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Feng, J.-C. -., Yan, J., Yu, Z., Zeng, X. & Xu, W. (2018). Case study of an industrial park toward zero carbon emission. Applied Energy, 209, 65-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Case study of an industrial park toward zero carbon emission
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 209, p. 65-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial park shoulders heavy responsibilities for economic development, and in the meantime, acts the role as energy consumer and carbon emitter. Under the background of holding the average global temperature increase limited in 2 °C compared to the pre-industrial level, which was proposed in the Paris Agreement, the development of zero carbon emission at the industrial park level is of great importance. This study investigated how to realize zero carbon emission at an industrial park level. In addition, a practical case study of the Southern China Traditional Chinese Medicine Industrial Park located in the Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province of China was conducted. Scenario analyses were projected to realize zero carbon emission in this industrial park and the results show that zero carbon emission can be realized under all the three scenarios. Economic assessments found that purchasing carbon offsets get the minimum cost effectiveness under current market situation. However, purchasing carbon offset may not be the best choice from the aspect of absolute reduction. Sensitivity analyses illustrate that the cost effectiveness of carbon reduction is remarkably influenced by the carbon price and solar energy cost reduction ratio. Meanwhile, applying large-scale renewable energy and producing more carbon offset can harvest more economic and carbon reduction benefits when the current solar energy cost has been reduced by 90%. Moreover, challenges of building zero-carbon industrial park as well as the corresponding solution schemes were discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Economic assessment, Industrial park, Renewable energy, Scenario analysis, Zero carbon emission
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37231 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.10.069 (DOI)000418968500007 ()2-s2.0-85032442093 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved
Yang, X., Bai, Q., Guo, Z., Niu, Z., Yang, C., Jin, L., . . . Yan, J. (2018). Comparison of direct numerical simulation with volume-averaged method on composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage. Applied Energy, 229, 700-714
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of direct numerical simulation with volume-averaged method on composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 229, p. 700-714Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Melting heat transfer in open-cell metal foams embedded in phase-change materials (PCMS) predicted by the volume-averaged method (VAM) was systematically compared with that calculated using direct numerical simulation (DNS), with particular attention placed upon the contribution of natural convection in the melt region to overall phase change heat transfer. The two-temperature model based on the assumption of local thermal non-equilibrium was employed to account for the large difference of thermal conductivity between metallic ligaments and PCM (paraffin). The Forchheimer extended Darcy model was employed to describe the additional flow resistance induced by metal foam. For the DNS, a geometric model of metal foam based on tetrakaidehedron cells was reconstructed. The DNS results demonstrated significant temperature difference between ligament surface and PCM, thus confirming the feasibility of local thermal non-equilibrium employed in VAM simulations. Relative to the DNS results, the VAM combined with the two-temperature model could satisfactorily predict transient solid-liquid interface evolution and local temperature distribution, although pore-scale features of phase change were lost. The presence of natural convection affected significantly the melting front shape, temperature distribution and full melting. The contribution of natural convection to overall phase change heat transfer should be qualitatively and quantitatively given sufficient consideration from both macroscopic (VAM) and microscopic (DNS) point of views. Besides, practical significance and economic prospective using metal foam in TES unit for WHR system to provide residential heating or hot water is discussed and analyzed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Direct numerical simulation, Natural convection, Open-cell metal foam, Phase change, Volume averaged method
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40527 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.08.012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051406435 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-23 Created: 2018-08-23 Last updated: 2018-08-23Bibliographically approved
Lv, Y., Si, P., Rong, X., Yan, J., Feng, Y. & Zhu, X. (2018). Determination of optimum tilt angle and orientation for solar collectors based on effective solar heat collection. Applied Energy, 219, 11-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of optimum tilt angle and orientation for solar collectors based on effective solar heat collection
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 219, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Determination of optimum tilt angle and orientation of solar collectors by maximizing the total solar radiation may overestimate the energy production benefits, because a considerable amount of solar radiation is ineffective for practical solar collectors. In this paper, the concept of effective solar heat collection is proposed to rule out the ineffective solar radiation that could not be converted to available energy. Accordingly, an optimized mathematical model is developed and used to determine the optimum tilt angle and orientation of solar collectors installed in Lhasa during the heating season. Compared with the total solar radiation based optimum results, there is a deviation of 5° in the optimum orientations based on the effective solar heat collection. The case study shows that it is not advisable to adjust the optimum tilt angle on a monthly basis because there is no significance change in total solar energy gains in comparison with the case of no such adjustment during the heating season. In addition, the correction factors to achieving the maximum effective solar heat collection are given at different tilt angles and orientations to guide installation of solar collectors in practical engineering applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38911 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.03.014 (DOI)000430519200002 ()2-s2.0-85044100516 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-05-11Bibliographically approved
Wang, C., Yan, J., Marnay, C., Djilali, N., Dahlquist, E., Wu, J. & Jia, H. (2018). Distributed Energy and Microgrids (DEM). Applied Energy, 210, 685-689
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Energy and Microgrids (DEM)
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 210, p. 685-689Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37598 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.11.059 (DOI)000419813100054 ()2-s2.0-85038265408 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-28 Created: 2017-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
Zhang, C., Campana, P. E., Yang, J., Yu, C. & Yan, J. (2018). Economic assessment of photovoltaic water pumping integration with dairy milk production. Energy Conversion and Management, 177, 750-764
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic assessment of photovoltaic water pumping integration with dairy milk production
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2018 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 177, p. 750-764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As dairy consumption grows, domestic dairy farms face challenges in reducing the cost of feeds and the production of high-quality milk for market demands. This paper aims to introduce and integrate solar energy into the milk production chain to investigate its economic performance. By collecting data on milk production processes from 11 dairy farms in China, we quantified electricity usage and costs of milk production to identify the best and worst cases. Crop yields response to the water demand and the electricity requirements of the dairy farms were considered. The study simulated scenarios of self-sufficiency at 20%, 80%, and 100%, in the identified farms by integrating a photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system to provide both power and water for alfalfa and other feeds’ irrigation and subsequent milk production. We evaluated annual discounted cost, revenue and net profit under each scenario and case. The results showed that a dairy farm with an integrated PVWP system and self-sufficient feeds would lead to value add-ins, such as electricity saving with solar energy generation, economic cost saving of crops, and CO2 emission reduction. The analysis on return on investment (ROI) and internal rate of return (IRR) revealed that not all the self-sufficient feeds can bring positive marginal profit. Among the investigated scenarios and cases, the dairy farm marked out by the highest ROI with 3.12 and IRR with 20.4%, was the farm where the integrated PVWP system was used to reach 20% self-sufficiency (self-production of only alfalfa). The other scenarios and cases with higher levels of self-sufficiency showed lower ROIs and IRRs. This indicates that high self-production levels of feeds decrease the total profit due to high investment cost. Sensitivity analyses of crop price and operational cost were conducted for ROI with single and double factor approaches. Scale and production of feeds proportions should be carefully considered in improving the economic performance of dairy milk production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
China, Economic assessment, Milk productivity, Photovoltaic water pumping, Solar power
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41231 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2018.09.060 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054681599 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2018-10-26Bibliographically approved
Ding, Y., Shao, C., Yan, J., Song, Y., Zhang, C. & Guo, C. (2018). Economical flexibility options for integrating fluctuating wind energy in power systems: The case of China. Applied Energy, 228, 426-436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economical flexibility options for integrating fluctuating wind energy in power systems: The case of China
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 426-436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The inherent stochastic nature of wind power requires additional flexibility during power system operation. Traditionally, conventional generation is the only option to provide the required flexibility. However, the provision of the flexibility from the conventional generation such as coal-fired generating units comes at the cost of significantly additional fuel consumption and carbon emissions. Fortunately, with the development of the technologies, energy storage and customer demand response would be able to compete with the conventional generation in providing the flexibility. Give that power systems should deploy the most economic resources for provision of the required operational flexibility, this paper presents a detailed analysis of the economic characteristics of these key flexibility options. The concept of “balancing cost” is proposed to represent the cost of utilizing the flexible resources to integrate the variable wind power. The key indicators are proposed respectively for the different flexible resources to measure the balancing cost. Moreover, the optimization models are developed to evaluate the indicators to find out the balancing costs when utilizing different flexible resources. The results illustrate that exploiting the potential of flexibility from demand side management is the preferred option for integrating variable wind power when the penetration level is below 10%, preventing additional fuel consumption and carbon emissions. However, it may require 8% of the customer demand to be flexible and available. Moreover, although energy storage is currently relatively expensive, it is likely to prevail over conventional generation by 2025 to 2030, when the capital cost of energy storage is projected to drop to approximately $ 400/kWh or lower.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Balancing cost, Economical, Flexibility options, Wind power
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40230 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.066 (DOI)000447479400034 ()2-s2.0-85049089570 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-12 Created: 2018-07-12 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Y., Campana, P. E., Yang, Y., Stridh, B., Lundblad, A. & Yan, J. (2018). Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building. Applied Energy, 223, 430-442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 223, p. 430-442Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing penetration level of renewable energy requires more flexibility measures to be implemented in future energy systems. Integrating an energy consumer’s local energy supplies connects multiple energy networks (i.e., the electrical grid, the district heating network, and gas network) in a decentralized way. Such integration enhances the flexibility of energy systems. In this work, a Swedish office building is investigated as a case study. Different components, including heat pump, electrical heater, battery and hot water storage tank are integrated into the electricity and heat supply system of the building. Special focus is placed on the flexibility that the studied building can provide to the electrical grid (i.e., the building modulates the electricity consumption in response to the grid operator’s requirements). The flexibility is described by two metrics including the flexibility hours and the flexibility energy. Optimization of the component capacities and the operation profiles is carried out by using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). The results show that the system fully relies on electricity for the heat demand when not considering the flexibility requirements of the electrical grid. This suggests that district heating is economically unfavorable compared with using electricity for the heat demand in the studied case. However, when flexibility requirements are added, the system turns to the district heating network for part of the heat demand. The system provides great flexibility to the electrical grid through such integration. The flexibility hours can be over 5200 h in a year, and the flexibility energy reaches more than 15.7 MWh (36% of the yearly electricity consumption). The yearly operation cost of the system slightly increases from 62,273 to 65,178 SEK when the flexibility hours increase from 304 to 5209 h. The results revealed that flexibility can be provided from the district heating network to the electrical grid via the building.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39298 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.04.041 (DOI)000433649900030 ()2-s2.0-85046664444 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved
Li, H., Campana, P. E., Tan, Y. & Yan, J. (2018). Feasibility study about using a stand-alone wind power driven heat pump for space heating. Applied Energy, 228, 1486-1498
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feasibility study about using a stand-alone wind power driven heat pump for space heating
2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 1486-1498Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reducing energy consumption and increasing the use of renewable energy in the building sector are crucial to the mitigation of climate change. Wind power driven heat pumps have been considered as a sustainable measure to supply heat to the detached houses, especially those that even do not have access to the electricity grid. This work is to investigate the dynamic performance of a heat pump system driven by wind turbine through dynamic simulations. In order to understand the influence on the thermal comfort, which is the primary purpose of space heating, the variation of indoor temperature has been simulated in details. Results show that the wind turbine is not able to provide the electricity required by the heat pump during the heating season due to the intermittent characteristic of wind power. To improve the system performance, the influences of the capacity of wind turbine, the size of battery and the setpoint of indoor temperature were assessed. It is found that increasing the capacity of wind turbines is not necessary to reduce the loss of load probability; while on the contrary, increasing the size of battery can always reduce the loss of load probability. The setpoint temperature clearly affects the loss of load probability. A higher setpoint temperature results in a higher loss of thermal comfort probability. In addition, it is also found that the time interval used in the dynamic simulation has significant influence on the result. In order to have more accurate results, it is of great importance to choose a high resolution time step to capture the dynamic behaviour of the heat supply and its effect on the indoor temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Dynamic performance, Heat pump, Loss of load probability, Space heating, Standalone system, Sweden, Wind power
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40259 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.146 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049757328 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-19 Created: 2018-07-19 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Naqvi, M., Thorin, E. & Yan, J. (2018). Gasification process integration with existing combined heat and power plants for polygeneration of dimethyl ether or methanol: A detailed profitability analysis. Applied Energy, 226, 116-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gasification process integration with existing combined heat and power plants for polygeneration of dimethyl ether or methanol: A detailed profitability analysis
2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Combustion of waste for cogeneration of heat and power is the most convenient and practical choice to carry out through combined heat and power (CHP) plants. But, seasonal variation in heat demand throughout the year affects the operation of CHP plants. This fluctuation in the CHP operation cause less annual operating hours for the plant equipment and is also not profitable for stakeholders. This study aims to assess the technical potential of integrated gasification process with existing CHP plants for either dimethyl ether (DME) or methanol production through refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Process integration considers that the CHP plant provides the necessary heat for biofuel synthesis during off-peak hours. Mass and heat integration methods are used to develop and simulate the polygeneration processes for heat, power, and biofuel production. Both technical and economic indicators are reported and compared to assess the potential for both biofuels through process integration. Annual operation data of a real CHP plant has been extracted to evaluate the integrated processes. A flexible gasification configuration is selected for the integrated approach i.e. CHP runs at full load to provide the heat demand and only the excess heat of CHP plant is utilized for biofuel production. The energetic efficiencies of the polygeneration systems are compared with the standalone systems. Technical analysis of process integration shows the enhancement of the operational capacity of CHP during off-peak hours and it can produce biofuels without compromising the annual heat demand. Production of methanol through process integration shows ∼67% energetic efficiency while methanol production gives ∼65%. The efficiencies are higher than standalone DME and methanol processes (51% and 53%, respectively) but lower than standalone CHP plant i.e. 81%, however the process integration increases the operating time of the CHP plant with more economic benefits. Economic analysis coupled with uncertainty analysis through Monte Carlo simulations shows that by integrating CHP with gasifier to produce biofuels is significantly profitable as compared with only heat and electricity production. But, DME as a potential product shows more economic benefits than methanol. The uncertainty analysis through Monte Carlo simulations shows that the profitable probability of DME as a product in future is also greater than methanol due to higher DME selling price. The uncertainty analysis further shows that prices of DME and methanol with waste biomass prices in future will have a greater impact on the economic performance of the proposed polygeneration process. 

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39632 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.069 (DOI)000441688100011 ()2-s2.0-85047756868 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved
Hao, Y., Li, W., Tian, Z., Campana, P. E., Li, H., Jin, H. & Yan, J. (2018). Integration of concentrating PVs in anaerobic digestion for biomethane production. Applied Energy, 231, 80-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of concentrating PVs in anaerobic digestion for biomethane production
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 231, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion processes is considered as an important alternative to natural gas and plays a key role in the emerging market for renewable energy. Aiming at achieving a more sustainable and efficient biomethane production, this work proposed a novel energy system, which integrates concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (C-PV/T) hybrid modules into a biogas plant with chemical absorption for biogas upgrading. The investigated energy system was optimized based on the data from an existing biogas plant, and its techno-economic feasibility was evaluated. Results show that about 7% of the heat consumption and 12% of the electricity consumption of the biogas plant can be covered by solar energy, by using the produced heat in a cascade way according to the operating temperature of different processes. The production of biomethane can also be improved by 25,800 N m3/yr (or 1.7%). The net present value of the integrated system is about 2.78 MSEK and the payback period is around 10 years. In order to further improve the economic performance, it is of great importance to lower the capital cost of the C-PV/T module. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Biogas upgrading, Biomethane, Chemical absorption, Concentrating PV
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41016 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.119 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053420616 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0300-0762

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