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Publications (10 of 268) Show all publications
Salman, C. A., Struhar, V., Papadopoulos, A., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2019). Fogification of industrial robotic systems: Research challenges. In: IoT-Fog 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT: . Paper presented at 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, IoT-Fog 2019, 15 April 2019 (pp. 41-45). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fogification of industrial robotic systems: Research challenges
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2019 (English)In: IoT-Fog 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 41-45Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To meet the demands of future automation systems, the architecture of traditional control systems such as the industrial robotic systems needs to evolve and new architectural paradigms need to be investigated. While cloud-based platforms provide services such as computational resources on demand, they do not address the requirements of real-time performance expected by control applications. Fog computing is a promising new architectural paradigm that complements the cloud-based platform by addressing its limitations. In this paper, we analyse the existing robot system architecture and propose a fog-based solution for industrial robotic systems that addresses the needs of future automation systems. We also propose the use of Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) services for real-time communication and OPC-UA for information modelling within this architecture. Additionally, we discuss the main research challenges associated with the proposed architecture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2019
Keywords
Automation, Computer architecture, Fog, Industrial research, Internet of things, Robotics, Cloud based platforms, Computational resources, Control applications, Industrial robotic systems, Information modelling, Proposed architectures, Real time performance, Real-time communication, Fog computing
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43888 (URN)10.1145/3313150.3313225 (DOI)000473542200009 ()2-s2.0-85066045184 (Scopus ID)9781450366984 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, IoT-Fog 2019, 15 April 2019
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Lisper, B., Sandström, K. & Nolte, T. (2018). A resource efficient framework to run automotive embedded software on multi-core ECUs. Journal of Systems and Software, 64-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A resource efficient framework to run automotive embedded software on multi-core ECUs
2018 (Swedish)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, p. 64-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing functionality and complexity of automotive applications requires not only the use of more powerful hardware, e.g., multi-core processors, but also efficient methods and tools to support design decisions. Component-based software engineering proved to be a promising solution for managing software complexity and allowing for reuse. However, there are several challenges inherent in the intersection of resource efficiency and predictability of multi-core processors when it comes to running component-based embedded software. In this paper, we present a software design framework addressing these challenges. The framework includes both mapping of software components onto executable tasks, and the partitioning of the generated task set onto the cores of a multi-core processor. This paper aims at enhancing resource efficiency by optimizing the software design with respect to: 1) the inter-software-components communication cost, 2) the cost of synchronization among dependent transactions of software components, and 3) the interaction of software components with the basic software services. An engine management system, one of the most complex automotive sub-systems, is considered as a use case, and the experimental results show a reduction of up to 11.2% total CPU usage on aquad-core processor, in comparison with the common framework in the literature. 

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36448 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.01.040 (DOI)000428493000005 ()2-s2.0-85041901291 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-18 Created: 2017-09-18 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Dehnavi, S., Kargahi, M., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2018). A Time-Predictable Fog-Integrated Cloud Framework: One Step Forward in the Deployment of a Smart Factory. In: CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18: . Paper presented at CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 09 May 2018, Tehran, Iran (pp. 54-62).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Time-Predictable Fog-Integrated Cloud Framework: One Step Forward in the Deployment of a Smart Factory
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2018 (English)In: CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 2018, p. 54-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights cloud computing as one of the principal building blocks of a smart factory, providing a huge data storage space and a highly scalable computational capacity. The cloud computing system used in a smart factory should be time-predictable to be able to satisfy hard real-time requirements of various applications existing in manufacturing systems. Interleaving an intermediate computing layer-called fog-between the factory and the cloud data center is a promising solution to deal with latency requirements of hard real-time applications. In this paper, a time-predictable cloud framework is proposed which is able to satisfy end-to-end latency requirements in a smart factory. To propose such an industrial cloud framework, we not only use existing real-time technologies such as Industrial Ethernet and the Real-time XEN hypervisor, but we also discuss unaddressed challenges. Among the unaddressed challenges, the partitioning of a given workload between the fog and the cloud is targeted. Addressing the partitioning problem not only provides a resource provisioning mechanism, but it also gives us a prominent design decision specifying how much computing resource is required to develop the fog platform, and how large should the minimum communication bandwidth be between the fog and the cloud data center.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38638 (URN)10.1109/RTEST.2018.8397079 (DOI)000467076600008 ()2-s2.0-85050457708 (Scopus ID)9781538614754 (ISBN)
Conference
CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 09 May 2018, Tehran, Iran
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore Systems
Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Vahabi, M., Fotouhi, H., Nolte, T. & Fahringer, T. (2018). An efficient placement of sinks and SDN controller nodes for optimizing the design cost of industrial IoT systems. Software, practice & experience, 48(10), 1893-1919
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An efficient placement of sinks and SDN controller nodes for optimizing the design cost of industrial IoT systems
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2018 (English)In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1893-1919Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, a growing trend has emerged toward using Internet of Things (IoT) in the context of industrial systems, which is referred to as industrial IoT. To deal with the time-critical requirements of industrial applications, it is necessary to consider reliability and timeliness during the design of an industrial IoT system. Through the separation of the control plane and the data plane, software-defined networking provides control units (controllers) coexisting with sink nodes, efficiently coping with network dynamics during run-time. It is of paramount importance to select a proper number of these devices (i.e., software-defined networking controllers and sink nodes) and locate them wisely in a network to reduce deployment cost. In this paper, we optimize the type and location of sinks and controllers in the network, subject to reliability and timeliness as the prominent performance requirements in time-critical IoT systems through ensuring that each sensor node is covered by a certain number of sinks and controllers. We propose PACSA-MSCP, an algorithm hybridizing a parallel version of the max-min ant system with simulated annealing for multiple-sink/controller placement. We evaluate the proposed algorithm through extensive experiments. The performance is compared against several well-known methods, and it is shown that our approach outperforms those methods by lowering the total deployment cost by up to 19%. Moreover, the deviation from the optimal solution achieved by CPLEX is shown to be less than 2.7%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40919 (URN)10.1002/spe.2593 (DOI)000443587100009 ()2-s2.0-85052673487 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Dehnavi, S., Nolte, T., Kargahi, M. & Fahringer, T. (2018). An energy-aware resource provisioning scheme for real-time applications in a cloud data center. Software, practice & experience, 48(10), 1734-1757
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An energy-aware resource provisioning scheme for real-time applications in a cloud data center
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2018 (English)In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1734-1757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on a pay-as-you-go model, cloud computing provides the possibility of hosting pervasive applications from both academic and business domains. However, data centers hosting cloud applications consume huge amounts of electrical energy, contributing to high operational costs and large carbon footprints to the environment. Energy-aware resource provisioning is an effective solution to diminish the energy consumption of cloud data centers. Recently, a growing trend has emerged, where cloud technology is used to run periodic real-time applications such as multimedia, telecommunication, video gaming, and industrial applications. In order for a real-time application to be able to use cloud services, cloud providers have to be able to provide timing guarantees. In this paper, we introduce an energy-aware resource provisioning mechanism for cloud data centers, which are capable of serving real-time periodic tasks following the Software as a Service model. The proposed method is compared against an energy-aware version of the RT-OpenStack. RT-OpenStack is a recently proposed approach to provide a time-predictable version of OpenStack. The experimental results manifest that our proposed resource provisioning method outperforms energy-aware version of the RT-OpenStack by 16.01%, 25.45%, and 25.45% in terms of energy consumption, number of used servers, and average utilization of used servers, respectively. Moreover, from the scalability perspective, the preference of the proposed method for large-scale data centers is more considerable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40933 (URN)10.1002/spe.2592 (DOI)000443587100002 ()2-s2.0-85047733608 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
Becker, M., Mubeen, S., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2018). Extending Automotive Legacy Systems with Existing End-to-End Timing Constraints. In: 14th International Conference on Information Technology : New Generations ITNG'17: . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Information Technology : New Generations ITNG'17, 10-12 Apr 2017, Las Vegas, United States (pp. 597-605). , 558
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending Automotive Legacy Systems with Existing End-to-End Timing Constraints
2018 (English)In: 14th International Conference on Information Technology : New Generations ITNG'17, 2018, Vol. 558, p. 597-605Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Developing automotive software is becoming in- creasingly challenging due to continuous increase in its size and complexity. The development challenge is amplified when the industrial requirements dictate extensions to the legacy (previously developed) automotive software while requiring to meet the existing timing requirements. To cope with these challenges, sufficient techniques and tooling to support the modeling and timing analysis of such systems at earlier development phases is needed. Within this context, we focus on the extension of software component chains in the software architectures of automotive legacy systems. Selecting the sampling frequency, i.e. period, for newly added software components is crucial to meet the timing requirements of the chains. The challenges in selecting periods are identified. It is further shown how to automatically assign periods to software components, such that the end-to-end timing requirements are met while the runtime overhead is minimized. An industrial case study is presented that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed solution to industrial problems.

Keywords
AutomotiveDesign LevelAbstractionTiming AnalysisEnd-to-EndData AgeRealTime
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35440 (URN)2-s2.0-85048328854 (Scopus ID)9783319549774 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Information Technology : New Generations ITNG'17, 10-12 Apr 2017, Las Vegas, United States
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore SystemsDPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and ControlPreView: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software on Multi-core
Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2018-06-21Bibliographically approved
Becker, M., Mubeen, S., Dasari, D., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2018). Scheduling Multi-Rate Real-Time Applications on Clustered Many-Core Architectures with Memory Constraints. In: 2018 23RD ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC): . Paper presented at 23rd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference ASP-DAC'18, 22 Jan 2018, Jeju Island, South Korea (pp. 560-567).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scheduling Multi-Rate Real-Time Applications on Clustered Many-Core Architectures with Memory Constraints
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2018 (English)In: 2018 23RD ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC), 2018, p. 560-567Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Access to shared memory is one of the main chal- lenges for many-core processors. One group of scheduling strategies for such platforms focuses on the division of tasks’ access to shared memory and code execution. This allows to orchestrate the access to shared local and off-chip memory in a way such that access contention between different compute cores is avoided by design. In this work, an execution framework is introduced that leverages local memory by statically allocating a subset of tasks to cores. This reduces the access times to shared memory, as off-chip memory access is avoided, and in turn improves the schedulability of such systems. A Constrained Programming (CP) formulation is presented to selects the statically allocated tasks and generates the complete system schedule. Evaluations show that the pro- posed approach yields an up to 21% higher schedulability ratio than related work, and a case study demonstrates its applicability to industrial problems.

Keywords
Many-CoreContention-Free ExecutionReal-TimeMemory Constraints
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37064 (URN)000426987100108 ()2-s2.0-85045349833 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-0602-1 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference ASP-DAC'18, 22 Jan 2018, Jeju Island, South Korea
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore SystemsDPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and ControlPreView: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software on Multi-core
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2018-04-26Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Fotouhi, H., Nolte, T. & Rahmani, R. (2017). A Cost Efficient Design of a Multi-Sink Multi-ControllerWSN in a Smart Factory. In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 19th Intl Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2017, 2017 IEEE 15th Intl Conference on Smart City, SmartCity 2017 and 2017 IEEE 3rd Intl Conference on Data Science and Systems, DSS 2017: . Paper presented at 19th IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 15th IEEE Intl Conference on Smart City, and 3rd IEEE Intl Conference on Data Science and Systems, HPCC/SmartCity/DSS 2017; Bangkok; Thailand; 18 December 2017 through 20 December 2017 (pp. 594-602).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Cost Efficient Design of a Multi-Sink Multi-ControllerWSN in a Smart Factory
2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 19th Intl Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2017, 2017 IEEE 15th Intl Conference on Smart City, SmartCity 2017 and 2017 IEEE 3rd Intl Conference on Data Science and Systems, DSS 2017, 2017, p. 594-602Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things (IoT), one of the key elementsof a smart factory, is dubbed as Industrial IoT (IIoT). Softwaredefined networking is a technique that benefits network managementin IIoT applications by providing network reconfigurability.In this way, controllers are integrated within the networkto advertise routing rules dynamically based on network andlink changes. We consider controllers within Wireless SensorNetworks (WSNs) for IIoT applications in such a way to providereliability and timeliness. Network reliability is addressed for thecase of node failure by considering multiple sinks and multiplecontrollers. Real-time requirements are implicitly applied bylimiting the number of hops (maximum path-length) betweensensors and sinks/controllers, and by confining the maximumworkload on each sink/controller. Deployment planning of sinksshould ensure that when a sink or controller fails, the networkis still connected. In this paper, we target the challenge ofplacement of multiple sinks and controllers, while ensuring thateach sensor node is covered by multiple sinks (k sinks) andmultiple controllers (k' controllers). We evaluate the proposedalgorithm using the benchmark GRASP-MSP through extensiveexperiments, and show that our approach outperforms thebenchmark by lowering the total deployment cost by up to24%. The reduction of the total deployment cost is fulfilled notonly as the result of decreasing the number of required sinksand controllers but also selecting cost-effective sinks/controllersamong all candidate sinks/controllers.

Keywords
IoT
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36445 (URN)10.1109/HPCC-SmartCity-DSS.2017.77 (DOI)000450718900077 ()2-s2.0-85047446022 (Scopus ID)9781538625880 (ISBN)
Conference
19th IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 15th IEEE Intl Conference on Smart City, and 3rd IEEE Intl Conference on Data Science and Systems, HPCC/SmartCity/DSS 2017; Bangkok; Thailand; 18 December 2017 through 20 December 2017
Available from: 2017-09-18 Created: 2017-09-18 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Becker, M., Mubeen, S., Dasari, D., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2017). A Generic Framework Facilitating Early Analysis of Data Propagation Delays in Multi-Rate Systems. In: The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17: . Paper presented at The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 16 Aug 2017, Hsinchu, Taiwan. , Article ID 8046323.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Generic Framework Facilitating Early Analysis of Data Propagation Delays in Multi-Rate Systems
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2017 (English)In: The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 2017, article id 8046323Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A majority of multi-rate real-time systems are constrained by a multitude of timing requirements, in addition to the traditional deadlines on well-studied response times. This means, the timing predictability of these systems not only depends on the schedulability of certain task sets but also on the timely propagation of data through the chains of tasks from sensors to actuators. In the automotive industry, four different timing constraints corresponding to various data propagation delays are commonly specified on the systems. This paper identifies and addresses the source of pessimism as well as optimism in the calculations for one such delay, namely the reaction delay, in the state-of-the-art analysis that is already implemented in several industrial tools. Furthermore, a generic framework is proposed to compute all the four end-to-end data propagation delays, complying with the established delay semantics, in a scheduler and hardware-agnostic manner. This allows analysis of the system models already at early development phases, where limited system information is present. The paper further introduces mechanisms to generate job-level dependencies, a partial ordering of jobs, which need to be satisfied by any execution platform in order to meet the data propagation timing requirements. The job-level dependencies are first added to all task chains of the system and then reduced to its minimum required set such that the job order is not affected. Moreover, a necessary schedulability test is provided, allowing for varying the number of CPUs. The experimental evaluations demonstrate the tightness in the reaction delay with the proposed framework as compared to the existing state-of-the-art and practice solutions.

Keywords
Data Propagation Delay, End-to-End Delay, Real-Time, Automotive
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37034 (URN)10.1109/RTCSA.2017.8046323 (DOI)000425851000021 ()2-s2.0-85032739692 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 16 Aug 2017, Hsinchu, Taiwan
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore SystemsDPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and ControlPreView: Developing Predictable Vehicle Software on Multi-core
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Liu, M., Becker, M., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2017). A Tighter Recursive Calculus to Compute the Worst-Case Traversal Time of Real-Time Traffic over NoCs. In: 2017 22ND ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC): . Paper presented at 22nd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference ASP-DAC'17, 16-19 Jan 2017, Chiba / Tokyo, Japan (pp. 275-282). , Article ID 7858332.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Tighter Recursive Calculus to Compute the Worst-Case Traversal Time of Real-Time Traffic over NoCs
2017 (English)In: 2017 22ND ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC), 2017, p. 275-282, article id 7858332Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Network-on-Chip (NoC) is a communication subsystem which has been widely utilized in many-core processors and system-on-chips in general. In this paper, we focus on a Round-Robin Arbitration (RRA) based wormhole-switched NoC which is a common architecture used in most of the existing implementations. In order to execute real-time applications on such a NoC based platform, a number of given real-time requirements need to be fulfilled. One of the most typical requirements is schedulability which refers to if real-time packets can be delivered within the given time durations. Timing analysis is a common tool to verify the schedulability of a real-time system. Unfortunately, the existing timing analyses of RRA-based NoCs either provide too pessimistic estimates which results in overly allocated resources, or require a large amount of processing which limits the applicability in reality. Therefore, in this paper, we present an improved timing analysis, aiming to provide more accurate estimates along with acceptable computation time. From the evaluation results, we can clearly observe the improvement achieved by the proposed timing analysis.

Series
Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference Proceedings, ISSN 2153-6961
Keywords
Network-on-ChipRound-RobinAnalysisWorst-Case Traversal Time
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33807 (URN)10.1109/ASPDAC.2017.7858332 (DOI)000403609600059 ()2-s2.0-85015318423 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-1558-0 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference ASP-DAC'17, 16-19 Jan 2017, Chiba / Tokyo, Japan
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore SystemsDPAC - Dependable Platforms for Autonomous systems and Control
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6132-7945

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