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Punnekkat, SasikumarORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5269-3900
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Publications (10 of 120) Show all publications
Joshi, S. L. L., Deshpande, B. & Punnekkat, S. (2019). Experimental analysis of dependency factors of Software Product Reliability using SonarQube. In: IWSM Mensura IWSM-MENSURA2019: . Paper presented at IWSM Mensura IWSM-MENSURA2019, 07 Oct 2019, Harlem, Netherlands. Harlem, Netherlands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental analysis of dependency factors of Software Product Reliability using SonarQube
2019 (English)In: IWSM Mensura IWSM-MENSURA2019, Harlem, Netherlands, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Reliability is one of the key attributes of software product quality. Capability for accurate prediction of reliability will allow software product industry to have better market acceptability and enable wider usage in high integrity or critical applications domains for their product. Software Reliability analysis is performed at various stages during software product development life cycle. Popular software reliability prediction models proposed in literature are targeted to specific phases of life cycle with certain identified parameters. However, these models seem to have certain limitations in predicting software reliability in an accurate and acceptable manner to the industry. A recent industrial survey performed by the authors identified several factors which practitioners perceived to have influence in predicting reliability. Subsequently we have conducted an elaborate set of experiments in a systematic way to validate the perceived influence of identified parameters. Reliability of software products from diverse domains and technologies were evaluated using SonarQube. In this paper, we present our experimental evaluation approach, experimental set up and results from the study. Through these controlled experiments and analysis of data, we have identified and further short-listed the probable influential factors affecting software reliability. This paper further sets direction to our future research on modeling software product reliability as a function of the identified influential factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Harlem, Netherlands: , 2019
Keywords
Software Reliability, SonarQube, Empirical study, Experimental evaluation, Correlation, Software Product Attributes, Reliability prediction
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45143 (URN)
Conference
IWSM Mensura IWSM-MENSURA2019, 07 Oct 2019, Harlem, Netherlands
Projects
Future factories in the Cloud
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Mehmed, A., Antlanger, M., Steiner, W. & Punnekkat, S. (2019). Forecast Horizon for Automated Safety Actions in Automated Driving Systems. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 11698: . Paper presented at 38th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security SAFECOMP 2019, 10 Sep 2019, Turku, Finland (pp. 113-127).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forecast Horizon for Automated Safety Actions in Automated Driving Systems
2019 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 11698, 2019, p. 113-127Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future Automated Driving Systems (ADS) will ultimately take over all driving responsibilities from the driver. This will as well include the overall safety goal of avoiding hazards on the road by exe- cuting automated safety actions (ASA). It is the purpose of this paper to address the general properties of the ASA. One property in particu- lar interest is the forecast horizon that defines how early in advance a hazard has to be identified in order to ensure the execution of an ASA. For the estimation of the forecast horizon, we study the fault-tolerant time interval concept defined by the ISO 26262 and extend it for the use case of fail-operational ADS. We then perform a thorough study on all parameters contributing to the forecast horizon, assign exemplary values for each parameter for a running example, and formalize our work by a set of equations. The set of equations are then applied to two specific driving scenarios, and based on the running example values, the fore- cast horizon is estimated. We conclude our work with a summary of the estimated forecast horizon for each of the specific driving scenarios at different road conditions and the recommended road speed limits.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 11698
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43944 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-26601-1_8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072871485 (Scopus ID)9783030266004 (ISBN)
Conference
38th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security SAFECOMP 2019, 10 Sep 2019, Turku, Finland
Projects
RetNet - The European Industrial Doctorate Programme on Future Real-Time Networks
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
Dobrin, R., Desai, N. & Punnekkat, S. (2019). On Fault-tolerant Scheduling of Time Sensitive Networks. In: 4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems CERTS 2019: . Paper presented at 4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems CERTS 2019, 09 Jul 2019, Stuttgart, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Fault-tolerant Scheduling of Time Sensitive Networks
2019 (English)In: 4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems CERTS 2019, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Time sensitive networking (TSN) is gaining attention in industrial automation networks since it brings essential real-time capabilities at the data link layer. Though it can provide deterministic latency under error free conditions, TSN still largely depends on space redundancy for improved reliability.In many scenarios, time redundancy could be an adequate as well as cost efficient alternative. Time redundancy in turn will have implications due to the need for over-provisions needed for timeliness guarantees. In this paper, we discuss how to embed fault-tolerance capability into TSN schedules and describe our approach using a simple example.

Keywords
Time sensitive networks(TSN), Fault-tolerant schedule, Time redundancy
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43945 (URN)
Conference
4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems CERTS 2019, 09 Jul 2019, Stuttgart, Germany
Projects
FORA - Fog Computing for Robotics and Industrial Automation
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Desai, N. & Punnekkat, S. (2019). Safety of fog-based industrial automation systems. In: IoT-Fog 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT: . Paper presented at 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, IoT-Fog 2019, 15 April 2019 (pp. 6-10). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety of fog-based industrial automation systems
2019 (English)In: IoT-Fog 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 6-10Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Fog computing paradigm employing multiple technologies is expected to play a key role in a multitude of industrial applications by fulfilling futuristic requirements such as flexible and enhanced computing, storage, and networking capability closer to the field devices. While performance aspects of the Fog paradigm has been the central focus of researchers, safety aspects have not received enough attention so far. In this paper, we identify various safety challenges related to the Fog paradigm and provide specific safety design aspects as a step towards enhancing safety in industrial automation scenarios. We contextualize these ideas by invoking a distributed mobile robots use-case that can benefit from the use of the Fog paradigm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2019
Keywords
Fog computing, Industrial automation, Mobile robots, Safety, Accident prevention, Automation, Fog, Internet of things, Computing paradigm, Contextualize, Industrial automation system, Multiple technology, Performance aspects, Safety aspects, Safety design
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43889 (URN)10.1145/3313150.3313218 (DOI)000473542200002 ()2-s2.0-85066021611 (Scopus ID)9781450366984 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, IoT-Fog 2019, 15 April 2019
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Desai, N. & Punnekkat, S. (2019). Safety-oriented flexible design of Autonomous Mobile Robot systems. In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering ISSE 2019: . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering ISSE 2019, 01 Oct 2019, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Edinburgh, United Kingdom (5)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety-oriented flexible design of Autonomous Mobile Robot systems
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering ISSE 2019, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2019, no 5Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Current industrial automation applications particularly within the smart manufacturing domain require mobility, flexibility of deployment, and scalability. In addition to these, it is important to mitigate the risk of safety hazards. In this paper we discuss a flexible, granular, and software-based system design that aims to improve both security and safety of an autonomous mobile robot (AMR) based industrial automation systems. The decentralised control architecture ensures that safety-critical functions are distributed throughout the network. To this end, we first define system-level safety requirements and identify procedures required to satisfy safety-critical functions such as emergency-stop (E-Stop). We then explain the benefits provided by the proposed system architecture vis-a-vis its resilience towards potential safety hazards.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edinburgh, United Kingdom: , 2019
Keywords
Safety, Fog computing, mobile robots, industrialautomation
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45944 (URN)
Conference
2019 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering ISSE 2019, 01 Oct 2019, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Projects
FORA - Fog Computing for Robotics and Industrial Automation
Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Mehmed, A., Steiner, W., Antlanger, M. & Punnekkat, S. (2019). System Architecture and Application-Specific Verification Method for Fault-Tolerant Automated Driving System. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium workshops IEEE IVS 2019 WS: . Paper presented at IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium workshops IEEE IVS 2019 WS, 09 - 12 Jun 2019, Paris, France (pp. 39-44).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Architecture and Application-Specific Verification Method for Fault-Tolerant Automated Driving System
2019 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium workshops IEEE IVS 2019 WS, 2019, p. 39-44Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automated vehicles come with promises for higher comfort and safety compared to the standard human-driven vehicles. Various demonstrator vehicles with fully automated driving capabilities have been already presented with success. Yet, there is a large number of technical challenges to be solved until the safety levels comply with those required from safety standards, and most importantly with those for public acceptance. In this paper, we introduce the technical challenges resulting from the need for fault-tolerant capabilities of automated vehicles with no fallback-ready drivers. We then propose a concrete solution to these challenges. This includes a fault-tolerant architecture for automated driving systems. Also, the safety co-pilot, that is a safety mechanism that ensures the coordinated operation of two or more redundant ADS, by means of novel application-specific verification methods. We conclude our work with experimental proof of concept results of the proposed solution.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43943 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2019.8813824 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072287264 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium workshops IEEE IVS 2019 WS, 09 - 12 Jun 2019, Paris, France
Projects
RetNet - The European Industrial Doctorate Programme on Future Real-Time Networks
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2018). Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems? Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site. In: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018; Rome Marriott Park HotelRoma; Italy; 1 October 2018 through 3 October 2018; Category numberCFP18SYM-ART; Code 143143. (4), Article ID 8544433.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems? Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site
2018 (English)In: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings, 2018, no 4, article id 8544433Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automation is becoming prevalent in more and more industrial domains due to the potential benefits in cost reduction as well as the new approaches/solutions they enable. When machines are automated and utilized in system-of-systems, a thorough analysis of potential critical scenarios is necessary to derive appropriate design solutions that are safe as well. Hazard analysis methods like PHA, FTA or FMEA help to identify and follow up potential risks for the machine operators or bystanders and are well-established in the development process for safety critical machinery. However, safety certified individual machines can no way guarantee safety in the context of system-of-systems since their integration and interactions could bring forth newer hazards. Hence it is paramount to understand the application sce- narios of the system-of-systems and to apply a structured method to identify all potential hazards. In this paper, we 1) provide an overview of proposed hazard analysis methods for system-of- systems, 2) describe a case from construction equipment domain, and 3) apply the well-known System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA)f to our case. Our experiences during the case study and the analysis of results clearly point out certain inadequacies of STPA in the context of system-of-systems and underlines the need for the development of improved techniques for safety analysis of system-of-systems.

Keywords
Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, System- of-Systems, Autonomous Machines, STPA, Safety
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41719 (URN)10.1109/SysEng.2018.8544433 (DOI)000469921000047 ()2-s2.0-85059989681 (Scopus ID)
Conference
4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018; Rome Marriott Park HotelRoma; Italy; 1 October 2018 through 3 October 2018; Category numberCFP18SYM-ART; Code 143143
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2018). Defining a Method to Perform Effective Hazard Analysis for a Directed SoS Based on STPA. In: Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018: . Paper presented at Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 22 Nov 2018, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining a Method to Perform Effective Hazard Analysis for a Directed SoS Based on STPA
2018 (English)In: Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

—Automating a quarry site as developed within the electric site research project at Volvo Construction Equipment is an example of a directed system-of-systems (SoS). In our case automated machines and connected smart systems are utilized to improve the work-flow at the site. We currently work on conducting hazard and safety analyses on the SoS level. Performing a hazard analysis on a SoS has been a challenge in terms of complexity and work effort. We elaborate on the suitability of methods, discuss requirements on a feasible method, and propose a tailoring of the STPA method to leverage complexity.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45142 (URN)
Conference
Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 22 Nov 2018, Linköping, Sweden
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Davis, R., Thekilakkattil, A., Gettings, O., Dobrin, R., Punnekkat, S. & Chen, J.-J. (2018). Exact Speedup Factors and Sub-Optimality for Non-Preemptive Scheduling. Real-time systems, 208-246
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exact Speedup Factors and Sub-Optimality for Non-Preemptive Scheduling
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2018 (English)In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, p. 208-246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fixed priority scheduling is used in many real-time systems; however, both preemptive and non-preemptive variants (FP-P and FP-NP) are known to be sub-optimal when compared to an optimal uniprocessor scheduling algorithm such as preemptive Earliest Deadline First (EDF-P). In this paper, we investigate the sub-optimality of xed priority non-preemptive scheduling. Speci cally, we derive the exact processor speed-up factor required to guarantee the feasibility under FP-NP (i.e. schedulablability assuming an optimal priority assignment) of any task set that is feasible under EDF-P. As a consequence of this work, we also derive a lower bound on the sub-optimality of non-preemptive EDF (EDF-NP). As this lower bound matches a recently published upper bound for the same quantity, it closes the exact sub-optimality for EDF-NP. It is known that neither preemptive, nor non-preemptive xed priority scheduling dominates the other, in other words, there are task sets that are feasible on a processor of unit speed under FP-P that are not feasible under FP-NP and vice-versa. Hence comparing these two algorithms, there are non-trivial speedup factors in both directions. We derive the exact speed-up factor required to guarantee the FP-NP feasibility of any FP-P feasible task set. Further, we derive the exact speed-up factor required to guarantee FP-P feasibility of any constrained-deadline FP-NP feasible task set.

Keywords
real-time uniprocessor resource augmentation speedupfactor sub-optimality non-preemptive scheduling preemptive scheduling EDF xed priority
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37337 (URN)10.1007/s11241-017-9294-3 (DOI)000419955500007 ()2-s2.0-85032335776 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
Jaradat, O. & Punnekkat, S. (2018). Using Safety Contracts to Verify Design Assumptions During Runtime. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 10873: . Paper presented at 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Ada-Europe 2018, 18-22 June 2018, Lisbon, Portugal (pp. 3-18).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Safety Contracts to Verify Design Assumptions During Runtime
2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 10873, 2018, p. 3-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A safety case comprises evidence and argument justifying how each item of evidence supports claims about safety assurance. Supporting claims by untrustworthy or inappropriate evidence can lead to a false assurance regarding the safe performance of a system. Having sufficient confidence in safety evidence is essential to avoid any unanticipated surprise during operational phase. Sometimes, however, it is impractical to wait for high quality evidence from a system’s operational life, where developers have no choice but to rely on evidence with some uncertainty (e.g., using a generic failure rate measure from a handbook to support a claim about the reliability of a component). Runtime monitoring can reveal insightful information, which can help to verify whether the preliminary confidence was over- or underestimated. In this paper, we propose a technique which uses runtime monitoring in a novel way to detect the divergence between the failure rates (which were used in the safety analyses) and the observed failure rates in the operational life. The technique utilises safety contracts to provide prescriptive data for what should be monitored, and what parts of the safety argument should be revisited to maintain system safety when a divergence is detected. We demonstrate the technique in the context of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs).

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 10873
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38957 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-92432-8_1 (DOI)000465823000001 ()2-s2.0-85049008966 (Scopus ID)9783319924311 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Ada-Europe 2018, 18-22 June 2018, Lisbon, Portugal
Projects
SafeCOP - Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 692529 Vinnova
Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5269-3900

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