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Publications (10 of 148) Show all publications
Sylwan, I., Zambrano, J. & Thorin, E. (2019). Energy demand for phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater. In: Elsevier (Ed.), Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: . Paper presented at International Conference on Applied Energy, 2018 (pp. 4338-4343). , 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy demand for phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater
2019 (English)In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions / [ed] Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 4338-4343Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential nutrients for production of food. In modern agriculture, a large part of P comes from finite sources. There are several suggested processes for reuse of P from wastewater. In this paper, the energy use of direct reuse of sludge in agriculture is compared to the energy demand connected to use of mineral P and to reuse of P after thermal processing of sludge. The study is based on literature data from life cycle analysis (LCA). In the case of direct sludge reuse the sludge stabilization processes applied and the system boundaries of the LCA has a large impact on the calculated energy demand. The results though indicate that direct reuse of sludge in agriculture is the reuse scenario that potentially has the lowest energy demand (3-71 kWh/kg P), compared to incineration and extraction of P from sludge ashes (45-70 kWh/kg P) or pyrolysis of sludge (46-235 kWh/kg P). The competitiveness compared to mineral P (-4-22 kWh/kg P) depends on the mineral P source and production. For thermal processing, the energy demand derives mainly from energy needed to dry sludge and supplement fuel used during sludge incineration together with chemicals required to extract P. Local conditions, such as available waste heat for drying, can make one of these scenarios preferable.

Series
Energy Procedia
Keywords
incineration; combustion; pyrolysis; wastewater sludge; nutrient reuse
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Biotechnology/Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40395 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.787 (DOI)000471031704107 ()2-s2.0-85063882988 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Energy, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Avelin, A., Dotzauer, E. & Thorin, E. (2019). Evaluation of biofuel production integrated with existing CHP plants and the impacts on production planning of the system – A case study. Applied Energy, 252, Article ID 113461.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of biofuel production integrated with existing CHP plants and the impacts on production planning of the system – A case study
2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 252, article id 113461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration has caused a transformative shift in global energy systems, which is contributing to an increased use of renewables. Sweden is among the countries trying to shift to a fossil-fuel-free system in all energy sectors. This paper addresses the fuel demand and supply in the transportation sector in the county of Västmanland in Sweden. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization model is developed to minimize cost in the studied system. The model is further used to investigate the influence of three different scenarios on production planning of regional Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants: (1) straw-based biofuel production integrated with existing CHP plants to fuel combustion engine vehicles, (2) use of electric vehicles, and (3) use of hybrid vehicles fueled by both electricity and bioethanol. Potential solar power generation from rooftop solar cells is also included in the model. The energy system in scenario 2 is found to have the highest overall system efficiency; however, a large amount of power needs to be imported to the system. Hybrid vehicles can potentially reduce the electricity import and CO2 emissions compared to the current situation. Electricity production from rooftop solar collectors could provide the energy needs of the vehicles during summer, while regionally produced straw-based bioethanol integrated with CHP plants can satisfy the fuel needs of the vehicles in winter. This approach could affect the production planning of CHP plants, result in less fuel use and increase the share of renewable resources in the regional transportation system. 

Keywords
Electric vehicles, Energy systems, Mixed Integer Linear Programming, Optimization, Straw-based bioethanol, Transportation sector
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44658 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113461 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067284871 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Hennessy, J., Li, H., Wallin, F. & Thorin, E. (2019). Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 2430-2434). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 2430-2434Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future energy systems need to be more flexible. The use of cross-sector coupling in combination with thermal storage in thermal grids has been shown to provide such flexibility. The presented study reviews how short-term storage in district heating distribution networks is used or modelled for flexibility, what are the most important parameters, and where the knowledge gaps remain. The results show that the potential for flexibility from district heating has not been fully exploited. Sensible thermal storage tanks are 50-100 times cheaper than electrical storage and storage in the distribution network requires little additional investment in infrastructure. In some countries, the majority of district heating systems have sensible thermal storage tanks, with as much as 64 % of their capacity available for flexibility services. Initial results suggest that only smaller networks are prevented from using the distribution network for storage, but the impacts of this type of use on the physical components and the capacity limitations remain unclear and show a need for standardised methods for analysis. There is a growing interest, both in Europe and China, in the use of short-term storage in district heating to provide flexibility, particularly in the form of ancillary services to the electricity grid, but implementations of these techniques are rare. The presented study identifies a number of remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in order to harness available flexibility in district heating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Curtailment, District heating and cooling, Flexibility, Renewable energy, Thermal grids, Thermal inertia, Thermal storage
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43135 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.302 (DOI)000471031702121 ()2-s2.0-85063896688 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Schwede, S., Thorin, E., Li, H. & Yan, J. (2019). Identification of thermochemical pathways for the energy and nutrient recovery from digested sludge in wastewater treatment plants. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018 (pp. 1317-1322). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of thermochemical pathways for the energy and nutrient recovery from digested sludge in wastewater treatment plants
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2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1317-1322Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are several restrictions and limitations on the emissions and disposal of materials and pollutants related to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) emphasizing improvement of current processes and development of new methods. Process integration is one way to use all fractions of waste for improved efficiency. WWTPs produces sludge which is usually anaerobically digested to produce biogas and a byproduct called digestate. Digestate is an organic material that contains macro and micronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium and also contains heavy metals. Digestate is mainly used for agricultural applications because of the presence of nutrients. However, digestate also contains energy in the form of carbon and hydrogen which can be harnessed through various processes and integrated with nitrogen recovery process. This study aims to recover the energy and nutrients from digestate through thermochemical treatment processes. Combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification are assessed and compared in this work. An ammonia stripping method is assumed to recover nitrogen from digestate. The thermochemical processes are heat integrated with ammonia stripping through modeling and simulation. Results show that almost half of the energy present in digested sludge is required for its drying. Moreover, nitrogen recovery also requires much energy. The combustion and gasification of digested sludge give better results than pyrolysis. The heat integration becomes feasible when the auxiliary biogas is also burned along with products from the thermochemical treatment of sludge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Combustion, Digestate, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Wastewater treatment, Ammonia, Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Heavy metals, Nitrogen, Nutrients, Reclamation, Sewage pumping plants, Waste incineration, Wastewater disposal, Water treatment plants, Carbon and hydrogens, Macro-and micronutrients, Model and simulation, Process integration, Thermo chemical process, Thermochemical treatments, Wastewater treatment plants
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43184 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.325 (DOI)000471031701105 ()2-s2.0-85063872188 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Tan, Y., Nookuea, W., Li, H., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2019). Impacts of thermos-physical properties on plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger design in cryogenic process for CO2 capture. Applied Thermal Engineering, 149, 1445-1453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of thermos-physical properties on plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger design in cryogenic process for CO2 capture
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2019 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 149, p. 1445-1453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxy-fuel combustion is one of the most promising technologies for CO2 capture for power plants. In oxy-fuel combustion plants, cryogenic process can be applied for CO2 purification because the main impurities in flue gas are non-condensable gases. The multi-stream plate-fin heat exchanger is one of the most important components in the CO2 cryogenic system. In-depth understanding of the impacts of property on the heat exchanger is of importance for appropriate design. In order to investigate the impacts of properties on sizing the heat exchanger and to further identify the key properties to be prioritized for the property model development, this paper presented the design procedure for the plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger for the CO2 cryogenic process. Sensitivity study was conducted to analyze the impacts of thermos-physical properties including density, viscosity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The results show that thermal conductivity has the most significant impact and hence, developing a more accurate thermal conductivity model is more important for the heat exchanger design. In addition, even though viscosity has less significant impact compared to other properties, the larger deviation range of current viscosity models may lead to higher uncertainties in volume design and annual capital cost of heat exchanger. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
CO2 mixture, Cryogenic process, Heat exchanger, Sensitivity study, Thermos-physical property
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42343 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.12.066 (DOI)000460492300127 ()2-s2.0-85059479126 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Avelin, A. & Thorin, E. (2019). Optimization of a regional energy system including CHP plants and local PV system and hydropower: Scenarios for the County of Västmanland in Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 230, 1111-1127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of a regional energy system including CHP plants and local PV system and hydropower: Scenarios for the County of Västmanland in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 230, p. 1111-1127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Providing the energy needs of the cumulatively increasing population has become a challenge for the regional energy systems in the world. The most critical challenge is to supply enough energy in the forms of heat and power during the cold and warm periods of the year with the lowest production cost and minimum environmental impacts. A solution is to increase the green energy supply from renewable energy resources such as solar, wind power, and hydropower. In order to apply this solution in the real energy system, potentials for clean energy supply in an optimized manner should be evaluated. In this study, an optimization model is developed for a regional energy system in the central part of Sweden. The studied system consists of Combined Heat and Power (CHP)plants and heat water boilers together with renewable energy supply from rooftop Photo Voltaic (PV)- solar collectors and regional hydropower plants. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)is used to create the model based on the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP)method. The goal is to evaluate the influence of local renewable energy systems on the production planning of CHP plants in a region. Two different scenarios are investigated based on the extremes in energy supply and demand concerning the increased use of Electrical Vehicles (EVs)and more application of Heat Pumps (HPs)in the system. The results show that installation of rooftop PV systems has the potential to reduce the electricity import to the region; however, it will at the same time reduce the operation time of the CHP plans during the summer period. With increased use of HPs for heating, the shut off time for CHP plants is further increased. Increase in electric passenger cars penetration in the system has no impacts on the production profiles of the plants. The regional electricity demand grows significantly by more utilization of EVs and increased application of heat pumps in the studied system. The high electricity demand will mainly be satisfied by importing electricity from outside the region together with low production from CHP plants and the power generated by the rooftop PV systems and regional hydropower. The developed optimization model with studied scenarios can be applied to other energy systems to increase the knowledge of production planning and feasibility of a fossil fuel free energy system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Electrical vehicle, Heat pump, Optimization, Production planning, Renewable energy resource, Algebra, Cogeneration plants, Economics, Electric power utilization, Energy policy, Environmental impact, Fossil fuels, Free energy, Heat pump systems, Hydroelectric power, Hydroelectric power plants, Integer programming, Planning, Power generation, Production control, Pumps, Renewable energy resources, Wind power, Clean energy supplies, Combined heat and power, Electrical vehicles, Heat pumps, Mixed-integer linear programming, Optimization modeling, Regional energy systems, Electric power system interconnection
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43876 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.086 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065879762 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Li, H., Wang, B., Yan, J., Salman, C. A., Thorin, E. & Schwede, S. (2019). Performance of flue gas quench and its influence on biomass fueled CHP. Energy, 180, 934-945
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of flue gas quench and its influence on biomass fueled CHP
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2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 180, p. 934-945Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For biomass/waste fueled power plants, stricter regulations require a further reduction of the negative impacts on the environment caused by the release of pollutants and withdrawal of fresh water externally. Flue gas quench (FGQ) is playing an important role in biomass or waste fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as it can link the flue gas (FG) cleaning, energy recovery and wastewater treatment. Enhancing water evaporation can benefit the concentrating of pollutant in the quench water; however, when FG condenser (FGC) is not in use, it results in a large consumption of fresh water. In order to deeply understand the operation of FGQ, a mathematic model was developed and validated against the measurements. Based on simulation results key parameters affecting FGQ have been identified, such as the flow rate and temperature of recycling water and the moisture content of FG. A guideline about how to reduce the discharge of wastewater to the external and the withdrawal of external water can be proposed. The mathematic model was also implemented into an ASPEN Plus model about a CHP plant to assess the impacts of FGQ on CHP. Results show that when the FGC was running, increasing the flow rate and decreasing the temperature of recycling water can result in a lower total energy efficiency. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Biomass and waste fueled CHP, Energy efficiency, Flue gas cleaning, Flue gas quench, Water balance
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44660 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.05.078 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067066514 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Thorin, E., Avelin, A. & Dotzauer, E. (2019). Potential biofuel production in a fossil fuel free transportation system: A scenario for the County of Västmanland in Sweden. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 1330-1336). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential biofuel production in a fossil fuel free transportation system: A scenario for the County of Västmanland in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1330-1336Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Air pollution and increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere and other energy related issues caused a transformative shift in energy system which contributes to increased utilization of renewables as alternative to generate green energy carriers. The potential of renewable resources in different region and potential energy conversion have been largely considered by many researcher in many countries. The energy conversion technologies to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels have made impressive technical advances. Sweden has also been challenging with mitigation of CO2 emission and trying to shift into a fossil fuel free system in all energy sectors. This paper deals with the current status of fuel demand and supply in the transport sector in a County in Sweden. A scenario for a fossil fuel free transport sector at a regional level is developed to investigate the potential biofuel production from regionally produced straw. The results and analysis indicate that the potential for cereal based bioethanol production in the region is sufficient to meet the biofuel demand of the County. Using the fallow land for cereal cultivation, it is feasible to shift into a fossil fuel free transportation system where all passenger cars are fueled by bioethanol. The results and finding from the current paper will be used to develop further study on optimization of local biofuel production integrated with CHP plants considering application of other feedstock such as municipal wastes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Bioethanol, Energy system, Straw, Transport sector
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43132 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.327 (DOI)000471031701107 ()2-s2.0-85063892971 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Thorin, E., Avelin, A. & Dotzauer, E. (2019). Potentials for increased application of renewables in the transportation system: A case study for Södermanland County, Sweden. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at Applied Energy Symposium and Forum, Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrids, REM 2018, 29–30 September 2018, Rhodes, Greece (pp. 267-273). Elsevier Ltd
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potentials for increased application of renewables in the transportation system: A case study for Södermanland County, Sweden
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, p. 267-273Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, possible alternations in a regional transport sector are assessed to increase the use of renewable resources. Three scenarios are developed aimed to investigate different alternatives including potential straw-based bioethanol supply to fuel regional cars with combustion engines, more use of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) with use of potential power from solar energy, and the feasibility of application of hybrid cars fueled with electricity and bioethanol. The evaluation considers the reduction in CO 2 emissions and increased balance in energy demand and supply. Results of the study indicate that application of hybrid vehicles with bioethanol-fueled engines and electrical motors could potentially reduce the CO 2 emissions compared with other proposed approaches in the studied scenarios. At the same time, there would be a balance in the system, so that, the bioethanol production from the available cereal straw in the region can meet the energy demand of suggested hybrid cars in wintertime. While, the energy supply from solar cells installed on the rooftop of the buildings can cover the electricity need of the motor during summer. This approach will also result in increased use of renewables in the transportation system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
EVs, Hybrid, Renewable resources, Solar cells, Straw-based bioethanol
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43133 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2018.12.061 (DOI)000471291100043 ()2-s2.0-85063808717 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Applied Energy Symposium and Forum, Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrids, REM 2018, 29–30 September 2018, Rhodes, Greece
Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Schwede, S., Naqvi, M., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2019). Synergistic combination of pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and CHP plants.. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018 (pp. 1323-1329). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synergistic combination of pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and CHP plants.
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2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1323-1329Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The anaerobic digestion of biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely used process for biogas production. However, the biodegradable fraction of MSW also contains lignocellulosic waste which hinders the biogas production if added to the digester in higher quantity. So it needs to be separated from biodegradable waste and sent for alternate treatment, e.g., incineration, landfilling or compositing. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic waste to produce biochar, syngas, and bio oil is an alternate treatment to consider. Furthermore, there is a reported correlation between the addition of biochar in the digester and higher biogas production. Previously, we coupled the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic waste with anaerobic digestion plant. Pyrolysis produces the biochar and vapors. Biochar was added in the digester to enhance the biomethane production. The vapors produced in the pyrolysis process were converted to biomethane through the catalytic methanation process. The combination gives the overall efficiency of 67%. In this work, we modified the process concept to increase the integration level of these processes. The main issue with the pyrolysis process is its heat required to operate, while some of its downstream processes also generate excess heat. In this study, the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic waste is integrated with an operating combined heat and power (CHP) plant, by using its existing infrastructure for heat transport among different pyrolysis operations. The combustor of the CHP plant provides the heat for drying and pyrolysis while the excess heat is transferred back to the combustor. The biochar produced from pyrolysis is transported back to the digester as an adsorbent. The process simulation results show that the combined efficiency of pyrolysis with CHP plant reached 80%. If the biochar is sent back to the anaerobic digester, the synergetic efficiency of all three processes, i.e., pyrolysis-CHP and anaerobic digestion was obtained at 79.7% as compared with the 67% efficiency when the pyrolysis was only integrated with the anaerobic digestion process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Heat integration, Lignocellulosic waste, Municipal solid waste, Biogas, Cogeneration plants, Combustors, Power generation, Pyrolysis, Waste incineration, Anaerobic digestion process, Biodegradable fraction, Biodegradable wastes, Combined heat and power, Lignocellulosic wastes, Municipal solid waste (MSW), Synergistic combinations, Anaerobic digestion
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43183 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.326 (DOI)000471031701106 ()2-s2.0-85063896503 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3485-5440

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