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Beckinghausen, A., Odlare, M., Thorin, E. & Schwede, S. (2020). From removal to recovery: An evaluation of nitrogen recovery techniques from wastewater. Applied Energy, 263, Article ID 114616.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From removal to recovery: An evaluation of nitrogen recovery techniques from wastewater
2020 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 263, article id 114616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen recovery is the next step in the improvement of the wastewater treatment process, utilizing this important nutrient for fertilizers to decrease use of energy, petrochemicals, and impact on the environment. The majority of wastewater treatment plants currently employ methods to remove nitrogen which are energy intensive and have no additional benefits besides complying with effluent concentration limits. Instead, recovering nitrogen allows simultaneous treatment of wastewater while collecting a concentrated ammonia product, creating a circular economy solution. This review acts to compile current research regarding nitrogen recovery and compare different techniques' recovery efficiencies and energy requirements. One outcome of this review is that more than one third of the techniques reviewed had little comments around the energy question, and thus more research needs to take place as these recovery systems continue to evolve towards full scale implementation. Additionally, a basic economic analysis was completed to demonstrate potential investment opportunities to implement these technologies. From this investigation, gas permeable membrane technology has the potential to recover ammonia from wastewater using little energy and may provide a small income with the sale of the product. Other techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation with acid absorption need further validation to determine the energy costs, as the amount of heat recycling has a great impact on the overall energy and economic balances. Finally, a discussion of the misalignment of products from recovery techniques and fertilizers in use today highlights the lack of communication and information sharing between the research community and the end users. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Ammonia recovery, Circular economy, Energy requirements, Haber Bosch, Nitrogen recovery, Nutrient recovery, Ammonia, Distillation, Economic analysis, Effluent treatment, Effluents, Gas permeable membranes, Investments, Membrane technology, Nitrogen fertilizers, Nitrogen removal, Nutrients, Wastewater treatment, Recovery
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47159 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.114616 (DOI)2-s2.0-85079419020 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 27 February 2020; Review; CODEN: APEND; Correspondence Address: Thorin, E.; Mälardalen University, Högskoleplan 1, Sweden

Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2020-02-27Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2020). Uncertainty and influence of input parameters and assumptions on the design and analysis of thermochemical waste conversion processes: A stochastic approach. Energy Conversion and Management, 214, Article ID 112867.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncertainty and influence of input parameters and assumptions on the design and analysis of thermochemical waste conversion processes: A stochastic approach
2020 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 214, article id 112867Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Process design is a challenging task for researchers and engineers. Incomplete information and variation in input data affect the outputs and reliability of key performance indicators (KPIs) of the designed process. The efficient utilization of waste is becoming increasingly important, and researchers use simulation and modelling tools for design and assessment of waste conversion processes. The complex nature of modelling of waste conversion processes and uncertainty of technical and financial data result in substantial variation in the KPIs of the designed process. In this study, we identified the critical parameters and assumptions that cause uncertainty in the process design analysis of waste-to-biofuels conversions. We used a stochastic modelling approach to address these methodological challenges and performed Monte Carlo simulations on waste-to-biofuel processes. The identified uncertain parameters and inputs were varied for a whole year with a one-minute time step. Different thermochemical conversion pathways were modelled by varying uncertain inputs and assumptions over the year by applying Monte Carlo simulations. Variations in the system's technical and economic KPIs were observed and compared. The results show that the heterogeneous nature of waste is a highly sensitive parameter, and a small change in its elemental analysis varies the technical performance significantly. Similarly, operating hours, plant size, capital investment, waste, and biofuel price are also very influential parameters on process design. Furthermore, the feasibility of waste-to-biofuel systems depends largely on how researchers and engineers select these parameters. Overall, the results reveal that by including the uncertainty of input parameters and assumptions in process design, the biases in results could be addressed transparently, making the overall assessment more reliable. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Keywords
Chemical process reliability, Monte Carlo simulations, Stochastic analysis, Waste-to-biofuel
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47907 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112867 (DOI)2-s2.0-85083887392 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-07 Created: 2020-05-07 Last updated: 2020-05-07Bibliographically approved
Dahlquist, E., Nordlader, E., Thorin, E., Wallin, C. & Avelin, A. (2019). Control of waste water treatment combined with irrigation. In: : . Paper presented at the 60th International Conference of Scandinavian Simulation Society, SIMS 2019, in Västerås, Sweden August 13-16, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control of waste water treatment combined with irrigation
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In waste water treatment using biological treatment processes normally phosphorous, nitrous compounds as well as organic matterare removed.It is also important to remove or kill pathogens that otherwisecould cause diseases. The surplus of bio-sludge is used to produce biogas. In thepaper four different alternatives for system design and operations of systems was discussed. The alternatives integrates thewaste water treatment and irrigation offarmland using the water taken out from different positions in the waste water treatment plant.

Keywords
design, operation, nitrogen, phosphorous, material balance
National Category
Engineering and Technology Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46377 (URN)
Conference
the 60th International Conference of Scandinavian Simulation Society, SIMS 2019, in Västerås, Sweden August 13-16, 2019
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-02213
Available from: 2019-12-15 Created: 2019-12-15 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
Sylwan, I., Zambrano, J. & Thorin, E. (2019). Energy demand for phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater. In: Elsevier (Ed.), Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: . Paper presented at International Conference on Applied Energy, 2018 (pp. 4338-4343). , 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy demand for phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater
2019 (English)In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions / [ed] Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 4338-4343Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential nutrients for production of food. In modern agriculture, a large part of P comes from finite sources. There are several suggested processes for reuse of P from wastewater. In this paper, the energy use of direct reuse of sludge in agriculture is compared to the energy demand connected to use of mineral P and to reuse of P after thermal processing of sludge. The study is based on literature data from life cycle analysis (LCA). In the case of direct sludge reuse the sludge stabilization processes applied and the system boundaries of the LCA has a large impact on the calculated energy demand. The results though indicate that direct reuse of sludge in agriculture is the reuse scenario that potentially has the lowest energy demand (3-71 kWh/kg P), compared to incineration and extraction of P from sludge ashes (45-70 kWh/kg P) or pyrolysis of sludge (46-235 kWh/kg P). The competitiveness compared to mineral P (-4-22 kWh/kg P) depends on the mineral P source and production. For thermal processing, the energy demand derives mainly from energy needed to dry sludge and supplement fuel used during sludge incineration together with chemicals required to extract P. Local conditions, such as available waste heat for drying, can make one of these scenarios preferable.

Series
Energy Procedia
Keywords
incineration; combustion; pyrolysis; wastewater sludge; nutrient reuse
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Biotechnology/Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40395 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.787 (DOI)000471031704107 ()2-s2.0-85063882988 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Energy, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Avelin, A., Dotzauer, E. & Thorin, E. (2019). Evaluation of biofuel production integrated with existing CHP plants and the impacts on production planning of the system – A case study. Applied Energy, 252, Article ID 113461.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of biofuel production integrated with existing CHP plants and the impacts on production planning of the system – A case study
2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 252, article id 113461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration has caused a transformative shift in global energy systems, which is contributing to an increased use of renewables. Sweden is among the countries trying to shift to a fossil-fuel-free system in all energy sectors. This paper addresses the fuel demand and supply in the transportation sector in the county of Västmanland in Sweden. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization model is developed to minimize cost in the studied system. The model is further used to investigate the influence of three different scenarios on production planning of regional Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants: (1) straw-based biofuel production integrated with existing CHP plants to fuel combustion engine vehicles, (2) use of electric vehicles, and (3) use of hybrid vehicles fueled by both electricity and bioethanol. Potential solar power generation from rooftop solar cells is also included in the model. The energy system in scenario 2 is found to have the highest overall system efficiency; however, a large amount of power needs to be imported to the system. Hybrid vehicles can potentially reduce the electricity import and CO2 emissions compared to the current situation. Electricity production from rooftop solar collectors could provide the energy needs of the vehicles during summer, while regionally produced straw-based bioethanol integrated with CHP plants can satisfy the fuel needs of the vehicles in winter. This approach could affect the production planning of CHP plants, result in less fuel use and increase the share of renewable resources in the regional transportation system. 

Keywords
Electric vehicles, Energy systems, Mixed Integer Linear Programming, Optimization, Straw-based bioethanol, Transportation sector
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-44658 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113461 (DOI)000497968000059 ()2-s2.0-85067284871 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Hennessy, J., Li, H., Wallin, F. & Thorin, E. (2019). Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 2430-2434). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks
2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 2430-2434Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Future energy systems need to be more flexible. The use of cross-sector coupling in combination with thermal storage in thermal grids has been shown to provide such flexibility. The presented study reviews how short-term storage in district heating distribution networks is used or modelled for flexibility, what are the most important parameters, and where the knowledge gaps remain. The results show that the potential for flexibility from district heating has not been fully exploited. Sensible thermal storage tanks are 50-100 times cheaper than electrical storage and storage in the distribution network requires little additional investment in infrastructure. In some countries, the majority of district heating systems have sensible thermal storage tanks, with as much as 64 % of their capacity available for flexibility services. Initial results suggest that only smaller networks are prevented from using the distribution network for storage, but the impacts of this type of use on the physical components and the capacity limitations remain unclear and show a need for standardised methods for analysis. There is a growing interest, both in Europe and China, in the use of short-term storage in district heating to provide flexibility, particularly in the form of ancillary services to the electricity grid, but implementations of these techniques are rare. The presented study identifies a number of remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in order to harness available flexibility in district heating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Curtailment, District heating and cooling, Flexibility, Renewable energy, Thermal grids, Thermal inertia, Thermal storage
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43135 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.302 (DOI)000471031702121 ()2-s2.0-85063896688 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Dahlquist, E., Thorin, E., Kyprianidis, K. & Avelin, A. (2019). Future directions for CHP plants using biomass and waste - Adding production of vehicle fuels. In: E3S Web of Conferences: . Paper presented at 2019 SUstainable PolyEnergy Generation and HaRvesting, SUPEHR 2019, 4 September 2019 through 6 September 2019. EDP Sciences, Article ID 01006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future directions for CHP plants using biomass and waste - Adding production of vehicle fuels
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2019 (English)In: E3S Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences , 2019, article id 01006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Northern Europe, the production of many biobased CHP plants is getting affected due to the enormous expansion of wind and solar power. In addition, heat demand varies throughout the year, and existing CHP plants show less technical performance and suffer economically. By integrating the existing CHP plants with other processes for the production of chemicals, they can be operated more hours, provide operational and production flexibility and thus increase efficiency and profitability. In this paper, we look at a possible solution by converting an existing CHP plant into integrated biorefinery by retrofitting pyrolysis and gasification process. Pyrolysis is retrofitted in an existed CHP plant. Bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis is upgraded to vehicle grade biofuels. Gasification process located upfront of CHP plant provides the hydrogen required for upgradation of biofuel. The results show that a pyrolysis plant with 18 ton/h feed handling capacity (90 MWth), when integrated with gasification for hydrogen requirement and CHP plant for heat can produce 5.2 ton/h of gasoline/diesel grade biofuels. The system integration gives positive economic benefits too but the annual operating hours can impact economic performance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2019
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45259 (URN)10.1051/e3sconf/201911301006 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071879296 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2019 SUstainable PolyEnergy Generation and HaRvesting, SUPEHR 2019, 4 September 2019 through 6 September 2019
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Schwede, S., Thorin, E., Li, H. & Yan, J. (2019). Identification of thermochemical pathways for the energy and nutrient recovery from digested sludge in wastewater treatment plants. In: Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018 (pp. 1317-1322). Elsevier Ltd, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of thermochemical pathways for the energy and nutrient recovery from digested sludge in wastewater treatment plants
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2019 (English)In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, Vol. 158, p. 1317-1322Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are several restrictions and limitations on the emissions and disposal of materials and pollutants related to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) emphasizing improvement of current processes and development of new methods. Process integration is one way to use all fractions of waste for improved efficiency. WWTPs produces sludge which is usually anaerobically digested to produce biogas and a byproduct called digestate. Digestate is an organic material that contains macro and micronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium and also contains heavy metals. Digestate is mainly used for agricultural applications because of the presence of nutrients. However, digestate also contains energy in the form of carbon and hydrogen which can be harnessed through various processes and integrated with nitrogen recovery process. This study aims to recover the energy and nutrients from digestate through thermochemical treatment processes. Combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification are assessed and compared in this work. An ammonia stripping method is assumed to recover nitrogen from digestate. The thermochemical processes are heat integrated with ammonia stripping through modeling and simulation. Results show that almost half of the energy present in digested sludge is required for its drying. Moreover, nitrogen recovery also requires much energy. The combustion and gasification of digested sludge give better results than pyrolysis. The heat integration becomes feasible when the auxiliary biogas is also burned along with products from the thermochemical treatment of sludge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Combustion, Digestate, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Wastewater treatment, Ammonia, Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Heavy metals, Nitrogen, Nutrients, Reclamation, Sewage pumping plants, Waste incineration, Wastewater disposal, Water treatment plants, Carbon and hydrogens, Macro-and micronutrients, Model and simulation, Process integration, Thermo chemical process, Thermochemical treatments, Wastewater treatment plants
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43184 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.325 (DOI)000471031701105 ()2-s2.0-85063872188 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2018, 22 August 2018 through 25 August 2018
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-07-11Bibliographically approved
Tan, Y., Nookuea, W., Li, H., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2019). Impacts of thermos-physical properties on plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger design in cryogenic process for CO2 capture. Applied Thermal Engineering, 149, 1445-1453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of thermos-physical properties on plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger design in cryogenic process for CO2 capture
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2019 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 149, p. 1445-1453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxy-fuel combustion is one of the most promising technologies for CO2 capture for power plants. In oxy-fuel combustion plants, cryogenic process can be applied for CO2 purification because the main impurities in flue gas are non-condensable gases. The multi-stream plate-fin heat exchanger is one of the most important components in the CO2 cryogenic system. In-depth understanding of the impacts of property on the heat exchanger is of importance for appropriate design. In order to investigate the impacts of properties on sizing the heat exchanger and to further identify the key properties to be prioritized for the property model development, this paper presented the design procedure for the plate-fin multi-stream heat exchanger for the CO2 cryogenic process. Sensitivity study was conducted to analyze the impacts of thermos-physical properties including density, viscosity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The results show that thermal conductivity has the most significant impact and hence, developing a more accurate thermal conductivity model is more important for the heat exchanger design. In addition, even though viscosity has less significant impact compared to other properties, the larger deviation range of current viscosity models may lead to higher uncertainties in volume design and annual capital cost of heat exchanger. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
CO2 mixture, Cryogenic process, Heat exchanger, Sensitivity study, Thermos-physical property
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42343 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.12.066 (DOI)000460492300127 ()2-s2.0-85059479126 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Daraei, M., Avelin, A. & Thorin, E. (2019). Optimization of a regional energy system including CHP plants and local PV system and hydropower: Scenarios for the County of Västmanland in Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 230, 1111-1127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of a regional energy system including CHP plants and local PV system and hydropower: Scenarios for the County of Västmanland in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 230, p. 1111-1127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Providing the energy needs of the cumulatively increasing population has become a challenge for the regional energy systems in the world. The most critical challenge is to supply enough energy in the forms of heat and power during the cold and warm periods of the year with the lowest production cost and minimum environmental impacts. A solution is to increase the green energy supply from renewable energy resources such as solar, wind power, and hydropower. In order to apply this solution in the real energy system, potentials for clean energy supply in an optimized manner should be evaluated. In this study, an optimization model is developed for a regional energy system in the central part of Sweden. The studied system consists of Combined Heat and Power (CHP)plants and heat water boilers together with renewable energy supply from rooftop Photo Voltaic (PV)- solar collectors and regional hydropower plants. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)is used to create the model based on the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP)method. The goal is to evaluate the influence of local renewable energy systems on the production planning of CHP plants in a region. Two different scenarios are investigated based on the extremes in energy supply and demand concerning the increased use of Electrical Vehicles (EVs)and more application of Heat Pumps (HPs)in the system. The results show that installation of rooftop PV systems has the potential to reduce the electricity import to the region; however, it will at the same time reduce the operation time of the CHP plans during the summer period. With increased use of HPs for heating, the shut off time for CHP plants is further increased. Increase in electric passenger cars penetration in the system has no impacts on the production profiles of the plants. The regional electricity demand grows significantly by more utilization of EVs and increased application of heat pumps in the studied system. The high electricity demand will mainly be satisfied by importing electricity from outside the region together with low production from CHP plants and the power generated by the rooftop PV systems and regional hydropower. The developed optimization model with studied scenarios can be applied to other energy systems to increase the knowledge of production planning and feasibility of a fossil fuel free energy system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Electrical vehicle, Heat pump, Optimization, Production planning, Renewable energy resource, Algebra, Cogeneration plants, Economics, Electric power utilization, Energy policy, Environmental impact, Fossil fuels, Free energy, Heat pump systems, Hydroelectric power, Hydroelectric power plants, Integer programming, Planning, Power generation, Production control, Pumps, Renewable energy resources, Wind power, Clean energy supplies, Combined heat and power, Electrical vehicles, Heat pumps, Mixed-integer linear programming, Optimization modeling, Regional energy systems, Electric power system interconnection
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43876 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.086 (DOI)000474676300098 ()2-s2.0-85065879762 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3485-5440

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