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Hakalehto, E. & Dahlquist, E. (2018). A microbiological approach to the ecosystem services. In: Microbiological Environmental Hygiene: (pp. 433-474). Nova Science Publisher Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A microbiological approach to the ecosystem services
2018 (English)In: Microbiological Environmental Hygiene, Nova Science Publisher Inc. , 2018, p. 433-474Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Man has always exploited the environment for securing human life and culture. This “tradition” is both embedded into our instincts as well as a mode of behavior and a learnt method of survival in our societies. However, alongside with the globalization of the economy, internationalization, industrialization and population growth, the consequences of the one-sided approach of the past have become unbearable for the environment. Consequently, in order to maintain life on earth in its current form, we should establish new thinking and modes of action. Therefore, the survival strategies for Mankind should inherently contain the strive for sustainability, as well as the tendency to avoid past mistakes, and to repair them instantaneously whenever possible. The agricultural tradition of different nations leans on the centuries old wisdom of human civilization in a good sense. For example, the East Asian agricultural societies have learnt to handle each piece of land in their possession in an individual manner, taking into account the local environmental conditions. These principles are now more and more unanimously accepted, at least in theory. Also, the industrial ecosystem needs to be functioning in the natural way, and in balance with the environment. This is a necessity in the reversion or prevention of any developing environmental catastrophes that could wait behind the corner. As the major vehicles for the circulation of matter, microbes are in a key position and provide means for finding the solutions to serve the global ecosystems. In the aftermath of a vast environmental crisis, namely the oil leakage from the “Deepwater Horizon” oil platform well in the Mexican Gulf in the year 2010, it was noticed that the dramatic consequences of the spill were mitigated and the worst scenario of destruction avoided thanks to the cleaning actions of the marine micro-organisms. This was a positive result both ecologically and in economic sense. It further encouraged the scientists to find and isolate microbial strains which could be used for such operations. Although the natural microflora compensated and mitigated the effects of the Deepwater Horizon accident surprisingly well in 2010, there have been observations and concerns about the long term effects of this ecocatastroph (Geggel, 2015).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nova Science Publisher Inc., 2018
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39982 (URN)2-s2.0-85048411356 (Scopus ID)9781536131796 (ISBN)9781536131789 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-21 Created: 2018-06-21 Last updated: 2018-06-21Bibliographically approved
Wang, C., Yan, J., Marnay, C., Djilali, N., Dahlquist, E., Wu, J. & Jia, H. (2018). Distributed Energy and Microgrids (DEM). Applied Energy, 210, 685-689
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Energy and Microgrids (DEM)
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 210, p. 685-689Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37598 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.11.059 (DOI)000419813100054 ()2-s2.0-85038265408 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-28 Created: 2017-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
Naqvi, M., Dahlquist, E., Yan, J., Naqvi, S. R., Nizami, A. S., Salman, C. A., . . . Qureshi, A. S. (2018). Polygeneration system integrated with small non-wood pulp mills for substitute natural gas production. Applied Energy, 224, 636-646
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polygeneration system integrated with small non-wood pulp mills for substitute natural gas production
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 224, p. 636-646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to examine the potential substitute natural gas (SNG) production by integrating black liquor gasification (BLG) island with a small wheat straw-based non-wood pulp mills (NPM), which do not employ the black liquor recovery cycle. For such integration, it is important to first build knowledge on expected improvements in an overall integrated non-wood pulp mill energy system using the key performance indicators. O2-blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification with direct causticization is integrated with a reference small NPM to evaluate the overall performance. A detailed economic analysis is performed together with a sensitivity analysis based on variations in the rate of return due to varying biomass price, total capital investment, and natural gas prices. The quantitive results showed considerable SNG production but significantly reduced electricity production. There is a substantial CO2 abatement potential combining CO2 capture and CO2 mitigation from SNG use replacing compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline. The economic performance through sensitivity analysis reflects significant dependency on both substitute natural gas production and natural gas market price. Furthermore, the solutions to address the challenges and barriers for the successful commercial implementation of BLG based polygeneration system at small NPMs are discussed. The system performance and discussion on the real application of integrated system presented in this article form a vital literature source for future use by large number of small non-wood pulp industries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39297 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046790342 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
Ghaviha, N., Bohlin, M., Holmberg, C., Dahlquist, E., Skoglund, R. & Jonasson, D. (2017). A driver advisory system with dynamic losses for passenger electric multiple units. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 85, 111-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A driver advisory system with dynamic losses for passenger electric multiple units
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2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 85, p. 111-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driver advisory systems, instructing the driver how to control the train in an energy efficient manner, is one the main tools for minimizing energy consumption in the railway sector. There are many driver advisory systems already available in the market, together with significant literature on the mathematical formulation of the problem. However, much less is published on the development of such mathematical formulations, their implementation in real systems, and on the empirical data from their deployment. Moreover, nearly all the designed driver advisory systems are designed as an additional hardware to be added in drivers’ cabin. This paper discusses the design of a mathematical formulation and optimization approach for such a system, together with its implementation into an Android-based prototype, the results from on-board practical experiments, and experiences from the implementation. The system is based on a more realistic train model where energy calculations take into account dynamic losses in different components of the propulsion system, contrary to previous approaches. The experimental evaluation shows a significant increase in accuracy, as compared to a previous approach. Tests on a double-track section of the Mälaren line in Sweden demonstrates a significant potential for energy saving.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
Keywords
Driver advisory system, Electric multiple unit, Energy efficiency, Driver training, Electric losses, Electric railroads, Electric traction, Energy conservation, Energy utilization, Propulsion, Railroad transportation, Rapid transit, Advisory systems, Double-track section, Energy calculation, Experimental evaluation, Mathematical formulation, Minimizing energy, Optimization approach, control system, electric vehicle, energy use, optimization, railway transport, train, Sweden
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37410 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2017.09.010 (DOI)000423006600006 ()2-s2.0-85034098198 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-02-08Bibliographically approved
Rahman, M., Avelin, A., Kyprianidis, K. & Dahlquist, E. (2017). An Approach For Feedforward Model Predictive Control For Pulp and Paper Applications: Challenges And The Way Forward. In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2017: Renew, Rethink, Redefine the Future, Volume 3. Paper presented at PaperCon 2017, April 23 - 26, 2017 Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA (pp. 1441-1450). TAPPI Press, 10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Approach For Feedforward Model Predictive Control For Pulp and Paper Applications: Challenges And The Way Forward
2017 (English)In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2017: Renew, Rethink, Redefine the Future, Volume 3, TAPPI Press, 2017, Vol. 10, p. 1441-1450Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to the naturally varying feedstock, significant residence time, insufficient measurements and complex nature of the delignification process, producing pulp with consistent quality i.e. stable kappa number with sufficiently high yield is a challenging task that requires multi-variable process control. A wide variety of control structures, ranging from classical concepts like cascade control, feedforward, ratio control, and parallel control to more modern concepts like model-based predictive control, is used in pulp and paper industries all over the world. In this paper, a survey of model-based predictive control will be presented along with the control challenges that lie within the chemical pulping process. The potential of this control concept for overcoming the aforementioned technical challenges will also be discussed in the second part of the paper. Particular focus will be given on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy based soft-sensors coupled with dynamic process models as an enabler for feedforward model-based predictive control. Overall, the proposed control concept is expected to significantly improve process performance, in the presence of measurement noise and various complex chemical process uncertainties common in pulp and paper applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAPPI Press, 2017
Keywords
Pulp and paper, Pump Digester, MPC, Advanced control, Process modelling, NIR
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35839 (URN)2-s2.0-85041499426 (Scopus ID)9781510847286 (ISBN)
Conference
PaperCon 2017, April 23 - 26, 2017 Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Projects
FUDIPO
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2017-06-19 Created: 2017-06-19 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
Skvaril, J., Kyprianidis, K. & Dahlquist, E. (2017). Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review. Applied spectroscopy reviews (Softcover ed.), 52(8), 675-728
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review
2017 (English)In: Applied spectroscopy reviews (Softcover ed.), ISSN 0570-4928, E-ISSN 1520-569X, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 675-728Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass used in energy conversion processes is typically characterized by high variability, making its utilization challenging. Therefore, there is a need for a fast and non-destructive method to determine feedstock/product properties and directly monitor process reactors. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique together with advanced data analysis methods offers a possible solution. This review focuses on the introduction of the NIRS method and its recent applications to physical, thermochemical, biochemical and physiochemical biomass conversion processes represented mainly by pelleting, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, as well as biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel production. NIRS has been proven to be a reliable and inexpensive method with a great potential for use in process optimization, advanced control, or product quality assurance.

Keywords
Biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biomass, chemometrics, near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, near infrared, NIR, instrumentation
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Energy Systems Chemical Process Engineering Bioenergy Bioprocess Technology
Research subject
Biotechnology/Chemical Engineering; Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-34992 (URN)10.1080/05704928.2017.1289471 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029956089 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-03 Created: 2017-03-03 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
Hellstrand, S. & Dahlquist, E. (2017). Biologic resources. In: Natural Resources Available Today and in the Future: How to Perform Change Management for Achieving a Sustainable World: (pp. 93-156). Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biologic resources
2017 (English)In: Natural Resources Available Today and in the Future: How to Perform Change Management for Achieving a Sustainable World, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 93-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2017
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37312 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-54263-8_4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85033352259 (Scopus ID)9783319542638 (ISBN)9783319542614 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2017-11-23Bibliographically approved
Dahlquist, E., Naqvi, M., Thorin, E., Yan, J. & Kyprianidis, K. (2017). Comparison of Gas Quality from Black Liquor and Wood Pellet Gasification Using Modelica Simulation and Pilot Plant Results. Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2016, 8 October 2016 through 11 October 2016. Energy Procedia, 105, 992-998
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Gas Quality from Black Liquor and Wood Pellet Gasification Using Modelica Simulation and Pilot Plant Results
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2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 992-998Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a potential to integrate biomass gasification with pulp & paper and CHP plants in order to complement the existing systems with production of chemicals, such as methane, hydrogen, and methanol etc. To perform system analysis of such integration, it is important to gain knowledge of relevant input data on expected synthesis gas composition by gasifying different types of feed stock. In this paper, the synthesis gas quality from wood pellets gasification (WPG) has been compared with black liquor gasification (BLG) through modeling and experimental results at pilot scale. In addition, the study develops regression models like Partial Least Squares (PLS) made from the experimental data. The regression models are then combined with dynamic models developed in Modelica for the investigation of dynamic energy and material balances for integrated plants. The data presented in this study could be used as input to relevant analysis using e.g. ASPEN plus and similar system analysis tools. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35989 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.437 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020716474 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2016, 8 October 2016 through 11 October 2016
Available from: 2017-06-29 Created: 2017-06-29 Last updated: 2018-03-07Bibliographically approved
Naqvi, M. R., Dahlquist, E. & Yan, J. (2017). Complementing existing CHP plants using biomass for production of hydrogen and burning the residual gas in a CHP boiler. Biofuels (6), 675-683
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complementing existing CHP plants using biomass for production of hydrogen and burning the residual gas in a CHP boiler
2017 (English)In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, no 6, p. 675-683Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefinery systems at combined heat and power (CHP) plants represent numerous technical, economic and environmental benefits by utilizing the existing biomass handling infrastructure and producing biofuels together with heat and power. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of integrating biomass gasification to an existing CHP plant. Integration includes biomass gasification with downstream processing of the synthesis gas to remove particles and tars, condense out water, remove CO2 and use membrane filtration (polyamide membrane) to extract hydrogen. The separated residual gas components are utilized as extra fuel to the boiler in the CHP plant. Approximately 58.5 MWth of synthesis gas can be produced from a 90 MWth plant that represents 16.4 MWthof hydrogen. The rest of the heating value of produced synthesis gas (in the form of methane and carbon monoxide) is utilized for heat and power production. From an economic perspective, the production cost of hydrogen is estimated to be 0.125–0.75 €/kg. This can be compared to the US governments goal that H2 produced by wind power plus electrolyzers should have a maximum cost of 2.8–3.4 €/kg. The lower cost is for a unit operating at 3 bar and assuming that the costs are split between H2 and the syngas residue that is combusted, while the higher prices assume an atmospheric gasifier and all costs are put on the H2 produced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
Gasification; CHP; hydrogen production; economic analysis
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31472 (URN)10.1080/17597269.2016.1153362 (DOI)000418915800006 ()2-s2.0-84964343799 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Polygeneration and Process Optimization for Advanced Combined Heat and Power Plants (PolyPO)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-04-26 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Avelin, A., Dahlquist, E. & Wallin, F. (2017). Effect of different renovation actions, their investment cost and future potential. Energy Procedia, 143, 73-79
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of different renovation actions, their investment cost and future potential
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 143, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

65% of the buildings in Västerås, situated in the region of Mälardalen, Sweden were built before 1970. It is thus time for renovation. The situation is the same in most cities in Sweden and Northern Europe. The depth of renovation can be quite different. In this paper we evaluate some examples where cost is compared to energy saving effect. How to plan renovation to make use of the available capital in the cities is discussed. As a complement to direct renovation actions also behavior change with respect to energy is discussed and exemplified. The cost for energy actions in relation to other renovation aspects is discussed especially for the passive house case in Allingsås, Sweden. The passive house center calculate an extra cost for passive house standard to be 10 000 €/apartment while an external consultant has the figure 40 000 € of the total cost of 120 000 €. With this space heating can be 18 kWh/m2.year, or a reduction by 84 % with respect to space heating and 62% for overall heat and hot water demand. If you use the latter cost figure passive house standard is not motivated from an energy savings perspective while if using the lower figure it is very interesting. For the other less deep renovations we see that adding more insulation and three glass windows is motivated if the degradation has been strong, while a simpler renovation may be ok if the outer surface coating is not too bad. For these less deep renovations we see cost figures of 65 €/m2 respectively 28 €/m2 with reduction of heating and hot water demand of 56 % respectively 34 %. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38582 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.650 (DOI)000426865600011 ()2-s2.0-85040807197 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2018-04-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7233-6916

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