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Hazy, J. K., Lichtenstein, B. B., Demetis, D. S., Backström, T. & Dooley, K. J. (2023). Value Sinks: A Process Theory of Corruption Risk during Complex Organizing. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 27(3), 319-350
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Value Sinks: A Process Theory of Corruption Risk during Complex Organizing
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2023 (English)In: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, ISSN 1090-0578, E-ISSN 1573-6652, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 319-350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Theories and studies of corruption typically focus on individual ethics and agency problems in organizations. In this paper, we use concepts from complexity science to propose a process theory that describes how corruption risk emerges from conditions of uncertainty that are intrinsic in social systems and social interactions. We posit that our theory is valid across multiple levels of scale in social systems. We theorize that corruption involves dynamics that emerge when agents in a system take actions that exploit disequilibrium conditions of uncertainty and ethical ambiguity. Further, systemic corruption emerges when agent interactions are amplified locally in ways that create a hidden value sink which we define as a structure that extracts, or 'drains,' resources from the system for the exclusive use of certain agents. For those participating in corruption, the presence of a value sink reduces local uncertainties about access to resources. This dynamic can attract others to join the value sink, allowing it to persist and grow as a dynamical system attractor, eventually challenging broader norms. We close by identifying four distinct types of corruption risk and suggest policy interventions to manage them. Finally, we discuss ways in which our theoretical approach could motivate future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NLM (Medline), 2023
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-63890 (URN)001031990800005 ()37429006 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85164404402 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-07-19 Created: 2023-07-19 Last updated: 2023-08-16Bibliographically approved
Backström, T., Berglund, R. & Omorede, A. (2022). Creativity at a distance. In: Event Proceedings: LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications. Paper presented at The XXXIII ISPIM Innovation Conference "Innovating in a Digital World", held in Copenhagen, Denmark on 05 June to 08 June 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creativity at a distance
2022 (English)In: Event Proceedings: LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 More and more meetings in working life are conducted remotely via digital media. How are creative meetings affected by participants being at a distance? Some experiment suggests group creativity to improve with remote work, other show challenges. How is it in real practice? Ten well performing leaders working from home have been interviewed. They reported several challenges. Some have been found in earlier research, the preparation phase is harder and the tools for remote communication aren’t yet good and simple enough for practitioners. But some might be new discoveries, the long time needed for creative meetings being too tiresome for the remote situation, and participants becoming disturbed by irrelevant activities in the home context.Most of the interviewed managers see a hybrid as the future, where some work will be performed from home and some at a shared workplace. Creative meetings are suggested to be performed with physical closeness.

Keywords
Creativity; group creativity; remote meetings, autonomy, integration, digital meetings, innovation management, workplace meetings
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59761 (URN)978-952-335-694-8 (ISBN)
Conference
The XXXIII ISPIM Innovation Conference "Innovating in a Digital World", held in Copenhagen, Denmark on 05 June to 08 June 2022
Available from: 2022-08-18 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2022-11-08Bibliographically approved
Berglund, R., Backström, T. & Omorede, A. (2022). Employee productivity during COVID-19 in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at 29th International EurOMA Conference 2022 - European Operations Management Association EurOMA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employee productivity during COVID-19 in Sweden
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many knowledge workers in the manufacturing sector from IT, research and development, sales, finance, customer care and management transitioned to work from home because of COVID-19 (Eurofound, 2020). We investigated how such an abrupt transition affected productivity. Data were collected from 138 white-collar workers using a survey shared on social media. Most of the respondents stated that working from home affected their productivity positively due to fewer interruptions and more efficient meetings. Some employees reported decreased productivity due to problems with the organisational, social and physical working conditions. The work environment should be actively managed when working from home.

Keywords
Home-based telework, Productivity, COVID-19
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59766 (URN)
Conference
29th International EurOMA Conference 2022 - European Operations Management Association EurOMA
Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2022-11-08Bibliographically approved
Omorede, A., Berglund, R. & Backström, T. (2022). Employee work requirements, leadership support and performance: the buffering role of mental health. Evidence from the Covid-19 pandemic. In: Event Proceedings: LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications. Paper presented at The XXXIII ISPIM Innovation Conference "Innovating in a Digital World", held in Copenhagen, Denmark on 05 June to 08 June 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employee work requirements, leadership support and performance: the buffering role of mental health. Evidence from the Covid-19 pandemic
2022 (English)In: Event Proceedings: LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 As a result, to the pandemic, several organizations moved their operations from working in the workspace to working from home. This change came with its one challenges but also new and innovative ways to teleworking. The current study addresses the role of leadership support and recognition as a mediator in the relationship between employee’s work requirement and their deteriorating work performance. The study also addresses the moderating role of employees’ mental health. Based on a survey of 888 individuals working from home, we reveal a moderated mediation relationship between employees’ work requirement, and deteriorating work performance. The findings hold important implications for those currently working hybrid and most specially for supervisors managing such individuals. 

National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-58313 (URN)978-952-335-694-8 (ISBN)
Conference
The XXXIII ISPIM Innovation Conference "Innovating in a Digital World", held in Copenhagen, Denmark on 05 June to 08 June 2022
Available from: 2022-05-30 Created: 2022-05-30 Last updated: 2022-11-08Bibliographically approved
Backström, T. & Tripney Berglund, R. (2022). Interaction training – an enabler for improvement measures within the psychosocial risk assessment process. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 15(5), 553-571
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction training – an enabler for improvement measures within the psychosocial risk assessment process
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 553-571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The study objectives were to (1) identify if providing solution-focused interaction training enables managers and employees to develop and implement actions to improve their psychosocial work environment and (2) test a recontextualization of the psychosocial work environment as social structures affecting members of the workplace and verify if social interactions effectively change the local psychosocial work environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The intervention involved training managers, supervisors and employees in solution-focused interaction. This study used a controlled interrupted time-series design, with an intervention and control group (CG) and pre- and post-measurements.

Findings

The psychosocial work environment improved, indicating that the training led to better social interactions, contributing to changes in the social structures within the intervention group (IG). Collective reflection between participants in the take action phase was the key to success. The recontextualization uncovered these mechanisms.

Research limitations/implications

The present study supports a recontextualization of the psychosocial work environment as primarily decided by social structures that emerge in recurrent interactions within work teams. The same social structures also seem to be important for other features of the production system, like job performance.

Practical implications

Training designed to enable high-quality social interactions, like dialogue and collective reflection, has proven to be effective in changing social structures. Moreover, managers may need training in facilitating the collective reflection between participants. Increased focus on social interactions within work teams is suggested for future study of organizational change processes, psychosocial work environment and practical psychosocial work environment management.

Originality/value

The intervention was delivered in the preparation phase to enable an effective take action phase. Both phases are less studied in psychosocial risk assessments research. The recontextualization has never been fully used in psychosocial research.

National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-58309 (URN)10.1108/ijwhm-02-2021-0040 (DOI)000797299500001 ()2-s2.0-85131055389 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-30 Created: 2022-05-30 Last updated: 2022-11-17Bibliographically approved
Berglund, R., Omorede, A. & Backström, T. (2022). Managements organisational and social work environment during the pandemic in Sweden. In: Jessica Lindblom; Cecilia Österman (Ed.), Conference Proceedings of the 51st NES Conference: . Paper presented at The 51st NES Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 23-25 October, 2022 (pp. 1-8).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managements organisational and social work environment during the pandemic in Sweden
2022 (English)In: Conference Proceedings of the 51st NES Conference / [ed] Jessica Lindblom; Cecilia Österman, 2022, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Managements working conditions during the pandemic are important since they are the ones who had to motivate, encourage, and navigate their team during this unique time in history. Managers are vital in forming the working environment conditions for others. When they feel stressed and overwhelmed, this acts as a barrier to caring for and supporting their team members. Our study aimed to investigate managers’ organisational and social work environment conditions and health when working from home during the pandemic.This study has a cross-sectional design. Survey data were collected one year into the COVID-19 pandemic from April-May 2021. We used a survey with fixed questions to collect data from four different organisations and through an open online survey. Data on the 161 managers out of a total of 888 respondents is included in the present study. We compare the manager’s data to pre-pandemic reference values.The respondents report on average a PSC-score of 14. Quantitative demands, work pace, social support from colleagues & supervisors and work life balance were better for managers during the pandemic. There was no difference in burnout scores compared to pre-pandemic reference values. Male managers reported significantly lower levels of work demands compared to female managers and better work life balance. Male managers also reported lower social support from their supervisor.Workplaces should pay attention to differences in working conditions provided for male and female managers going forward.The way the data is presented in this paper could be useful for practitioners to use when introducing PSC and COPSOQ to the workplace.

Keywords
Managers, COPSOQ III, Work from Home, Psychosocial Safety Climate
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-60360 (URN)978-91-506-2975-0 (ISBN)
Conference
The 51st NES Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 23-25 October, 2022
Available from: 2022-10-24 Created: 2022-10-24 Last updated: 2022-11-08Bibliographically approved
Berglund, R., Omorede, A. & Backström, T. (2021). Arbete på distans hemifrån våren 2021: Sammanfattande resultatredovisning. Mälardalens högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbete på distans hemifrån våren 2021: Sammanfattande resultatredovisning
2021 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna rapport är att beskriva erfarenheterna hos individer som behöver arbeta hemifrån till följd av covid-19. Rapporten är en del av ett större forskningsprojekt som finansieras av AFA försäkringoch pågår till och med juni 2023.En enkätstudie genomfördes genom fem olika verksamheter under våren 2021. 888 personer svarade. 161 var chefer och 34 skyddsombud. Av dem som svarade hade antalet timmar arbete utfört på distansfrån hemmet ökat. Antalet timmar ökade från 4,5 timmar i veckan innan pandemin till strax under 38 timmar i veckan vid svarstillfället.

Organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö

• De som arbetar hemifrån upplever att ledningen prioriterar deras psykisk hälsa och rapporterarett gott psykosocialt säkerhetsklimat.

• Krav i arbetet: Deltagarna rapporterar bättre arbetstempo och känslomässiga krav än referensvärden innan pandemin. Kvantitativa krav är likvärdiga referensvärden innan pandemin

• Arbetsorganisering och innehåll: Inflytande är bättre än referensvärden innan pandemin.Utvecklingsmöjligheter och mening i arbetet är likvärdiga referensvärden innan pandemin.

• Relationer och ledarskap: Ledarskapskvalitet och socialt stöd från överordnad är bättre än referensvärden innan pandemin. Rollkonflikt, socialt stöd från kollegor och social gemenskap i arbetet är likvärdiga. Rolltydlighet och erkännande är sämre än referensvärden innan pandemin.

• Samspel mellan arbete och individ: Tillfredställelse med arbete och effekten av arbete på privatliv är bättre än referensvärden innan pandemin. Arbetsengagemang, oro för arbetslöshetoch oro för förändrade förhållanden och kvalitet i arbetet är likvärdiga. Konflikt mellan privatliv och arbete har inget referensvärde men resultaten visar på att privatlivet påverkar arbete mindre än hur mycket arbete påverkar privatliv.

• Social kapital: Organisatorisk rättvisa och vertikal tillit är likvärdiga nivåerna innan pandemin.

Psykisk hälsa

• Inom psykisk hälsa finns det referensvärden för utmattning. Nivån på utmattning är lägre än referensvärden innan pandemin.

• Kognitiv stress saknar referensvärden. Isolation ligger på 35 av en 0–100 skala och kognitiv stress på 25. Det är önskvärt med ett lågt resultat för båda.

Fysisk hälsa

• På en skala av 0 till 100 där 0 är inte alls och 100 hela tiden är snittnivån för samtliga deltagarna24 för ryggvärk, 34 för muskelvärk i axlar, nacke, händer och armbågar och 32 för huvudvärkoch ögonbesvär. Här finns det inga referensvärden.

Stillasittande och självskattad hälsa.

• Stillasittande: Folkhälsomyndigheten rekommenderar att man ska röra på sig några minuter varje halvtimme. Av de tillfrågade sitter 6% mindre än 1 timme i sträck under en vanligarbetsdag. Resten av respondenterna sitter längre. 22% sitter 4h eller mer i sträck. Här finns det inga referensvärden.

• Självskattad hälsa: Deltagarna rapporterar en likvärdig hälsa när de ska skatta det själva än innan pandemin.

Arbetsprestation (inga referensvärden)

• De flesta rapporterade en liten grad av minskad arbetsprestation som kan härledas till arbetsmiljö och hälsa.

• De flesta rapporterade att sin hälsa och arbetsmiljö vid distansarbete påverkade sin arbetsprestation positivt. 41% av svarande rapporterade att sin arbetsprestation hade förbättrats i mycket hög grad eller i hög grad pga. arbetsmiljön vid arbete hemifrån under pandemin.

• De flesta rapporterade att sin arbetsprestation hade påverkats positivt av sin hälsa vid arbete hemifrån. 38% av svarande rapporterade att sin arbetsprestation hade förbättrats i mycket hög grad eller i hög grad pga. sin hälsa vid arbete hemifrån under pandemin.

Virtuell sjuknärvaro (inga referensvärden)

• 34% rapporterade att de var borta pga. sjukdom mellan 1–15 dagar och 5% rapporterade mer än15 dagars sjukfrånvaro.

• Hälften av dem som arbetade när de var sjuka gjorde det trots att de med tanke hälsotillståndet egentligen borde ha låtit bli.

• Den vanligaste anledningen till att arbeta trots sjukdom är att ingen annan kan göra jobbet och för att inte belasta kollegorna. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mälardalens högskola, 2021
Series
Mälardalen University Living Lab@ IPR PressMälardalen University Living Lab Press
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-56449 (URN)
Note

Finansierad av AFA försäkring

Available from: 2021-11-05 Created: 2021-11-11 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Köping Olsson, B. & Backström, T. (2021). Att leda kreativa processer i grupp över tid. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att leda kreativa processer i grupp över tid
2021 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna bilaga till lärarhandledningen ”Teknikcollege modell för innovation och entreprenörskap” är att presentera en process inklusive instruktioner för ledning och facilitering av fyra faser i gruppbaserad kreativ problemlösning och idéutveckling, dvs. att leda kreativa processer i grupp över tid. Teoribildningen som ligger till grund för denna metodik är baserad på forskning vid avdelningen för innovationsledning, Mälardalens högskola. Dessa instruktioner för pedagogiskt ledarskap av gruppers kreativa processer utgör även underlag, och legitimitet, för utveckling av en sammanhållen modell för innovationsarbete och entreprenörskap såsom det praktiseras i processer för Blixtlåset och UF-företagande. 

Kreativitet är mycket viktigt i alla typer av verksamheter inte minst inom utbildning eftersom den driver upptäckande därmed lärande generellt. Mer specifikt utvecklar idégenerering ett bredare tänkande vilket har visat sig bidra positivt till elevernas sociala interaktion och ökad förståelse för olikheter. Det innebär, förutom utveckling av affärsidéer och företagande att detta även är viktiga förmågor i elevernas övriga studier och skolgång. I ett större perspektiv är kreativitet och förmåga till kreativt samarbete viktigt för demokratisk samhällsutveckling och framtida möjligheter att klara globala utmaningar.För att fortsätta lyckas med att ta fram nya lösningar och tänka såväl självständigt som tillsammans behöver eleverna aktiviteter under sin skoldag som gör det möjligt för dem att minimera funktionell fixering (ex. hämmande vanor) och istället utveckla förhållningssätt som är öppet för olika typer av nya upplevelser och förändrande synsätt, vilket är centralt i kreativitet. Forskning visar samband mellan flödande idégenerering och integrativt socialt beteende, där träning i att tänka kreativt (divergent) även utvecklar breddad uppmärksamhet. Träning av kreativitet i grupper bör därför vara återkommande aktiviteter som del av övrig undervisning eftersom detta utvecklar elevernas förmågor att ta initiativ och fatta beslut såväl individuellt som tillsammans.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: , 2021. p. 48+21
Keywords
Gruppkreativitet, Ledarskap, Konceptutveckling
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-54027 (URN)
Available from: 2021-04-27 Created: 2021-04-27 Last updated: 2021-06-24Bibliographically approved
Berglund, R., Omorede, A. & Backström, T. (2021). Avoiding the pitfall of work-related stress in the transition to industry 4.0. In: 28th EUROMA Conference (European Operations Management Association). 5 - 7 July 2021 Online.: . Paper presented at EUROMA 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avoiding the pitfall of work-related stress in the transition to industry 4.0
2021 (English)In: 28th EUROMA Conference (European Operations Management Association). 5 - 7 July 2021 Online., 2021Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is widely accepted that the integration of new technologies, work practices and working methods lie at the core of a successful transition to Industry 4.0. However, work-relatedstress can impair this transition. This literature review aims to identify organisational and social work factors linked to work-related stress so that they may be integrated into the transition process. This literature review uses thematic analysis to identify and organise work factors into four levels: community, company, department/group and individual.Companies should integrate identifying and treating causes of work-related stress at the company and department/group-level into the transition to industry 4.0.

Keywords
Industry 4.0, Stress, Work Environment.
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Working Life Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-55546 (URN)
Conference
EUROMA 2021
Available from: 2021-08-12 Created: 2021-08-12 Last updated: 2021-09-06
Fundin, A., Backström, T. & Johansson, P. E. (2021). Exploring the emergent quality management paradigm. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 32(5-6), 476-488
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the emergent quality management paradigm
2021 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 32, no 5-6, p. 476-488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of successful production systems is affected by conflicting forces, that is, initiatives seemingly conducive for one line of work can be a constraint for another. Consequently, this paper presents an alternative perspective on how these issues could be managed in organisations. There are a number of key challenges in terms of the involved dichotomies for future innovative quality improvements in operations. These dichotomies are part of four interrelated processes that are the central elements of a production system. As such, aiming for stability or change is a production process dilemma in terms of the production and distribution of offerings and solutions. Control and creativity are the main dilemmas of the innovation process, that is, the creation and implementation of new offerings and solutions, while exploitation and exploration are the dilemmas of the knowledge creation process and efficiency and effectiveness of the value creation process. As the simultaneous existence of both parts of the dichotomy seems to be a paradox, this paper suggests the emergent quality management paradigm as an alternative perspective providing the guidance, examples, and practical solutions necessary to solve these dilemmas by recognising the dichotomies as mutually dependent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United Kingdom: , 2021
Keywords
ambidexterity, emergence, quality management, innovation, production system, operations management
National Category
Engineering and Technology Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43928 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2019.1591946 (DOI)000626921900002 ()2-s2.0-85063062006 (Scopus ID)
Projects
XPRES - Excellence in Production Research
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2021-11-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1277-4877

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