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Swing Gustafsson, M., Myhren, J. A. & Dotzauer, E. (2017). Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden. Energy Procedia, 105, 1434-1439.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, 1434-1439 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Nordic electricity system faces many challenges with an increased share of intermittent power from renewable sources. One such challenge is to have enough capacity installed to cover the peak demands. In Sweden these peaks appear during the winter since a lot of electricity is used for heating. In this paper a mapping of the heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden is presented. The paper analyze the potential for a larger market share of district heating (DH) and how it can affect the electrical power balance in the case study. The current heat market (HM) and electricity consumption is presented and divided into different user categories. Heating in detached houses not connected to DH covers 25 % of the HM, and 30 % of the electricity consumption during the peak hours. Converting the detached houses not connected to DH in densely populated areas to DH could reduce the annual electricity consumption by 10 %, and the electricity consumption during the peak hours by 20 %.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-34252 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.534 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020728483 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2017-06-29Bibliographically approved
Swing Gustafsson, M., Gustafsson, M., Myhren, J. A. & Dotzauer, E. (2016). Primary energy use in buildings in a Swedish perspective. Energy and Buildings, 130, 202-209.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Primary energy use in buildings in a Swedish perspective
2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 130, 202-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The building sector accounts for a large part of the energy use in Europe and is a sector where the energy efficiency needs to improve in order to reach the EU energy and climate goals. The energy efficiency goal is set in terms of primary energy even though there are different opinions on how to calculate primary energy. When determining the primary energy use in a building several assumptions are made regarding allocation and the value of different energy sources. In order to analyze the difference in primary energy when different methods are used, this study use 16 combinations of different assumptions to calculate the primary energy use for three simulated heating and ventilations systems in a building. The system with the lowest primary energy use differs depending on the method used. Comparing a system with district heating and mechanical exhaust ventilation with a system with district heating, mechanical exhaust ventilation and exhaust air heat pump, the former has a 40% higher primary energy use in one scenario while the other has a 320% higher in another scenario. This illustrates the difficulty in determining which system makes the largest contribution to fulfilling the EU energy and climate goals.

Keyword
Air heat recovery, District heating, Energy efficiency, Heat pump, Primary energy, Primary energy factors, Heat pump systems, Heating, Ventilation, Ventilation exhausts, Waste heat, Building sectors, Different energy sources, Exhaust air, Heat pumps, Large parts, Mechanical exhausts, Primary energies, Primary energy use
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33110 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.08.026 (DOI)000385323900019 ()2-s2.0-84983483204 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Patrizio, P., Leduc, S., Chinese, D., Dotzauer, E. & Kraxner, F. (2015). Biomethane as transport fuel - A comparison with other biogas utilization pathways in northern Italy. Applied Energy, 157, 25-34.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomethane as transport fuel - A comparison with other biogas utilization pathways in northern Italy
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2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 157, 25-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Italy is a large producer of biogas from anaerobic digestion, which is mainly used for power generation with limited use of cogenerated heat. Other utilization pathways, such as biomethane injection into the natural gas grid or biomethane used as a vehicle fuel, remain unexplored. Given the dense grid of natural gas pipelines and existing Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) refueling stations in northern Italy, significant market opportunities for biogas could also arise in the heating and transport sectors. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the potential role of agricultural biogas in different utilization pathways. Biogas combustion for simultaneous production of heat and power in small Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities is also assessed, as is upgrading to biomethane for transport or natural gas grid injection in the specific context of northern Italy. The spatially explicit optimization model BeWhere is used to identify optimal locations where greenfield biogas plants could be installed and to determine the most economic and environmentally beneficial mix of conversion technologies and plant capacities. Carbon price, for instance in the form of tradable emission permits, is assessed as a policy instrument and compared with other options such as price premiums on biomethane or electricity costs. Results show that starting from a carbon price of 15EUR/tCO<inf>2</inf>, the cogeneration option is preferable if plants are located in the proximity of existing district heating infrastructure. CNG plants are only competitive starting at a carbon price of 70EUR/tCO<inf>2</inf> in areas with high feedstock availability. The sensitivity analysis for energy prices reveals that a larger number of CNG facilities are included in the optimal mix at higher gas wholesale prices. This further indicates that specific premiums are needed to expand the biomethane market share, while greenhouse gas emission reductions would primarily be achieved by fostering cogeneration of electricity and heat supported by carbon price-based policy instruments.

Keyword
Biogas supply chain, Biomethane upgrading, MILP, Spatial explicit optimization, Amphibious vehicles, Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Cogeneration plants, Commerce, Competition, Compressed natural gas, Costs, Electric power transmission networks, Emission control, Fuels, Gases, Greenhouse gases, Integer programming, Ionization of gases, Natural gas, Natural gas pipelines, Optimization, Sensitivity analysis, Supply chains, Biomethane, Combined heat and power, Compressed natural gasses (CNG), Conversion technology, Greenhouse gas emission reduction, Optimization modeling, Tradable emission permits, Natural gas vehicles
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28725 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.07.074 (DOI)000364249200003 ()2-s2.0-84938797886 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Starfelt, F., Tomas Aparicio, E., Li, H. & Dotzauer, E. (2015). Integration of torrefaction in CHP plants - A case study. Energy Conversion and Management, 90, 427-435.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of torrefaction in CHP plants - A case study
2015 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 90, 427-435 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Torrefied biomass shows characteristics that resemble those of coal. Therefore, torrefied biomass can be co-combusted with coal in existing coal mills and burners. This paper presents simulation results of a case study where a torrefaction reactor was integrated in an existing combined heat and power plant and sized to replace 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of the fossil coal in one of the boilers. The simulations show that a torrefaction reactor can be integrated with existing plants without compromising heat or electricity production. Economic and sensitivity analysis show that the additional cost for integrating a torrefaction reactor is low which means that with an emission allowance cost of 37 €/ton CO2, the proposed integrated system can be profitable and use 100% renewable fuels. The development of subsidies will affect the process economy. The determinant parameters are electricity and fuel prices.

Keyword
Biomass, Combined heat and power (CHP), District heating, Polygeneration, Torrefaction, Carbon dioxide, Coal, Cost benefit analysis, Costs, Sensitivity analysis, Additional costs, Combined heat and power, Combined heat and power plants, Electricity production, Emission allowances, Integrated systems, Poly-generation, Cogeneration plants
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26943 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.11.019 (DOI)000348886800040 ()2-s2.0-84915745084 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-12-19 Created: 2014-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Djuric Ilic, D., Dotzauer, E., Trygg, L. & Broman, G. (2014). Integration of biofuel production into district heating - Part I: An evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 69, 176-187.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of biofuel production into district heating - Part I: An evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, 176-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well. In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced. Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%. 

Keyword
Biofuel production, District heating, Energy cooperation, Polygeneration
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24866 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.035 (DOI)000335102900020 ()2-s2.0-84897422596 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Djuric Ilic, D., Dotzauer, E., Trygg, L. & Broman, G. (2014). Integration of biofuel production into district heating - Part II: An evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 69, 188-198.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of biofuel production into district heating - Part II: An evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, 188-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied. Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. 

Keyword
Biofuel, District heating, Energy cooperation, Transport sector
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24865 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.042 (DOI)000335102900021 ()2-s2.0-84897464107 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Djuric Ilic, D., Dotzauer, E., Trygg, L. & Broman, G. (2014). Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - An opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 64(1), 552-561.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - An opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, no 1, 552-561 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass. 

Keyword
Biofuel, District heating, Energy cooperation, Greenhouse gas emissions, Transport sector
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24172 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.08.029 (DOI)000329595700051 ()2-s2.0-84890311005 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Natarajan, K., Leduc, S., Pelkonen, P., Tomppo, E. & Dotzauer, E. (2014). Optimal locations for second generation Fischer Tropsch biodiesel production in Finland. Renewable energy, 62, 319-330.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal locations for second generation Fischer Tropsch biodiesel production in Finland
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2014 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 62, 319-330 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A country level spatially explicit mixed integer linear programming model has been applied to identify the optimal Fischer Tropsch biodiesel production plants locations in Finland. The optimal plant locations with least cost options are identified by minimizing the complete costs of the supply chain with respect to feedstock supply (energywood, pulpwood, sawmill residuals, wood imports), industrial competition (pulp mill, sawmill, combined heat and power plants, pellet industries) and energy demand (biodiesel, heat, biofuel import). Model results show that five biodiesel production plants of 390MWfeedstock are needed to be built to meet the 2020 renewable energy target in transport (25.2PJ). Given current market conditions, the Fischer Tropsch biodiesel can be produced at a cost around 18€/GJ including by-products income. Furthermore, the parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the production plant parameters such as investment costs and conversion efficiency are found to have profound influence on the biodiesel cost, and then followed by feedstock cost and plant size. In addition, the variations in feedstock costs and industrial competition determine the proportion of feedstock resource allocation to the production plants. The results of this study could help decision makers to strategically locate the FT-biodiesel production plants in Finland.

Keyword
Biodiesel, Fischer Tropsch, Mixed integer programming, Optimization, Supply chain
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-21196 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2013.07.013 (DOI)000328095000036 ()2-s2.0-84881538039 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-08-29 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Guziana, B., Song, H., Thorin, E., Dotzauer, E. & Yan, J. (2014). Policy Based Scenarios for Waste-to-Energy Use: Swedish Perspective. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 5(4), 679-688.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy Based Scenarios for Waste-to-Energy Use: Swedish Perspective
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2014 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, Vol. 5, no 4, 679-688 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of waste for energy purposes becomes increasingly interesting with respect to waste management and the energy systems. The decisions on alternative uses of waste for energy are mainly influenced by different policies, waste management, energy supply and use, as well as technologies. Two important issues, namely, a clear priority of waste prevention in waste management within EU and the growing concern for food losses and food waste at global and national level, shall be carefully considered and addressed. This paper proposes policy based scenarios for waste-to-energy systems with a focus on Sweden and with a broader EU approach. As baseline for the scenario development an inventory of waste-to-energy related policies and goals on international, national, regional and local level as well as inventory of existing scenarios and reports with future trends is made. The main substitute for fossil fuels and the possibilities for renewable energy export are basic elements that define scenarios. Biofuels and electricity are identified as main substitutes for the fossil fuels. A low waste availability level is recommended to be included in sensitivity analysis for scenarios. This paper assumes relative decoupling in Low Waste scenario in 2030, and absolute decoupling first in 2050.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24095 (URN)10.1007/s12649-013-9262-7 (DOI)000347721100013 ()2-s2.0-84926317733 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-01-02 Created: 2014-01-02 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved
Han, S., Dotzauer, E., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2014). Techno-economic analysis of an integrated biorefinery system for poly-generation of power, heat, pellets and bioethanol. International journal of energy research (Print), 38(5), 551-563.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic analysis of an integrated biorefinery system for poly-generation of power, heat, pellets and bioethanol
2014 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 38, no 5, 551-563 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bioethanol is an alternative to fossil fuels in the transportation sector. The use of pellet for heating is also an efficient way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This paper evaluates the techno-economic performance of a biorefinery system in which an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant is integrated with the production of bioethanol and pellet using straw as feedstock. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process is used for bioethanol production, and two different drying technologies are applied to dry hydrolysis solid residues. A sensitivity analysis is performed on critical parameters such as the bioethanol selling price and feedstock price. The bioethanol production cost is also calculated for two cases with either 10 year or 15 year payback times. The results show that the second case is currently a more feasible economic configuration and reduces production costs by 36.4%-77.3% compared to other types of poly-generation plants that are not integrated into existing CHP plants. 

Keyword
combined heat and power, pellet, biorefinery, drying, integrated, bioethanol, straw
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15965 (URN)10.1002/er.3039 (DOI)000332988300002 ()2-s2.0-84895924485 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-10-29 Created: 2012-10-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
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