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE 2018, 23 Mar 2018, Madeira, Portugal (pp. 77-88).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimized Realization of Software Components with Flexible OpenCL Functionality
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, ENASE 2018, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, March 23-24, 2018, 2018, p. 77-88Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today, the newly available embedded boards with GPUs provide a solution to satisfy the ever-increasing requirements of modern embedded systems. Component-based development is a well-known paradigm used to develop embedded systems. However, this paradigm lacks GPU support to address the specifics of these new boards. This leads to components that typically have reduced reusability, poor maintainability and portability. One way to tackle the existing shortcomings is through flexible components, i.e., platform-agnostic components that, at design time, offer the possibility to be executed either on CPU or GPU. The current realization of flexible components, i.e., as regular components with functionality tailored for the selected hardware, introduces additional overheads such as component communication overhead. In order to tackle the introduced overheads, our solution groups connected flexible components under a flexible group that conceptually behaves as a component. We introduce an algorithm to identify the existing groups in a given component-based system and the generation rules that automatically realizes groups as regular components. To evaluate the feasibility of the new concept, the flexible group is implemented using a state-of-the-practice component model (i.e., Rubus) and examined through the vision system of an underwater robot.

Keywords
software component, flexible component, GPU, embedded system, CBD, component-based development, component model, OpenCL
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38648 (URN)10.5220/0006691500770088 (DOI)000450506700006 ()2-s2.0-85051969301 (Scopus ID)9789897583001 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering ENASE 2018, 23 Mar 2018, Madeira, Portugal
Projects
RALF3 - Software for Embedded High Performance Architectures
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Markovic, F., Carlson, J., Thekilakkattil, A., Dobrin, R. & Lisper, B. (2018). Probabilistic Response Time Analysis for Fixed Preemption Point Selection. In: 13th International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems SIES '18: . Paper presented at 13th International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems SIES '18, 06 Jun 2018, Graz, Austria. , Article ID 8442099.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probabilistic Response Time Analysis for Fixed Preemption Point Selection
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2018 (English)In: 13th International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems SIES '18, 2018, article id 8442099Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Preemption point selection has a significant impact on the schedulability of Real-Time tasks under the Fixed Preemption Point approach in Limited Preemptive Scheduling. Many real time systems can occasionally tolerate deadline misses as long as their occurrence does not exceed a specified probabilistic threshold. However, the existing approaches for preemption point selection are inappropriate for such systems, as they are mainly aiming to provide hard guarantees, considering worst case (upper bounded) preemption overheads. Additionally, the worst case preemption overheads typically occur with very low probabilities. In this paper, we propose a novel preemption point selection approach, and an associated probabilistic response time analysis, considering preemption related overheads modelled as probabilistic distributions. The method is suitable for providing solutions in systems that can occasionally tolerate deadline misses and can be interesting in the context of mixed criticality systems. Our method is able to find solutions, in terms of preemption point selections, in all cases where the existing approaches do. Moreover, it provides preemption point selections for additional tasksets that guarantees the overall taskset schedulability with a certain probability. The evaluation results show an improvement with respect to increasing the number of tasksets for which a preemption point selection is possible compared to existing, upper-bound based, selection approaches. The results show that the deadline miss probabilities of the tasksets and associated preemption point selections are considerably low.

Keywords
Real-time systems, Limited Preemptive Scheduling, Fixed Preemption Points Scheduling, Probabilistic Response Time Analysis, Preemption Point Selection
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39256 (URN)10.1109/SIES.2018.8442099 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053475648 (Scopus ID)9781538641552 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems SIES '18, 06 Jun 2018, Graz, Austria
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Sljivo, I., Gallina, B., Carlson, J., Hansson, H. & Puri, S. (2018). Tool-Supported Safety-Relevant Component Reuse: From Specification to Argumentation. In: 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018: . Paper presented at 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018 , 18 Jun 2018, Lisbon, Portugal (pp. 19-33). , 10873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tool-Supported Safety-Relevant Component Reuse: From Specification to Argumentation
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2018 (English)In: 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018, 2018, Vol. 10873, p. 19-33Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Contracts are envisaged to support compositional verification of a system as well as reuse and independent development of their implementations. But reuse of safety-relevant components in safety-critical systems needs to cover more than just the implementations. As many safety-relevant artefacts related to the component as possible should be reused together with the implementation to assist the integrator in assuring that the system they are developing is acceptably safe. Furthermore, the reused assurance information related to the contracts should be structured clearly to communicate the confidence in the component. In this work we present a tool-supported methodology for contract-driven assurance and reuse. We define the variability on the contract level in the scope of a trace-based approach to contract-based design. With awareness of the hierarchical nature of systems subject to compositional verification, we propose assurance patterns for arguing confidence in satisfaction of requirements and contracts. We present an implementation extending the AMASS platform to support automated instantiation of the proposed patterns, and evaluate its adequacy for assurance and reuse in a real-world case study.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40845 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-92432-8_2 (DOI)000465823000002 ()2-s2.0-85049018625 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-92431-1 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018 , 18 Jun 2018, Lisbon, Portugal
Projects
Future factories in the CloudSafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless CommunicationAMASS - Architecture-driven, Multi-concern and Seamless Assurance and Certification of Cyber-Physical Systems
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2018-09-12 Created: 2018-09-12 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Campeanu, G., Carlson, J. & Sentilles, S. (2017). Developing CPU-GPU Embedded Systems using Platform-Agnostic Components. In: Proceedings - 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2017: . Paper presented at 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'17, 30 Aug 2017, Vienna, Austria (pp. 176-180). , Article ID 8051345.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing CPU-GPU Embedded Systems using Platform-Agnostic Components
2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2017, 2017, p. 176-180, article id 8051345Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, there are many embedded systems with different architectures that have incorporated GPUs. However, it is difficult to develop CPU-GPU embedded systems using component-based development (CBD), since existing CBD ap- proaches have no support for GPU development. In this context, when targeting a particular CPU-GPU platform, the component developer is forced to construct hardware-specific components, which are problematic to (re-)use in different contexts. More- over, hard-coding specific GPU-usage characteristics (e.g., the number of utilized GPU threads) inside the component is not possible without making detailed assumptions about the system in which the component is used, which conflicts with separation- of-concerns CBD principle. The paper presents a solution to allow component-based development of platform-agnostic CPU-GPU embedded systems through: i) high-level API, ii) adapters, and iii) code template. The API abstracts the specifics of the different platforms, while the adapters externalize hardware-specific activities outside components. We also raise the decision regarding the GPU- usage specifications, from the component to the system level. Furthermore, to minimize the development effort, we provide a code template that contains ready-made code fragments required for GPU development. As a case study, we examine the feasibility of our solution applied on a component-based vision system of an underwater robot.

Keywords
embedded systems, GPU, CBD, component-based development, CPU-GPU embedded systems
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37012 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2017.20 (DOI)000426074600026 ()2-s2.0-85034422676 (Scopus ID)9781538621400 (ISBN)
Conference
43rd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'17, 30 Aug 2017, Vienna, Austria
Projects
RALF3 - Software for Embedded High Performance Architectures
Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Ciccozzi, F., Carlson, J., Pelliccione, P. & Tivoli, M. (2017). Editorial to theme issue on model-driven engineering of component-based software systems. Software and Systems Modeling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial to theme issue on model-driven engineering of component-based software systems
2017 (English)In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This theme issue aims at providing a forum for disseminating latest trends in the use and combination of model-driven engineering (MDE) and component-based software engineering (CBSE). One of the main aims of MDE is to increase productivity in the development of complex systems, while reducing the time to market. Regarding CBSE, one of the main goals is to deliver and then support the exploitation of reusable “off-the-shelf” software components to be incorporated into larger applications. An effective interplay of MDE and CBSE can bring benefits to both communities: on the one hand, the CBSE community would benefit from implementation and automation capabilities of MDE, and on the other hand, MDE would benefit from the foundational nature of CBSE. In total, we received 23 submissions to this theme issue, and each submission was reviewed by at least three reviewers. Thanks to the high quality of the submissions that we received, we could eventually accept six papers for publication.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35486 (URN)10.1007/s10270-017-0589-6 (DOI)000459934300002 ()2-s2.0-85015258886 (Scopus ID)
Projects
RALF3 - Software for Embedded High Performance ArchitecturesMOMENTUM: analysis of models towards compilation to predictable embedded real-time and safety-critical applications
Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8461-0230

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