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Hennessy, J., Li, H., Wallin, F. & Thorin, E. (2019). Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 2430-2434). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 2430-2434Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future energy systems need to be more flexible. The use of cross-sector coupling in combination with thermal storage in thermal grids has been shown to provide such flexibility. The presented study reviews how short-term storage in district heating distribution networks is used or modelled for flexibility, what are the most important parameters, and where the knowledge gaps remain. The results show that the potential for flexibility from district heating has not been fully exploited. Sensible thermal storage tanks are 50-100 times cheaper than electrical storage and storage in the distribution network requires little additional investment in infrastructure. In some countries, the majority of district heating systems have sensible thermal storage tanks, with as much as 64 % of their capacity available for flexibility services. Initial results suggest that only smaller networks are prevented from using the distribution network for storage, but the impacts of this type of use on the physical components and the capacity limitations remain unclear and show a need for standardised methods for analysis. There is a growing interest, both in Europe and China, in the use of short-term storage in district heating to provide flexibility, particularly in the form of ancillary services to the electricity grid, but implementations of these techniques are rare. The presented study identifies a number of remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in order to harness available flexibility in district heating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Curtailment, District heating and cooling, Flexibility, Renewable energy, Thermal grids, Thermal inertia, Thermal storage
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43135 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.302 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063896688 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Note

Export Date: 18 April 2019; Conference Paper; Correspondence Address: Hennessy, J.; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Box 857, Sweden; email: jay.hennessy@ri.se

Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-04-18
Tan, Y., Nookuea, W., Li, H., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2019). Impacts of thermos-physical properties on plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger design in cryogenic process for CO2 capture. Applied Thermal Engineering, 149, 1445-1453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of thermos-physical properties on plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger design in cryogenic process for CO2 capture
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2019 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 149, p. 1445-1453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxy-fuel combustion is one of the most promising technologies for CO2 capture for power plants. In oxy-fuel combustion plants, cryogenic process can be applied for CO2 purification because the main impurities in flue gas are non-condensable gases. The multi-stream plate-fin heat exchanger is one of the most important components in the CO2 cryogenic system. In-depth understanding of the impacts of property on the heat exchanger is of importance for appropriate design. In order to investigate the impacts of properties on sizing the heat exchanger and to further identify the key properties to be prioritized for the property model development, this paper presented the design procedure for the plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger for the CO2 cryogenic process. Sensitivity study was conducted to analyze the impacts of thermos-physical properties including density, viscosity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The results show that thermal conductivity has the most significant impact and hence, developing a more accurate thermal conductivity model is more important for the heat exchanger design. In addition, even though viscosity has less significant impact compared to other properties, the larger deviation range of current viscosity models may lead to higher uncertainties in volume design and annual capital cost of heat exchanger. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
CO2 mixture, Cryogenic process, Heat exchanger, Sensitivity study, Thermos-physical property
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42343 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.12.066 (DOI)000460492300127 ()2-s2.0-85059479126 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Thorin, E., Avelin, A. & Dotzauer, E. (2019). Potential biofuel production in a fossil fuel free transportation system: A scenario for the County of Västmanland in Sweden. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 1330-1336). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential biofuel production in a fossil fuel free transportation system: A scenario for the County of Västmanland in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1330-1336Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Air pollution and increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere and other energy related issues caused a transformative shift in energy system which contributes to increased utilization of renewables as alternative to generate green energy carriers. The potential of renewable resources in different region and potential energy conversion have been largely considered by many researcher in many countries. The energy conversion technologies to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels have made impressive technical advances. Sweden has also been challenging with mitigation of CO2 emission and trying to shift into a fossil fuel free system in all energy sectors. This paper deals with the current status of fuel demand and supply in the transport sector in a County in Sweden. A scenario for a fossil fuel free transport sector at a regional level is developed to investigate the potential biofuel production from regionally produced straw. The results and analysis indicate that the potential for cereal based bioethanol production in the region is sufficient to meet the biofuel demand of the County. Using the fallow land for cereal cultivation, it is feasible to shift into a fossil fuel free transportation system where all passenger cars are fueled by bioethanol. The results and finding from the current paper will be used to develop further study on optimization of local biofuel production integrated with CHP plants considering application of other feedstock such as municipal wastes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Bioethanol, Energy system, Straw, Transport sector
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43132 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.327 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063892971 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Note

Export Date: 18 April 2019; Conference Paper; Correspondence Address: Daraei, M.; School of Business Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center, Mälardalen UniversitySweden; email: mahsa.daraei@mdh.se

Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-04-18
Daraei, M., Thorin, E., Avelin, A. & Dotzauer, E. (2019). Potentials for increased application of renewables in the transportation system: A case study for Södermanland County, Sweden. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at Applied Energy Symposium and Forum, Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrids, REM 2018, 29–30 September 2018, Rhodes, Greece (pp. 267-273). Elsevier Ltd
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potentials for increased application of renewables in the transportation system: A case study for Södermanland County, Sweden
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, p. 267-273Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, possible alternations in a regional transport sector are assessed to increase the use of renewable resources. Three scenarios are developed aimed to investigate different alternatives including potential straw-based bioethanol supply to fuel regional cars with combustion engines, more use of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) with use of potential power from solar energy, and the feasibility of application of hybrid cars fueled with electricity and bioethanol. The evaluation considers the reduction in CO 2 emissions and increased balance in energy demand and supply. Results of the study indicate that application of hybrid vehicles with bioethanol-fueled engines and electrical motors could potentially reduce the CO 2 emissions compared with other proposed approaches in the studied scenarios. At the same time, there would be a balance in the system, so that, the bioethanol production from the available cereal straw in the region can meet the energy demand of suggested hybrid cars in wintertime. While, the energy supply from solar cells installed on the rooftop of the buildings can cover the electricity need of the motor during summer. This approach will also result in increased use of renewables in the transportation system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
EVs, Hybrid, Renewable resources, Solar cells, Straw-based bioethanol
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43133 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2018.12.061 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063808717 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Applied Energy Symposium and Forum, Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrids, REM 2018, 29–30 September 2018, Rhodes, Greece
Note

Export Date: 18 April 2019; Conference Paper; Correspondence Address: Daraei, M.; School of Business Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center, Mälardalen UniversitySweden; email: mahsa.daraei@mdh.se

Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-04-18
Olsson, J., Forkman, T., Gentili, F., Zambrano, J., Schwede, S., Nehrenheim, E. & Thorin, E. (2018). Anaerobic co-digestion of sludge and microalgae grown inmunicipal wastewater: A feasibility study. Water Science and Technology, 77(3), 682-694
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic co-digestion of sludge and microalgae grown inmunicipal wastewater: A feasibility study
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2018 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 682-694Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study a natural mix of microalgae grown in wastewater of municipal character was co-digested with sewage sludge in mesophilic conditions, in both batch and semi-continuous modes. The semicontinuous experiment was divided into two periods with OLR 1 (Organic Loading Rate) of 2.4 kg VS m3 d-1 and HRT1 (Hydraulic Retention Time) of 15 days, and OLR2 of 3.5 kg VS m3 d-1 and HRT2 of 10 days respectively. Results showed stable conditions during both periods. The methane yield was reduced when adding microalgae (from 200 ± 25 NmL CH4 g VSin-1 , to 168±22 NmL CH4 g VSin-1). VS reduction was also decreased by 51%. This low digestability was confirmed in the anaerobic batch test. However, adding microalgae improved the dewaterability of the digested sludge. The high heavy metals content in the microalgae resulted in a high heavy metals content in the digestate, making it more difficult to reuse the digestate as fertilizer on arable land. The heavy metals are thought to originate from the flue gas used as a CO2 source during the microalgae cultivation. Therefore the implementation of CO2 mitigation via algal cultivation requires careful consideration regarding thesource of the CO2-rich gas.

Keywords
Biogas, dewaterability, Gompertz model, mesophilic, semi-continuous study, waste activated sludge
National Category
Renewable Bioenergy Research Water Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37381 (URN)10.2166/wst.2017.583 (DOI)000424765000013 ()2-s2.0-85042218057 (Scopus ID)
Projects
MAASICA-projektet
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Sylwan, I., Runtti, H., Thorin, E., Zambrano, J. & Westholm, L. J. (2018). BIOCHAR ADSORPTION FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALSIN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT. In: : . Paper presented at SMICE2018, Sludge management in a circular economy, Rome, May 23-25, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BIOCHAR ADSORPTION FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALSIN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Keywords
biochar, adsorption, municipal wastewater, sludge, heavy metals, Ni, Pb, adsorption isotherm, Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39348 (URN)
Conference
SMICE2018, Sludge management in a circular economy, Rome, May 23-25, 2018
Projects
SMET - Separation of heavy metals in municipal wastewater treatment
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Sylwan, I., Zambrano, J. & Thorin, E. (2018). Energy demand for phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater. In: Elsevier (Ed.), Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: . Paper presented at International Conference on Applied Energy, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy demand for phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater
2018 (English)In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions / [ed] Elsevier, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential nutrients for production of food. In modern agriculture, a large part of P comes from finite sources. There are several suggested processes for reuse of P from wastewater. In this paper, the energy use of direct reuse of sludge in agriculture is compared to the energy demand connected to use of mineral P and to reuse of P after thermal processing of sludge. The study is based on literature data from life cycle analysis (LCA). In the case of direct sludge reuse the sludge stabilization processes applied and the system boundaries of the LCA has a large impact on the calculated energy demand. The results though indicate that direct reuse of sludge in agriculture is the reuse scenario that potentially has the lowest energy demand (3-71 kWh/kg P), compared to incineration and extraction of P from sludge ashes (45-70 kWh/kg P) or pyrolysis of sludge (46-235 kWh/kg P). The competitiveness compared to mineral P (-4-22 kWh/kg P) depends on the mineral P source and production. For thermal processing, the energy demand derives mainly from energy needed to dry sludge and supplement fuel used during sludge incineration together with chemicals required to extract P. Local conditions, such as available waste heat for drying, can make one of these scenarios preferable.

Keywords
incineration; combustion; pyrolysis; wastewater sludge; nutrient reuse
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Biotechnology/Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40395 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Energy, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Naqvi, M., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2018). Gasification process integration with existing combined heat and power plants for polygeneration of dimethyl ether or methanol: A detailed profitability analysis. Applied Energy, 226, 116-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gasification process integration with existing combined heat and power plants for polygeneration of dimethyl ether or methanol: A detailed profitability analysis
2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Combustion of waste for cogeneration of heat and power is the most convenient and practical choice to carry out through combined heat and power (CHP) plants. But, seasonal variation in heat demand throughout the year affects the operation of CHP plants. This fluctuation in the CHP operation cause less annual operating hours for the plant equipment and is also not profitable for stakeholders. This study aims to assess the technical potential of integrated gasification process with existing CHP plants for either dimethyl ether (DME) or methanol production through refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Process integration considers that the CHP plant provides the necessary heat for biofuel synthesis during off-peak hours. Mass and heat integration methods are used to develop and simulate the polygeneration processes for heat, power, and biofuel production. Both technical and economic indicators are reported and compared to assess the potential for both biofuels through process integration. Annual operation data of a real CHP plant has been extracted to evaluate the integrated processes. A flexible gasification configuration is selected for the integrated approach i.e. CHP runs at full load to provide the heat demand and only the excess heat of CHP plant is utilized for biofuel production. The energetic efficiencies of the polygeneration systems are compared with the standalone systems. Technical analysis of process integration shows the enhancement of the operational capacity of CHP during off-peak hours and it can produce biofuels without compromising the annual heat demand. Production of methanol through process integration shows ∼67% energetic efficiency while methanol production gives ∼65%. The efficiencies are higher than standalone DME and methanol processes (51% and 53%, respectively) but lower than standalone CHP plant i.e. 81%, however the process integration increases the operating time of the CHP plant with more economic benefits. Economic analysis coupled with uncertainty analysis through Monte Carlo simulations shows that by integrating CHP with gasifier to produce biofuels is significantly profitable as compared with only heat and electricity production. But, DME as a potential product shows more economic benefits than methanol. The uncertainty analysis through Monte Carlo simulations shows that the profitable probability of DME as a product in future is also greater than methanol due to higher DME selling price. The uncertainty analysis further shows that prices of DME and methanol with waste biomass prices in future will have a greater impact on the economic performance of the proposed polygeneration process. 

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39632 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.069 (DOI)000441688100011 ()2-s2.0-85047756868 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved
Lönnqvist, T., Sandberg, T., Birbuet, J. C., Olsson, J., Espinosa, C., Thorin, E., . . . Gómez, M. F. (2018). Large-scale biogas generation in Bolivia – A stepwise reconfiguration. Journal of Cleaner Production, 180, 494-504
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale biogas generation in Bolivia – A stepwise reconfiguration
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 180, p. 494-504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Renewable energy is well recognized not only as resource that helps to protect the environment for future generations but also as a driver for development. Waste-to-energy systems can provide renewable energy and also improve sustainability in waste management. This article contributes a case study of stepwise reconfiguration of the waste management system in a developing country to the literature of transitions. The conditions for a systemic transition that integrates large-scale biogas generation into the waste management system have been analyzed. The method included a multi-criteria evaluation of three development steps for biogas, an economic analysis, and an institutional and organizational analysis. The results revealed economic as well as institutional and organizational barriers. Clearly, public and private sectors need to engage in sustainability. There is also a lack of pressure – mainly because of fossil fuel subsidies – that prevents a transition and creates a lock-in effect. To break the lock-in effect the municipality's institutional capacity should be strengthened. It is possible to strengthen biogas economically by integrated waste management services and sales of biofertilizer. A stepwise reconfiguration would be initiated by adopting technologies that are already established in many developed countries but are novelties in a Bolivian context – as a response to sustainability challenges related to waste management. The article focuses on the main challenges and the potential for biogas technology in Bolivia and a pathway towards a new, more sustainable system is suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Barriers and incentives, Biogas, Bolivia, Systemic transitions, Developing countries, Economic analysis, Fossil fuels, Locks (fasteners), Societies and institutions, Sustainable development, Institutional capacities, Integrated waste management, Multi-criteria evaluation, Organizational barriers, Public and private sector, Waste management systems, Waste management
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38793 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.174 (DOI)000427218700045 ()2-s2.0-85042072518 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-01 Created: 2018-03-01 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Li, W., Khalid, H., Zhu, Z., Zhang, R., Liu, G., Chen, C. & Thorin, E. (2018). Methane production through anaerobic digestion: Participation and digestion characteristics of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Applied Energy, 226, 1219-1228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methane production through anaerobic digestion: Participation and digestion characteristics of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 1219-1228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant natural resource with high biomethane potential. However, complex structure of lignocellulosic biomass has hampered the efficient utilization of this bioresource. Previous studies have investigated the overall anaerobic digestion performance of lignocellulosic biomass, but the individual participation of each lignocellulosic component during anaerobic digestion remained unclear. Thus, this study investigated the methane production characteristics of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and their mixtures along with the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the biomethane potential of cellulose was higher than that of hemicellulose; however, hemicellulose was hydrolysed more quickly than cellulose, while lignin was very difficult to be digested. The higher concentrations of acetic, n-butyric and n-valeric acids hydrolysed from the hemicellulose resulted in a lower pH and more severe inhibition on methane production than that of cellulose, and the methanogenesis gradually recovered after pH adjustment. The co-digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose increased the methane yield and biodegradability compared to mono-digestions. The addition of lignin to cellulose brought more significant decrease in the methane yield of cellulose than that of hemicellulose. Substrate-related bacteria such as Clostridium sensu stricto, Lutaonella, Cloacibacillus and Christensenella showed higher relative abundance in cellulose digestate, and sugar-fermenting bacteria such as Saccharofermentans, Petrimonas and Levilinea were more rich in the digestate of hemicellulose. Moreover, methanogenic Methanospirillum and Methanothrix likely contributed to the methane production of cellulose, while aciduric methanogens from Methanobrevibacter, Methanomassiliicoccus, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus contributed to that of hemicellulose. This study provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass during anaerobic digestion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Anaerobic digestion characteristics, Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin, Methane yield, Microbial community analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40260 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.055 (DOI)000441688100095 ()2-s2.0-85049578340 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-19 Created: 2018-07-19 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3485-5440

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