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Sandström, KristianORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3375-6766
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Publications (10 of 24) Show all publications
Faragardi, H. R., Lisper, B., Sandström, K. & Nolte, T. (2018). A resource efficient framework to run automotive embedded software on multi-core ECUs. Journal of Systems and Software, 64-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A resource efficient framework to run automotive embedded software on multi-core ECUs
2018 (Swedish)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, p. 64-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing functionality and complexity of automotive applications requires not only the use of more powerful hardware, e.g., multi-core processors, but also efficient methods and tools to support design decisions. Component-based software engineering proved to be a promising solution for managing software complexity and allowing for reuse. However, there are several challenges inherent in the intersection of resource efficiency and predictability of multi-core processors when it comes to running component-based embedded software. In this paper, we present a software design framework addressing these challenges. The framework includes both mapping of software components onto executable tasks, and the partitioning of the generated task set onto the cores of a multi-core processor. This paper aims at enhancing resource efficiency by optimizing the software design with respect to: 1) the inter-software-components communication cost, 2) the cost of synchronization among dependent transactions of software components, and 3) the interaction of software components with the basic software services. An engine management system, one of the most complex automotive sub-systems, is considered as a use case, and the experimental results show a reduction of up to 11.2% total CPU usage on aquad-core processor, in comparison with the common framework in the literature. 

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36448 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.01.040 (DOI)000428493000005 ()2-s2.0-85041901291 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-18 Created: 2017-09-18 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Yamamoto, Y. & Sandström, K. (2018). Karakuri IoT - the concept and the result of pre-study. In: Proceedings Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIII ICMR2018: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden (pp. 311-316).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Karakuri IoT - the concept and the result of pre-study
2018 (English)In: Proceedings Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIII ICMR2018, 2018, p. 311-316Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although scholars and practitioners are actively discussing the potential benefits of introducing Internet of Thing (IoT) in production, IoT is still as an expensive solution in terms of investment and high technological threshold. Manufacturing companies seek a simpler and lower-cost approach to adopting IoT technologies in production, allowing companies to take advantage of the knowledge and innovation capabilities of people close to shop floor operations. This paper introduces the concept of “Karakuri IoT” – simple and low-cost IoT-aided improvements driven by the people close to shop floor operations. A pre-study is conducted to examine the feasibility of the concept. This paper presents the results of the pre-study.

Keywords
Kaizen, IoT, Production, Karakuri
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40887 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-902-7-311 (DOI)000462212700050 ()2-s2.0-85057398915 (Scopus ID)978-1-61499-901-0 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden
Projects
Karakuri IoTKarakuri IoT step 2
Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Liu, M., Chiru, C., Behnam, M., Sandström, K. & Nolte, T. (2016). On providing real-time guarantees in cloud-based platforms. In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems, WFCS 2016, 3 May 2016 through 6 May 2016. , Article ID Article number 7496534.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On providing real-time guarantees in cloud-based platforms
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2016 (English)In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, article id Article number 7496534Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cloud technologies are gaining more and more attentions in recent years. Cloud-based service brings benefits in cost, energy efficiency, sharing of resources, increased flexibility, adaptability and evolvability. However, there are a number of associated challenges that need to be properly addressed before applying the cloud technique generally in industries. Providing efficient and predictable computation and communication is one of the important challenges, since many industrial systems (e.g. a control system) have specific timing requirements. Our current work thus focuses on guaranteeing the predictability of a cloud-based service. Virtualization, as one of the key technologies in Cloud Computing, is used to abstract details of resources away from end-services which simplifies the resource sharing. It thus improves the resource utilization and saves budget for end-users. In this preliminary work, we have implemented a distributed system using virtualization techniques (including virtual machines and virtual switches). Additionally, we generate a number of experiments to investigate how QoS policies can help us to provide real-time communication guarantees. 

Keywords
Budget control, Energy efficiency, Systems analysis, Cloud based platforms, Distributed systems, Increased flexibility, Real time guarantees, Real-time communication, Resource utilizations, Timing requirements, Virtualization Techniques, Virtual reality
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32522 (URN)10.1109/WFCS.2016.7496534 (DOI)000382857300040 ()2-s2.0-84982798199 (Scopus ID)9781509023394 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems, WFCS 2016, 3 May 2016 through 6 May 2016
Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-18 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Becker, M., Sandström, K., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2015). A Many-Core based Execution Framework for IEC 61131-3. In: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society: . Paper presented at 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015; Pacifico YokohamaYokohama; Japan; 9 November 2015 through 12 November 2015; Category numberCFP15IEC-ART; Code 119153 (pp. 4525-4530). , Article ID 7392805.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Many-Core based Execution Framework for IEC 61131-3
2015 (English)In: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2015, p. 4525-4530, article id 7392805Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Programmable logic controllers are widely used for the control of automationsystems. The standard IEC 61131-3 defines the execution model as well as theprogramming languages for such systems. Nowadays, actuators and sensorsconnect to the programmable logic controller via automation buses. While suchbuses, as well as the sensors and actuators, become more and more powerful, ashift away from the current distributed operation of automation systems, closeto the field level, becomes possible. Instead, execution of complex controlfunctions can be relocated to more powerful hardware, and technologies. Thispaper presents an execution framework for IEC 61131-3, based on a many-coreprocessors. The presented execution model exploits the characteristics of theIEC 61131-3 applications as well as the characteristics of the many-core processor,yielding a predictable execution. We present the platform architectureand an algorithm to allocate a number of IEC 61131-3 conform applications.Experimental as well as simulation based evaluation is provided.

Keywords
many-core, IEC 61131-3
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29285 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2015.7392805 (DOI)000382950704084 ()2-s2.0-84973097911 (Scopus ID)
Conference
41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015; Pacifico YokohamaYokohama; Japan; 9 November 2015 through 12 November 2015; Category numberCFP15IEC-ART; Code 119153
Projects
PREMISE
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 16286
Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
Nikolaidis, P., Didic, A., Mubeen, S., Pei-Breivold, H., Sandström, K. & Behnam, M. (2015). Applying Mitigation Mechanisms for Cloud-based Controllers in Industrial IoT Applications. In: Internet-of-Things Symposium IoT Symposium'15: . Paper presented at Internet-of-Things Symposium IoT Symposium'15, 4-9 Oct 2015, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying Mitigation Mechanisms for Cloud-based Controllers in Industrial IoT Applications
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2015 (English)In: Internet-of-Things Symposium IoT Symposium'15, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are two notable concepts that have evolved significantly over the past few years. In the automation industry, clouds are often used for monitoring vast amounts of data generated on the shop floor. Whereas, IoT is used to simplify the end devices and their connections to the rest of the system. In this paper we investigate the interplay of these two concepts and their use in the control applications in the automation industry. We develop a prototype in the industrial setup to explore the use of IoT devices that communicate with a cloud-based controller. Using the prototype, we perform a number of experiments to investigate the consequences of having a cloud server between the end device and the controller. Within this context we consider arbitrary jitter and delays, i.e., they can be smaller, equal or greater than the sampling periods. Moreover, we apply mitigation mechanisms to deal with the delays and jitter that are caused by the local and wide area networks (LAN and WAN).

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29635 (URN)
Conference
Internet-of-Things Symposium IoT Symposium'15, 4-9 Oct 2015, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Projects
PRESS - Predictable Embedded Software SystemsRV-REDS - Resource Virtualization for Real-Time Embedded Distributed SystemsCloud and the Industrial Internet of Things Initiative
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2017-10-25Bibliographically approved
Pei-Breivold, H. & Sandström, K. (2015). Internet of Things for Industrial Automation - Challenges and Technical. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Data Intensive Systems, DSDIS 2015: . Paper presented at iThings 2015 : The 8th IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things, 11-13 Dec 2015, Sydney, Australia (pp. 532-539).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet of Things for Industrial Automation - Challenges and Technical
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Data Intensive Systems, DSDIS 2015, 2015, p. 532-539Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Using internet of things (IoT) to connect things, service, and people for intelligent operations has been discussed and deployed in many industry domains such as smart city, smart energy, healthcare, food and water tracking, logistics and retail, and transportation. However, scarce information is available for IoT usage in industrial automation domain for reliable and collaborative automation with respect to e.g., enabling scalable collaboration between heterogeneous devices and systems, offering predictable and fault-tolerant real-time closed-loop control, and inclusion of intelligent service features from edge devices to the cloud. In this paper, we will clarify the specific quality attribute constraints within industrial automation, present specific industrial IoT challenges due to these constraints, and discuss the potentials of utilizing some technical solutions to cope with these challenges.

Keywords
Internet-of-things, Industrial automation, Challenges
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29643 (URN)10.1109/DSDIS.2015.11 (DOI)978-1-5090-0214-6 (ISBN)
Conference
iThings 2015 : The 8th IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things, 11-13 Dec 2015, Sydney, Australia
Projects
InCloud - Indstrial Systems Cloud ComputingCloud and the Industrial Internet of Things Initiative
Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Lisper, B., Sandström, K. & Nolte, T. (2014). An efficient scheduling of AUTOSAR runnables to minimize communication cost in multi-core systems. In: 2014 7th International Symposium on Telecommunications, IST 2014: . Paper presented at 2014 7th International Symposium on Telecommunications, IST 2014, 9 September 2014 through 11 September 2014 (pp. 41-48).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An efficient scheduling of AUTOSAR runnables to minimize communication cost in multi-core systems
2014 (English)In: 2014 7th International Symposium on Telecommunications, IST 2014, 2014, p. 41-48Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The AUTOSAR consortium has developed as the worldwide standard for automotive embedded software systems. From a processor perspective, AUTOSAR was originally developed for single-core processor platforms. Recent trends have raised the desire for using multi-core processors to run AUTOSAR software. However, there are several challenges in reaching a highly efficient and predictable design of AUTOSAR-based embedded software on multi-core processors. In this paper a solution framework comprising both the mapping of runnables onto a set of tasks and the scheduling of the generated task set on a multi-core processor is suggested. The goal of the work presented in this paper is to minimize the overall inter-runnable communication cost besides meeting all corresponding timing and precedence constraints. The proposed solution framework is evaluated and compared with an exhaustive method to demonstrate the convergence to an optimal solution. Since the exhaustive method is not applicable for large size instances of the problem, the proposed framework is also compared with a well-known meta-heuristic algorithm to substantiate the capability of the frameworks to scale up. The experimental results clearly demonstrate high efficiency of the solution in terms of both communication cost and average processor utilization.

Keywords
AUTOSAR, feedback-based search, mapping, multi-core scheduling, runnable, Simulated Annealing, SMSA, Costs, Embedded software, Embedded systems, Heuristic algorithms, Heuristic methods, Scheduling, Feed-back based, Multi core, Microprocessor chips
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31620 (URN)10.1109/ISTEL.2014.7000667 (DOI)000392911900008 ()2-s2.0-84931093966 (Scopus ID)9781479953592 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 7th International Symposium on Telecommunications, IST 2014, 9 September 2014 through 11 September 2014
Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Becker, M., Sandström, K., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2014). Dynamic Power Management for Thermal Control of Many-Core Real-Time Systems. Paper presented at 6th Workshop on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Embedded Systems APRES'14, 14-17 Apr 2014, Berlin, Germany. Sigbed Review, 11(3), 26-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Power Management for Thermal Control of Many-Core Real-Time Systems
2014 (English)In: Sigbed Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 26-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many-Core systems, processors incorporating numerous cores interconnected by a Network on Chip (NoC), provide the computing power needed by future applications. High power density caused by the steadily shrinking transistor size, which is still following Moore's law, leads to a number of problems such as overheating cores, affecting processor reliability and lifetime. Embedded real-time systems are exposed to a changing ambient temperature and thus need to adapt their configuration in order to keep the individual core temperature below critical values. %Targeting embedded real-time systems, systems need to adapt to changing environments. In our approach a hysteresis controller is implemented on each core, triggering a redistribution of the cores and the transition into idle state allowing the core to cool down. We propose two approaches, one global and one local approach, to redistribute the tasks and relive overheating cores during runtime. We evaluate the two proposed approaches by comparing them against each other based on simulations.

Keywords
Adaptive SchedulingMany-CoreTemperature
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25155 (URN)10.1145/2692385.2692389 (DOI)
External cooperation:
Conference
6th Workshop on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Embedded Systems APRES'14, 14-17 Apr 2014, Berlin, Germany
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore Systems
Available from: 2014-06-09 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2016-08-25Bibliographically approved
Becker, M., Sandström, K., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2014). Increased Reliability of Many-Core Platforms through Thermal Feedback Control. In: Performance, Power and Predictability of Many-Core Embedded Systems 3PMCES'14: . Paper presented at Performance, Power and Predictability of Many-Core Embedded Systems 3PMCES'14, 24-28 Mar 2014, Dresden, Germany. Dresden, Germany
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased Reliability of Many-Core Platforms through Thermal Feedback Control
2014 (English)In: Performance, Power and Predictability of Many-Core Embedded Systems 3PMCES'14, Dresden, Germany, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a low overhead thermal management approach to increase reliability of many-core embedded real-time systems. Each core is controlled by a feedback controller. We adapt the utilization of the core in order to decrease the dynamic power consumption and thus the corresponding heat development. Sophisticated control mechanisms allow us to migrate the load in advance, before reaching critical temperature values and thus we can migrate in a safe way with a guarantee to meet all deadlines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dresden, Germany: , 2014
Keywords
many-corethermal managementfeedback controlscheduling
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25158 (URN)
Conference
Performance, Power and Predictability of Many-Core Embedded Systems 3PMCES'14, 24-28 Mar 2014, Dresden, Germany
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore Systems
Available from: 2014-06-09 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2014-12-02Bibliographically approved
Becker, M., Sandström, K., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2014). Mapping Real-Time Tasks onto Many-Core Systems considering Message Flows. In: Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Session of the 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium: . Paper presented at 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium RTAS'14, 15 Apr 2014, Berlin, Germany (pp. 17-18). Berlin, Germany
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping Real-Time Tasks onto Many-Core Systems considering Message Flows
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Session of the 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Berlin, Germany, 2014, p. 17-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work we focus on the task mapping problem for many-core real-time systems. The growing number of cores connected by a Network-on-Chip (NoC) calls for sophisticated mapping techniques to meet the growing demands of real-time applications. Hardware should be used in an efficient way such that unnecessary resource usage is avoided. Because of the NP-hardness of the problem, heuristic and meta-heuristic techniques are used to find good solutions. We further consider periodic communication between tasks and we focus on a static mapping solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin, Germany: , 2014
Keywords
many-corereal-timetask mappingnetwork-on-chipwormhole routing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25157 (URN)
Conference
20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium RTAS'14, 15 Apr 2014, Berlin, Germany
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore Systems
Available from: 2014-06-05 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2014-12-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3375-6766

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