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Krueger, J., Eriksson, K., Hazin, I., Tibajev, A. & Strimling, P. (2023). Acculturation of hygiene norms among immigrants to Sweden. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 975361.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acculturation of hygiene norms among immigrants to Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 975361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hygiene norms in Sweden are generally loose compared to most other countries. Does this looseness affect the hygiene norms among people who immigrate to Sweden from other countries? In a study of hygiene norms among immigrants to Sweden, the change in the physical environment and material living conditions, acculturation to Swedish culture and norms, and selection effects were all expected to lead immigrant hygiene norms to be closer to Swedish looseness. However, in a sample of 447 immigrants from 12 different countries, immigrants reported hygiene norms that were even stricter than those found in their countries of origin. We propose an explanation based on a combination of uncertainty about prevailing hygiene norms and the social risk and stigma associated with being perceived as unhygienic. We conclude that acculturation processes may rely on mechanisms that are domain specific.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
acculturation, hygiene, immigrants, social norms, social sanctions, Sweden
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62511 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.975361 (DOI)001060692400001 ()2-s2.0-85148525471 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-31 Created: 2023-05-31 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K., Strimling, P. & Vartanova, I. (2023). Appropriateness ratings of everyday behaviors in the United States now and 50 years ago. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1237494.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appropriateness ratings of everyday behaviors in the United States now and 50 years ago
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1237494Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: A crucial aspect of social norms pertains to determining which behaviors are considered appropriate. Here we consider everyday behaviors. Some everyday behaviors are rated as more appropriate than others, and ratings of the appropriateness of a given behavior may vary over time. The objective of this study is to elucidate the reasons behind variation in appropriateness ratings of everyday behaviors in the United States. Our theory focuses on how the evaluation of the appropriateness of a behavior is influenced by its potential for externalities and internalities, and how this influence may cause a change in norms over time. Method: Employing a preregistered design, we asked American participants to rate 37 different everyday behaviors based on their appropriateness in a range of common situations, as well as their potential negative externalities (e.g., being loud, being aggressive, taking up space) and positive internalities (e.g., pleasurability). Changes over time were calculated as the difference between mean ratings obtained in this study and ratings of the same behavior in a similar study conducted 50 years ago. Results: As expected, overall appropriateness ratings of everyday behaviors are associated both with their externalities and their internalities, so that the least appropriate behaviors tend to have considerable potential for negative externalities and little potential for positive internalities. Moreover, behaviors that have considerable potential for negative externalities are perceived as less appropriate now than 50 years ago. Discussion: By describing how social norms for everyday behaviors depend on the externalities and internalities of behaviors, this study contributes to theories about the emergence and change of social norms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media SA, 2023
Keywords
everyday behaviors, externalities, internalities, norm shifts, social norms, values
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64647 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1237494 (DOI)001087493900001 ()2-s2.0-85174857971 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-01 Created: 2023-11-01 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K., Vartanova, I., Hazin, I. & Strimling, P. (2023). Cognitive ability and ideology join forces in the culture war: A model of opinion formation. PNAS Nexus, 2(6), Article ID pgad205.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive ability and ideology join forces in the culture war: A model of opinion formation
2023 (English)In: PNAS Nexus, ISSN 2752-6542, Vol. 2, no 6, article id pgad205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a model of moral policy opinion formation that integrates both ideology and cognitive ability. The link from people's ideology to their opinions is assumed to go via a semantic processing of moral arguments that relies on the individual's cognitive ability. An implication of this model is that the relative quality of arguments that justify supporting vs. opposing a moral policy-the policy's “argument advantage”-is key to how opinions will be distributed in the population and develop over time. To test this implication, we combine polling data with measures of the argument advantage for 35 moral policies. Consistent with the opinion formation model, the argument advantage of a moral policy accounts for how public opinion moves over time, and how support for the policy ideologies varies across different ideological groups and levels of cognitive ability, including a strong interaction between ideology and cognitive ability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Academy of Sciences, 2023
Keywords
cognitive ability, ideology, moral arguments, opinion formation, public opinion
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64856 (URN)10.1093/pnasnexus/pgad205 (DOI)001052638300017 ()2-s2.0-85177484515 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-29 Created: 2023-11-29 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K. & Lindvall, J. (2023). Cultural variation in the SES-gender interaction in student achievement. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1120211.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cultural variation in the SES-gender interaction in student achievement
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1120211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IntroductionIs the socioeconomic gap in academic achievement larger among boys than girls? Several scholars have proposed such an interaction between socioeconomic status (SES) and gender. Prior empirical studies have yielded mixed evidence, but they have been conducted almost exclusively in Western countries. Here we propose the hypothesis that the SES-gender interaction is stronger in less gender-equal societies.MethodsWe estimated the SES-gender interaction in 36 countries using data from two international large-scale assessments (PIRLS and TIMSS). The degree of gender equality was measured by the Global Gender Gap Index.ResultsConsistent with the hypothesis, the SES-gender interaction was stronger in societies with less gender equality.DiscussionOur findings suggest that cultural factors determine how the socioeconomic achievement gap differs between boys and girls.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2023
Keywords
achievement gap, socioeconomic status, gender differences, international large-scale assessment, cultural variation
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-64541 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1120211 (DOI)001075674600001 ()37794911 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85173961474 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-24 Created: 2023-10-24 Last updated: 2023-10-26Bibliographically approved
Lindvall, J., Kirsten, N., Eriksson, K., Brehmer, D. & Ryve, A. (2023). Does the duration of professional development programs influence effects on instruction?: An analysis of 174 lessons during a national-scale program. European Journal of Teacher Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the duration of professional development programs influence effects on instruction?: An analysis of 174 lessons during a national-scale program
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2023 (English)In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

We examine the effects of a year-long national-scale professional development (PD) program on mathematics instructional quality. In contrast to previous studies examining the effects of this program on instruction by comparing before and after participation or participants and non-participants, we examine whether instructional quality changed during the program. More specifically, we conduct an analysis of 174 video-recorded mathematics lessons given by 52 teachers during their year of participation. Contrary to previous studies, the results demonstrate that the instructional quality did not improve over the course of the PD. We suggest that the explanations for the diverging results concern how, when, and to what extent instructional quality changes in PD programs. Specifically, we discuss how the explanations may illuminate the significance of PD duration for PD effects, and how these effects may be mediated by features concerning the PD content and the scale at which the program is implemented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Classroom observations, instructional quality, mathematics instruction, teacher professional development
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62332 (URN)10.1080/02619768.2023.2198101 (DOI)000963481300001 ()2-s2.0-85152465342 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-26 Created: 2023-04-26 Last updated: 2023-05-03Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K. & Strimling, P. (2023). Gender differences in competitiveness and fear of failure help explain why girls have lower life satisfaction than boys in gender equal countries. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1131837.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences in competitiveness and fear of failure help explain why girls have lower life satisfaction than boys in gender equal countries
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1131837Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Among 15-year-olds, boys tend to report higher life satisfaction than girls. Recent research has shown that this gender gap tends to be larger in more gender-egalitarian countries. We shed light on this apparent paradox by examining the mediating role of two psychological dispositions: competitiveness and fear of failure. Using data from the 2018 PISA study, we analyze the life satisfaction, competitiveness, and fear of failure of more than 400,000 15-year-old boys and girls in 63 countries with known levels of gender equality. We find that competitiveness and fear of failure together mediate more than 40 percent of the effects on life satisfaction of gender and its interaction with gender equality. Thus, interventions targeting competitiveness and fear of failure could potentially have an impact on the gender gap in life satisfaction among adolescents in gender equal countries. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
competitiveness, equality paradox, fear of failure, gender differences, gender equality, life satisfaction
National Category
Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62184 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1131837 (DOI)000953526000001 ()2-s2.0-85150690006 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-05 Created: 2023-04-05 Last updated: 2023-04-19Bibliographically approved
Engström, E., Eriksson, K., Björnstjerna, M. & Strimling, P. (2023). Global variations in online privacy concerns across 57 countries. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 9, Article ID 100268.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global variations in online privacy concerns across 57 countries
2023 (English)In: Computers in Human Behavior Reports, ISSN 2451-9588, Vol. 9, article id 100268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cross-cultural studies have found national differences in how concerned people are about online privacy. However, it has not yet been settled what causes this variation, and several factors have been proposed in the literature, including internet habituation, individualism, and uncertainty avoidance. Here we investigate these factors by two studies. In the first, we examine the association between online privacy concerns and a new measure of online self-disclosure norms that we introduce. We find that this measure is significantly associated with two established instruments of online privacy concerns in the literature. In the second, we analyze previously unpublished data from a questionnaire on online self-disclosure norms as assessed by this new measure. It includes replies from 18,046 adult respondents from 57 countries and six continents. We find that norms in favor of more restrictive online self-disclosure are weaker in countries with higher levels of internet penetration (r = −0.56, p < .001). Our findings suggest that higher internet penetration in a country reduces online privacy concerns. The results support the idea that habituation to online environments decreases privacy risk perceptions. An implication is that preferences for online privacy are likely to decline over time in countries where internet penetration is still low. Lastly, in conflict with previous studies, our analyses do not support the theory that online privacy concerns are associated with national cultures related to individualism or uncertainty avoidance as measured by Hofstede's indices. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Cultural variation, Hofstede, Individualism, Internet penetration, Privacy concerns, Self-disclosure norms, Uncertainty avoidance
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61920 (URN)10.1016/j.chbr.2023.100268 (DOI)001048320300001 ()2-s2.0-85147591227 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-02-15 Created: 2023-02-15 Last updated: 2023-08-30Bibliographically approved
Dorrough, A. R., Froehlich, L. & Eriksson, K. (2022). Cooperation in the cross-national context. CURRENT OPINION IN PSYCHOLOGY, 44, 281-285
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperation in the cross-national context
2022 (English)In: CURRENT OPINION IN PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 2352-250X, Vol. 44, p. 281-285Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we outline the current state of research concerning cooperation in the cross-national context. We present several theoretical approaches and empirical findings regarding national differences in cooperation, as well as how cooperation may depend on the national background of the interaction partner. In addition, we discuss the influence of (national) group norms, cultural similarity, and ingroup membership. This review concludes with a call for research on cooperation to include more non-WEIRD nations and more systematically cover national background as one important social category determining the willingness to cooperate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2022
Keywords
Cooperation, Culture, National background, Globalization
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Mathematics/Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-56656 (URN)10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.10.006 (DOI)000721123000001 ()34801845 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85119337424 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2022-09-27Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K., Hazin, I., Vartanova, I. & Strimling, P. (2022). Domain-specific tightness: Why is Sweden perceived as tighter than the United States?. Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology, 3, 100049-100049, Article ID 100049.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domain-specific tightness: Why is Sweden perceived as tighter than the United States?
2022 (English)In: Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology, ISSN 2666-6227, Vol. 3, p. 100049-100049, article id 100049Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The tightness of a society is defined as the strength of social norms and the degree of sanctioning within thesociety. However, a society’s tightness may vary across behavioral domains. A recent global survey found thatSweden is generally perceived as relatively tight, even though it is known to be very permissive with respectto sexual relations and gender roles. Here we examine perceptions of the tightness of Sweden and the UnitedStates in six other domains. We find that Sweden is perceived as tighter than the US specifically with respect tonorms about how people may talk about other groups and norms about considerate behavior in public. These domain-specific differences partially mediate the country difference in perceived overall tightness. In sum, this study demonstrates how domain-specific tightness may be measured and highlights the value of such measures to obtain a more nuanced picture of how tightness varies across countries

National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59996 (URN)10.1016/j.cresp.2022.100049 (DOI)2-s2.0-85148568317 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-22 Created: 2022-09-22 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K., Dickins, T. E. & Strimling, P. (2022). Global sex differences in hygiene norms and their relation to sex equality. PLOS Global Public Health, 2(6), Article ID e0000591.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global sex differences in hygiene norms and their relation to sex equality
2022 (English)In: PLOS Global Public Health, E-ISSN 2767-3375, Vol. 2, no 6, article id e0000591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Strict norms about hygiene may sometimes have health benefits but may also be a burden. Based on research in the United States, it has been suggested that women traditionally shoulder responsibility for hygiene standards and therefore tend to have stricter views on hygiene. However, there is little systematic research on sex differences in hygiene norms at the global scale. We set up two hypotheses: (1) Stricter hygiene norms among women than among men is a global phenomenon. (2) The size of this sex difference varies across nations with the level of sex equality. We examine these hypotheses using data from a recent international survey (N = 17,632). Participants in 56 countries were asked for their views of where it is not appropriate for people to spit and in which situations people should wash their hands. As a measure of sex equality, we use an existing country-level measure of attitudes to equality between the sexes, available for 49 nations in the study. Stricter hygiene norms among women than among men are observed almost everywhere, but there are a few exceptions (most notably Nigeria and Saudi Arabia). The size of the sex difference in hygiene norms varies strongly with the level of sex equality, but in a non-linear way. The sex difference is most pronounced in moderately egalitarian countries with the highest recorded difference being in Chile. In more egalitarian parts of the world, more sex equality is associated with a smaller sex difference in hygiene norms. In the less egalitarian parts of the world, the opposite relation holds. We offer an interpretation in terms of what different levels of sex equality mean for the content of sex roles.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-59995 (URN)10.1371/journal.pgph.0000591 (DOI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P17-0030:1Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2017.0257
Available from: 2022-09-22 Created: 2022-09-22 Last updated: 2022-09-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7164-0924

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