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Håkansson Eklund, JakobORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7839-7245
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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Sundler, A. J., Höglander, J., Håkansson Eklund, J., Eide, H. & Holmström, I. K. (2017). Older persons' expressions of emotional cues and concerns during home care visits. Application of the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) in home care. Patient Education and Counseling, 100(2), 276-282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Older persons' expressions of emotional cues and concerns during home care visits. Application of the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) in home care
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2017 (English)In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 276-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study aims to a) explore to what extent older persons express emotional cues and concerns during home care visits; b) describe what cues and concerns these older persons expressed, and c) explore who initiated these cues and concerns. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. Data consisted of 188 audio recorded home care visits with older persons and registered nurses or nurse assistants, coded with the Verona coding definitions on emotional sequences (VR-CoDES). Results: Emotional expressions of cues and concerns occurred in 95 (51%) of the 188 recorded home care visits. Most frequent were implicit expressions of cues (n = 292) rather than explicit concerns (n = 24). Utterances with hints to hidden concerns (63,9%, n = 202) were most prevalent, followed by vague or unspecific expressions of emotional worries (15,8%, n = 50). Most of these were elicited by the nursing staff (63%, n = 200). Conclusion: Emotional needs expressed by the older persons receiving home care were mainly communicated implicitly. To be attentive to such vaguely expressed emotions may demand nursing staff to be sensitive and open. Practice implications: The VR-CoDES can be applied on audio recorded home care visits to analyse verbal and emotional communication, and may allow comparative research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2017
Keywords
Patient-provider communication, Concern, Cue, Home care, Nursing
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35123 (URN)10.1016/j.pec.2016.09.009 (DOI)000396886000013 ()27692492 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84999029525 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Höglander, J., Håkansson Eklund, J., Eide, H., Holmström, I. K. & Sundler, A. J. (2017). Registered Nurses' and nurse assistants' responses to older persons' expressions of emotional needs in home care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 73(12), 2923-2932
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Registered Nurses' and nurse assistants' responses to older persons' expressions of emotional needs in home care
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, no 12, p. 2923-2932Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: This study aims to explore nurse assistants' and Registered Nurses' responses to older persons' expressions of emotional needs during home care visits. Background: Communication is a central aspect of care. Older persons might express different emotions and needs during home care visits and such expressions can be challenging to respond to. Little is known about communication in home care or nursing staff responses to older persons' expressed emotional needs. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional design on nursing staff responses to older persons' negative emotions in home care. Methods: Collected data consisted of audio recordings of home care visits between older persons and nursing staff. Data were collected between August 2014-November 2015. The nursing staff responses to older persons' negative emotions in the communication were analysed with the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES). Results: The nursing staff most often give non-explicit responses, providing space for further disclosure of older persons' expressed negative emotions. Such responses were more frequent if the nursing staff had elicited the older persons' expressions of a negative emotion than if such expressions were elicited by the older persons themselves. Most frequent types of responses were backchannel, active invitation or information advice. Conclusion: The nursing staff responses were mainly non-explicit responses providing space for older persons to tell more about their experiences. Such responses can be discussed in terms of person-centred communication and is important for the comfort of emotional concerns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2017
Keywords
communication, emotions, home care, nursing, nursing staff, older persons, person-centred, responses, VR-CoDES
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37619 (URN)10.1111/jan.13356 (DOI)000418365200014 ()28586520 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021736037 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-05 Created: 2018-01-05 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved
Angantyr, M., Hansen, E. M., Eklund, J. & Malm, K. (2016). Reducing Sex Differences in Children’s Empathy for Animals Through a Training Intervention. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 30(3), 273-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing Sex Differences in Children’s Empathy for Animals Through a Training Intervention
2016 (English)In: Journal of Research in Childhood Education, ISSN 0256-8543, E-ISSN 2150-2641, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ABSTRACT: Humane education programs designed to increase children’s empathy for animals are becoming more common. A quasi-experiment tested the effectiveness of one such program by comparing 80 children who had completed the program with a control group of 57 children who had not. The children read a story involving an injured dog and rated the degree of empathic concern they felt for him. The results showed that girls tended to express more empathy for a dog than did boys, but this difference was not significant for children who underwent an animal empathy training program. This suggests that humane education programs can reduce sex differences by increasing boys’ empathy. 

Keywords
Animals, children, empathy, empathy training, gender differences
National Category
Psychology Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32381 (URN)10.1080/02568543.2016.1178198 (DOI)000391018000001 ()2-s2.0-84976343030 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-07-14 Created: 2016-07-14 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Eklund, J. (2013). Empati som känsla, förståelse och omsorg. Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, 90(2), 214-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empati som känsla, förståelse och omsorg
2013 (Swedish)In: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Vanligt förekommande komponenter i empatidefinitioner är bland annat känsla, förståelse och omsorg. Syftet med den här artikeln är att granska närvaron och frånvaron av dessa tre komponenter i nio inflytelserika empatiforskares empatidefinitioner. De nio är Rogers, Kohut, Hoffman, Eisenberg, Batson, Ickes, Davis, Decety och Singer. Granskningen visar att känsla finns med i åtta av definitionerna, förståelse i sju och omsorg i två. Det föreslås att framtida forskning bör försöka närma sig konsensus om en empatidefinition.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-18754 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-19 Created: 2013-04-19 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
Eklund, J. (2013). Samtida forskning om empati i psykologi. In: Henrik Bohlin & Jakob Eklund (Ed.), Empati: Teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv (pp. 133-150). Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samtida forskning om empati i psykologi
2013 (Swedish)In: Empati: Teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv / [ed] Henrik Bohlin & Jakob Eklund, Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 133-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Studentlitteratur, 2013
Keywords
Empati
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-22977 (URN)9789144085852 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-11-22 Created: 2013-11-22 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
Eklund, J. (2013). The nature of empathy. Philosophy in the contemporary world, 20(2), 28-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The nature of empathy
2013 (English)In: Philosophy in the contemporary world, ISSN 1077-1999, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the question of the nature of empathy, and attempts to develop a unified understanding of empathy, and thereby overcome the split perspective that is present in current literature. Based on previous definitions, I present my own account of empathy as feeling the other’s feeling. In an analysis of this new definition, empathy is characterized as feeling with the two constituents of understanding and care. Empathic understanding ensures that empathic care will lead to appropriate actions. A consequence of describing empathy as a feeling with the two constituents of understanding and care is that we are not forced to choose between the two main tracks in the empathy literature, empathy as understanding and empathy as care, but are instead at ease with both sides.

Keywords
Empati
National Category
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-20862 (URN)10.5840/pcw20132013 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
Eklund, J. (2013). Var är vi och vart ska vi ta vägen?. In: Henrik Bohlin & Jakob Eklund (Ed.), Empati: Teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv (pp. 281-295). Lund: Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Var är vi och vart ska vi ta vägen?
2013 (Swedish)In: Empati: Teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv / [ed] Henrik Bohlin & Jakob Eklund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 281-295Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013
Keywords
Empathy, Empati
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-22978 (URN)9789144085852 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-11-22 Created: 2013-11-22 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, T., Eklund, J. & Manthorpe, J. (2012). Promoting empathy in social care for older people. Working with Older People, 16(3), 101-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting empathy in social care for older people
2012 (English)In: Working with Older People, ISSN 1366-3666, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 101-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify connections between empathy and social care and to describe aspects of empathy in social care work, by bringing together research from different fields.

Design/methodology/approach – Five doctoral theses which discussed empathy among care workers of older people in Sweden were analysed as a group. The theses had been published over the period 1996 to 2007. Methodologically, the examination underpinned an interpretive content analysis.

Findings – The meta-analysis revealed conflicting feelings among care workers. Most experienced frustration when they were not able to express empathy in their working practices. Empathy was typically hindered by lack of time, care workers' own needs, and inflexible home care systems. However, a key element of the job-satisfaction reported by care workers appeared to be its empathic nature. Most care workers perceive encounters with older people as opportunities to respond empathically rather than indifferently. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Originality/value – The study is an overview that attempts to build a bridge across the two concepts, social care and empathy. The main strength of this analysis is its originality of approach undertaking a specific literature review and reflecting on a subject that has not previously been explored in the Swedish context.

Keywords
empathy, social care, elderly
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Care Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15279 (URN)10.1108/13663661211260781 (DOI)2-s2.0-84865789770 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-09-10 Created: 2012-09-10 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
Eklund, J., Loeb, C., Hansen, E. M. & Andersson-Wallin, A.-C. (2012). Who cares about others?: Empathic self-efficacy as an antecedent to prosocial behavior. Current Research in Social Psychology, 20(3), 31-41
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who cares about others?: Empathic self-efficacy as an antecedent to prosocial behavior
2012 (English)In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two studies tested associations among self-efficacy and prosocial behavior. In Study 1 wemeasured academic self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and self-reported prosocial behavior.The study showed that academic but not emotional self-efficacy was positively correlated withprosocial behavior. Study 1 included only self-oriented emotions, and the absence of empathicemotions may explain the lack of association between emotional self-efficacy and prosocialbehavior. In Study 2 we included empathic as well as self-oriented emotions, because previousresearch (C. D. Batson, 1991) has shown that empathic emotions generate altruistic helping. Asexpected, empathic self-efficacy had a positive association with prosocial behavior. Empathicself-efficacy appears to be an important, largely overlooked antecedent to prosocial behavior.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-16168 (URN)2-s2.0-84882240140 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-11-19 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Angantyr, M., Eklund, J. & Hansen, E. (2011). A comparison of empathy for humans and empathy for animals. Anthrozoos, 24(4), 369-377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison of empathy for humans and empathy for animals
2011 (English)In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 369-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although there is a substantial body of research on inter-human empathy and inter-animal empathy, there is a dearth of research comparing humans’ empathic reactions to humans and animals. To address this issue, three experiments were conducted in which participants read a scenario about a human or animal abuse victim in need of medical attention, and indicated the degree of empathy they felt on an emotional response scale. In Experiment 1, women felt significantly more empathy for animals than humans, whereas men tended to express more empathy for humans than for animals. In Experiment 2, adult women expressed the same degree of empathy for a child as for a puppy. Similarly, in Experiment 3, adult men and women expressed the same degree of empathy for a baby as for a puppy. Overall, results indicated that people feel at least as much empathy for animals as for humans. We suggest that an animal target elicits a great deal of empathy partly because it is perceived as not being responsible for having caused the need situation. Future research will show whether empathy felt for animals translates to prosocial behavior toward them as well.

Keywords
Empathy compassion animals dogs
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-20867 (URN)10.2752/175303711X13159027359764 (DOI)000297567300002 ()2-s2.0-80054739523 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-08-07 Created: 2013-08-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7839-7245

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