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Hosain, M. L., Domínguez, J. M., Bel Fdhila, R. & Kyprianidis, K. (2019). Smoothed particle hydrodynamics modeling of industrial processes involving heat transfer. Applied Energy, 252, Article ID 113441.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoothed particle hydrodynamics modeling of industrial processes involving heat transfer
2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 252, article id 113441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a mesh-free particle method that has been widely used over the past decade to model complex flows. The method has mainly been used to investigate problems related to hydrodynamics and maritime engineering, in which heat transfer does not play a key role. In this article, the heat-conduction equation is implemented in the open-source code DualSPHysics, based on the SPH technique, and applied to different study cases, including conduction in still water in a cavity, laminar water flow between two infinite parallel plates and tube bank heat exchanger. The thermal solutions obtained from SPH are benchmarked with the solutions from Finite Volume Method (FVM) and validated using available analytical solutions. DualSPHysics results are in good agreement with FVM and analytical models, and demonstrate the potential of the meshless approach for industrial applications involving heat transfer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
CFD analysis, DualSPHysics, Finite Volume Method, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Transient heat transfer
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44869 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113441 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067552454 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 11 July 2019; Article; CODEN: APEND; Correspondence Address: Hosain, M.L.; Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society & Engineering, P.O. Box 883, Sweden; email: md.lokman.hosain@mdh.se

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Hosain, M. L., Sand, U. & Bel Fdhila, R. (2018). Numerical Investigation of Liquid Sloshing in Carrier Ship Fuel Tanks. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 51(2), 583-588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical Investigation of Liquid Sloshing in Carrier Ship Fuel Tanks
2018 (English)In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 583-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Liquid sloshing inside a partially filled tank has a great impact on the fragile internal tank coating and also on the stability of carrier ships. Several studies highlighted the challenges encountered due to the sloshing and proposed anti-sloshing tank structures. However, sloshing of liquefied natural gas fuel in high pressure vessels during transportation still remain a challenge. In the present numerical study we consider a downscaled 2D geometry to investigate the sloshing. Non-dimensional numbers are used to downscale the geometry. The purpose is to understand the flow structures and validate the downscaling approach based on the similarity scale laws. In the present work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in one hand and the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method in the other hand, are used to simulate the downscaled model. The results from both methods are compared and validated using experimental data. A full scale model have also been simulated using SPH to verify the applicability of the scaling laws. The SPH model shows the capability to efficiently capture the sloshing phenomena. The VOF and SPH provide similar results in terms of flow dynamics, pressure and forces. The overall numerical results agree with the measurements and show that SPH can be an efficient tool to be used in modelling sloshing phenomena, compared to the RANS-VOF approach which is expensive in terms of CPU time. However, features like turbulence need to be further investigated. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39302 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.03.098 (DOI)000435693000100 ()2-s2.0-85046702547 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Hosain, M. L., Bel Fdhila, R. & Kyprianidis, K. (2018). Simulation and validation of flow and heat transfer in an infinite mini-channel using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China. Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and validation of flow and heat transfer in an infinite mini-channel using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
2018 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fluid flow and heat transfer in small channels have a wide range of engineering and medical applications. It has always been a topic of numerous theoretical, numerical and experimental studies. Several numerical methods have been used to simulate such flows. The most common approaches are the finite volume method (FVM) and the direct numerical simulation (DNS), which are numerically expensive to solve cases involving complex engineering problems. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the usability of the mesh-free particle based Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method to simulate convective heat transfer. To validate our approach, as a starting point, we choose to solve a simple well-established problem which is the laminar flow and heat transfer through an infinitely long mini-channel. The solution obtained from SPH method has been compared to the solution from FVM method and analytical solution with good accuracy. The results presented in this paper show that SPH is capable to solve laminar forced convection heat transfer, however, turbulent flow cases need to be considered to be able to utilize the SPH method for engineering thermal applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Poiseuille flow, mini-channel, CFD analysis, Heat transfer, SPH, FVM
National Category
Energy Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41275 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.533 (DOI)000471031706043 ()2-s2.0-85063895098 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Projects
MR-OMDO
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Hosain, M. L., Fdhila, R. B. & Rönnberg, K. (2017). Air-Gap Flow and Thermal Analysis of Rotating Machines using CFD. Paper presented at The 8th International Conference on Applied Energy – ICAE2016, Beijing, China, 8-11 October, 2016. Energy Procedia, 105, 5153-5159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air-Gap Flow and Thermal Analysis of Rotating Machines using CFD
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 5153-5159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal management of the rotating electrical machines is a very challenging area which needs appropriate solutions for each machine and operating condition. The heat is generated by the electromagnetic losses and the mechanical friction during the rotation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used in this study to predict and analyze the thermal performance of a rotating electrical machine where high speed rotation is coupled with small flow gaps. The investigation presented in this paper is based on a geometry used for model assessment and verification purposes. However, the approach outlined and the observations made are transferrable to other geometries. ANSYS Fluent has been used to perform CFD simulation where both the air velocity field and the temperature distribution are obtained. The results are qualitatively highly interesting to understand the thermal behavior within an electrical machine operations. The results show a periodic temperature distribution on the stator surface with similar periodic pattern for the heat transfer coefficient on the rotor surface. The simulated average heat transfer coefficient at the rotor surface is compared with the correlations from published literature with an overall good agreement.

Keywords
Air-Gap; Rotating machines; CFD simulation; thermal analysis; motor simulation; Taylor vortices
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Applied Mechanics Computational Mathematics
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33990 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1045 (DOI)000404967905040 ()2-s2.0-85020751735 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 8th International Conference on Applied Energy – ICAE2016, Beijing, China, 8-11 October, 2016
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-28 Last updated: 2018-07-25Bibliographically approved
Hosain, M. L. & Bel Fdhila, R. (2017). Air-Gap Heat Transfer in Rotating Electrical Machines: A Parametric Study. Energy Procedia, 142, 4176-4181
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air-Gap Heat Transfer in Rotating Electrical Machines: A Parametric Study
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 4176-4181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More than half of all electrical energy is consumed by motors and generators in an industrialized country. About 5-25% of this energy is lost and converted to heat. This heat produced by the losses has adverse effect on the lifetime and performance of a machine. A machine has to be operated at a given temperature to achieve maximum efficiency, therefore heat transfer study of machines is of special interest to rotating machines manufacturers. In this paper we investigate the heat transfer in the air-gap between the rotor and the stator of a simplified induction motor using Computational Fluid Dynamics. We consider three different air-gap widths and rotation speeds to explore the change in air-gap heat transfer when changing the air-gap width and the rotation speed. The simulated average heat transfer coefficients for all the models are in good agreement with the correlations from published literature. The Taylor-Couette vortical flow pattern is observed in the air-gap in our simulation results for the models with large air-gaps. The numerical results show that the presence of Taylor-Couette vortices in the air-gap enhance the heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in the rotation speed and decreases with the decrease in the air-gap width. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38716 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.343 (DOI)000452901604055 ()2-s2.0-85041542591 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-01 Created: 2018-03-01 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Hosain, M. L., Bel Fdhila, R. & Kristian, R. (2017). Taylor-Couette flow and transient heat transfer inside the annulus air-gap of rotating electrical machines. Applied Energy, 207, 624-633
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taylor-Couette flow and transient heat transfer inside the annulus air-gap of rotating electrical machines
2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, p. 624-633Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Losses in an electric motor amount to between 4–24% of the total electrical power, and are converted to heat. The maximum hot spot temperature is one of the design constraints of thermal and electrical performance. Several studies have explored flow and thermal characteristics inside the air-gap between two concentric rotating cylinders such as those found in electric motors, however the transient flow and thermal effects still remain a challenge. This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the thermal behaviour of a machine rotating at the kind of speed usually encountered in motors. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes model together with the realizable k-ε turbulence model are used to perform transient simulations. Velocity profiles and temperature distribution inside the air-gap are obtained and validated. The transient flow features and their impact on thermal performance are discussed. The numerical results show turbulent Taylor vortices inside the air-gap that lead to a periodic temperature distribution. When compared to correlations from published literature, the simulated average heat transfer coefficient at the rotor surface shows overall good agreement. The transient effects introduce local impacts like oscillations to the Taylor-Couette vortices. These flow oscillations result in oscillations of the hotspots. However, this transient oscillatory behaviour does not show any additional impact on the global thermal performance.

Keywords
Air-gap, Rotating electrical machines, CFD simulation, Thermal analysis, Motor simulation, Taylor vortices
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37476 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.011 (DOI)000417229300055 ()2-s2.0-85024104684 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Hosain, M. L., Bel Fdhila, R. & Daneryd, A. (2016). Heat transfer by liquid jets impinging on a hot flat surface. Applied Energy, 164(15), 934-943
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat transfer by liquid jets impinging on a hot flat surface
2016 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 164, no 15, p. 934-943Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Runout Table (ROT) cooling is one of the most important factors for controlling quality of hot rolled steel. ROT cooling uses large quantities of water to cool the steel plate. Optimizing heat transfer in the ROT would reduce the amount of water used, which will lower the amount of energy needed for pumping, filtering, storage and use of water. Optimization will therefore result in a direct energy saving as well as increasing the product quality.

This study investigates heat transfer by turbulent water jets impinging on a hot flat steel plate at temperatures below the boiling point in order to understand convection heat transfer phenomena. This is an important stage that precedes the boiling and addresses the applicability of the heat transfer correlations available in the literature.

A single axisymmetric jet and a pair of interacting jets are simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) model under steady and transient conditions and the kɛ turbulence model are used in both 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations. We investigate the influence of the water flow rate on the jet cooling characteristics and develop a correlation for the radial position of the maximum Nusselt number based on numerical results.

Two sets of boundary conditions – constant temperature and constant heat flux – are applied at the surface of the steel plate and evaluated. The single jet numerical results compare favourably with published data based on measurements and analytical models. The thermal performance of a two-jet system was found to be no better than a single jet because the jets were too far from each other to generate any additional thermal interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Liquid jets; Impingement; CFD; Heat transfer; Flat surface; Interaction
National Category
Applied Mechanics Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29812 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.08.038 (DOI)000372379700082 ()2-s2.0-84954368825 (Scopus ID)
Projects
MR-OMDO ((Model Reduction for Online Multi-Disciplinary Optimization))
Available from: 2015-11-29 Created: 2015-11-29 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Hosain, M. L. & Fdhila, R. B. (2015). Literature Review of accelerated CFD Simulation Methods towards Online Application. Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES. Energy Procedia, 75, 3307-3314
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Literature Review of accelerated CFD Simulation Methods towards Online Application
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 3307-3314Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Engineering advanced methods for example Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are heavily used to solve, design and model complex industrial applications. They provide high accuracy however, the simulation time is too long and this limit its generalized use dramatically as for control purposes. CFD tools and methods are often used to analyze the energy distribution and management in different industrial processes like hot rolling industries, furnaces and boilers as well as a number of areas where mixing and thermal management are of importance. Huge amounts of energy are often fed into such processes. A small amount of optimization can provide a very large energy saving. It is now an urgent need to have a tool like real-time CFD to analyze, control and optimize on-line various industrial processes. This tool or method can contribute to build efficient and sustainable energy systems. The scope of this work is to find alternative simulation techniques that can also address industrial applications and provide solutions within a decent accuracy and resolution. In this paper we provide a literature review of those methods that can be categorized as mesh based, mesh free and hybrid that are capable of providing appropriate results in some key areas of interest. As a next step one of these methods will be implemented and coupled to CFD simulation of cooling impinging jets used to control the heat transfer and temperature behavior of a hot flat surface in a hot rolling process where thermal energy and cooling water are used with excess. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29341 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.714 (DOI)000361030005054 ()2-s2.0-84947093405 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES
Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, J., Thorin, E., Bel Fdhila, R. & Dahlquist, E. (2014). Effects of mixing on the result of anaerobic digestion: Review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40, 1030-1047
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of mixing on the result of anaerobic digestion: Review
2014 (English)In: Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, Vol. 40, p. 1030-1047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mixing in an anaerobic digester keeps the solids in suspension and homogenizes the incoming feed with the active microbial community of the digester content. Experimental investigations have shown that the mixing mode and mixing intensity have direct effects on the biogas yield even though there are conflicting views on mixing design. This review analyzes and presents different methods to evaluate the mixing in a digester (chemical and radioactive tracers and laboratory analysis), tools for digester design (computational fluid dynamics and kinetic modeling) and current research on the effects of mixing on the anaerobic digestion process. Empirical data on experiments comparing different mixing regimes have been reviewed from both a technical and microbial standpoint with a focus both on full scale digesters and in lab-scale evaluations. Lower mixing intensity or uneven mixing in the anaerobic digestion process can be beneficial during the startup phase to allow for methanogenic biomass growth and alleviate process instability problems. Intermittent mixing has been shown to be able to yield a similar gas production as continuous mixing but with the possibility to reduce the maintenance and energy demands of the process. Problems often experienced with experimental design include the effect of mixing on the solids retention time, and measurement of steady state gas production because of startup instabilities. Further research should be aimed at studying the effects of mixing on a chemical and microbial level and on the different stages of anaerobic digestion (hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis). The focus should be on the effects of mixing on a multiple stage digestion process and also finding new methods to evaluate the effects of mixing in the one stage digestion process rather than evaluating a wider range of mixing modes, intensities and substrates.

Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, CFD modeling, Continuously stirred tank reactor, Intermittently mixed, Mixing, Tracer
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25908 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.182 (DOI)000345473600081 ()2-s2.0-84906834389 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2015-01-19Bibliographically approved
Hosain, M. L., Bel Fdhila, R. & Daneryd, A. (2014). Multi-Jet Impingement Cooling of a Hot Flat Steel Plate. Paper presented at The 6th International Conference on Applied Energy – ICAE2014, Taipei 30 May – 2 June 2014. Energy Procedia, 61, 1835-1839
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-Jet Impingement Cooling of a Hot Flat Steel Plate
2014 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1835-1839Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the most important steps to control the quality in steel hot rolling is the Runout Table (ROT) Cooling. In this investigation, the heat transfer of water jets impinging on a hot flat steel plate was studied under temperatures below the boiling point to understand the convection heat transfer phenomena which is a major step preceding the boiling. Single axisymmetric jet and a pair of interacting jets are simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The RANS model under steady and transient conditions as well as the k-Ɛ turbulence model are used for both 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations. The water flow rate influence on the jets cooling characteristics is investigated.Two sets of boundary conditions, constant temperature and constant heat flux were applied at the surface of the steel plate and evaluated. The single jet numerical results are successfully compared to published data based on measurements and analytical models. The two jets thermal performance was found to be unaffected because the jets are too far from each other to generate any additional thermal interaction.

Keywords
Liquid Jets, Impingement, CFD, Heat Transfer, Flat surface, Interaction
National Category
Applied Mechanics Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26831 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2014.12.224 (DOI)000375936100408 ()2-s2.0-84922377034 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 6th International Conference on Applied Energy – ICAE2014, Taipei 30 May – 2 June 2014
Available from: 2014-12-05 Created: 2014-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8849-7661

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