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Eriksson, K., Simpson, B. & Strimling, P. (2019). Political double standards in reliance on moral foundations. Judgment and decision making, 14(4), 440-454
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Political double standards in reliance on moral foundations
2019 (English)In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 440-454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prior research using the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) has established that political ideology is associated with self-reported reliance on specific moral foundations in moral judgments of acts. MFQ items do not specify the agents involved in the acts, however. By specifying agents in MFQ items we revealed blatant political double standards. Conservatives thought that the same moral foundation was more relevant if victims were agents that they like (i.e., corporations and other conservatives) but less relevant when the same agents were perpetrators. Liberals showed the same pattern for agents that they like (i.e., news media and other liberals). A UK sample showed much weaker political double standards with respect to corporations and news media, consistent with feelings about corporations and news media being much less politicized in the UK than in the US. We discuss the implications for moral foundations theory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SOC JUDGMENT & DECISION MAKING, 2019
Keywords
moral foundations, political psychology, moral judgments, rights, obligations
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45013 (URN)000477796000005 ()2-s2.0-85070692866 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
Strimling, P., Vartanova, I., Jansson, F. & Eriksson, K. (2019). The connection between moral positions and moral arguments drives opinion change. Nature human behaviour, 3(9), 922-930
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The connection between moral positions and moral arguments drives opinion change
2019 (English)In: Nature human behaviour, ISSN 2397-3374, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 922-930Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Liberals and conservatives often take opposing positions on moral issues. But what makes a moral position liberal or conservative? Why does public opinion tend to become more liberal over time? And why does public opinion change especially fast on certain issues, such as gay rights? We offer an explanation based on how different positions connect with different kinds of moral arguments. Based on a formal model of opinion dynamics, we predicted that positions better connected to harm and fairness arguments will be more popular among liberals and will become more popular over time among liberals and conservatives. Finally, the speed of this trend will be faster the better the position connects to harm and fairness arguments. These predictions all held with high accuracy in 44 years of polling on moral opinions. The model explains the connection between ideology and moral opinions, and generates precise predictions for future opinion change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NLM (Medline), 2019
Keywords
article, ideology, male, morality, prediction, public opinion, velocity
National Category
Philosophy Ethics Bioinformatics (Computational Biology) Other Mathematics
Research subject
Mathematics/Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45317 (URN)10.1038/s41562-019-0647-x (DOI)000485813100012 ()31308486 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072154616 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K., Helenius, O. & Ryve, A. (2019). Using TIMSS items to evaluate the effectiveness of different instructional practices. Instructional science, 47(1), 1-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using TIMSS items to evaluate the effectiveness of different instructional practices
2019 (English)In: Instructional science, ISSN 0020-4277, E-ISSN 1573-1952, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Can instructional quality be measured using TIMSS items on how often certain instructional practices are used in the mathematics classroom? We focused on three instructional practices that have been the topics of longstanding debates in the educational literature: memorizing formulas, listening to the teacher, and relating mathematics to daily life. In a multi-level multiple regression analysis, we examined how class-level responses to these items predicted mathematics achievement. In Sweden, across four waves of TIMSS, relating to daily life was a negative predictor of achievement, whereas memorizing formulas and listening to the teacher were positive predictors. This was also the typical pattern of results across all countries participating in two waves of the international TIMSS. Our findings are in line with certain positions on the abovementioned debates. Although conclusions are limited by the correlational nature of the data, we argue that TIMSS is a promising tool for evaluating the effectiveness of different instructional practices. We also suggest several improvements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
Keywords
Instructional quality, TIMSS, Mathematics achievement, Student questionnaires
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42987 (URN)10.1007/s11251-018-9473-1 (DOI)000457485600001 ()2-s2.0-85055442280 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
Strimling, P., De Barra, M. & Eriksson, K. (2018). Asymmetries in punishment propensity may drive the civilizing process. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(2), 148-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asymmetries in punishment propensity may drive the civilizing process
2018 (English)In: Nature Human Behaviour, ISSN 2397-3374, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Norms about hygiene and violence have both shown a tendency to become increasingly strict, in the sense that the handling of bodily fluids and the use of violence have become increasingly restricted. The generality of this directional change across a large number of societies has not been captured by previous explanations. We propose an explanation of the directional change that is based on the aggregation of everyday interactions. This theory posits that directional norm change can come about if there is an asymmetry in punishment propensity between the people who prefer stricter norms and those who prefer looser norms. Asymmetry in punishment can arise from underlying asymmetry in the threat perceived, where a stricter-than-preferred behaviour is perceived as inherently less threatening than a looser one. We demonstrate the logic of the theory using a formal model and test some of its assumptions through survey experiments. © 2017 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Mathematics
Research subject
Mathematics/Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38850 (URN)10.1038/s41562-017-0278-z (DOI)000429375000019 ()2-s2.0-85042780371 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-06-22Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, M., Kimmo, E. & Sjöstrand, J. (2018). Markov chains on graded posets: Compatibility of up-directed and down-directed transition probabilities. Order (1), 93-109
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Markov chains on graded posets: Compatibility of up-directed and down-directed transition probabilities
2018 (English)In: Order, ISSN 0167-8094, E-ISSN 1572-9273, ISSN 0167-8094, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We consider two types of discrete-time Markov chains where thestate space is a graded poset and the transitionsare taken along the covering relations in the poset. The first type of Markov chain goes only in one direction, either up or down in the poset (an up chain or down chain). The second type toggles between two adjacent rank levels (an up-and-down chain). We introduce two compatibility concepts between the up-directed transition probabilities (an up rule) and the down-directed(a down rule), and we relate these to compatibility betweenup-and-down chains. This framework is used to prove a conjecture about a limit shape for a process on Young's lattice. Finally, we settle the questions whether the reverse of an up chain is a down chain for some down rule and whether there exists an up or down chain at all if the rank function is not bounded.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2018
Keywords
Graded poset, Markov chain, Young diagram, Young's lattice, Limit shape
National Category
Discrete Mathematics
Research subject
Mathematics/Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35015 (URN)10.1007/s11083-016-9420-1 (DOI)000427496600006 ()2-s2.0-85017160313 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-5565, 621-2009-6090
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Jansson, F., Strimling, P., Vartanova, I. & Eriksson, K. (2018). Public opinion change explained by the moral psychology of liberals and conservatives. In: : . Paper presented at Applications in Cultural Evolution: Arts, Languages, Technologies, University of Tartu, June 6–8, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public opinion change explained by the moral psychology of liberals and conservatives
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Other Mathematics Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Mathematics/Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40388 (URN)
Conference
Applications in Cultural Evolution: Arts, Languages, Technologies, University of Tartu, June 6–8, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-30Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, K. (2018). Republicans Value Agency, Democrats Value Communion. Social psychology quarterly, 81(2), 173-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Republicans Value Agency, Democrats Value Communion
2018 (English)In: Social psychology quarterly, ISSN 0190-2725, E-ISSN 1939-8999, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 173-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drawing on the theory of the Big Two content dimensions of social judgmentagency and communionthe author proposes that several findings about partisan differences in the United States can be integrated into one hypothesis: Republicans tend to put greater value on agency, while Democrats put greater value on communion. Moreover, on the basis of these values, Republicans and Democrats should judge their own groups as particularly superior on agency and communion, respectively. These hypotheses gained support in three studies on partisan values and ingroup bias, suggesting that the agency-communion framework may be useful for researchers studying how political groups differ in their worldviews, biases, and attitudes.

Keywords
dehumanization, ingroup bias, motivation, political values, social judgment
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Human Aspects of ICT Other Mathematics
Research subject
Mathematics/Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39823 (URN)10.1177/0190272518771060 (DOI)000433923300004 ()2-s2.0-85047429147 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved
Cownden, D., Eriksson, K. & Strimling, P. (2018). The implications of learning across perceptually and strategically distinct situations. Synthese, 195(2), 511-528
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The implications of learning across perceptually and strategically distinct situations
2018 (English)In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 195, no 2, p. 511-528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Game theory is a formal approach to behavior that focuses on the strategic aspect of situations. The game theoretic approach originates in economics but has been embraced by scholars across disciplines, including many philosophers and biologists. This approach has an important weakness: the strategic aspect of a situation, which is its defining quality in game theory, is often not its most salient quality in human (or animal) cognition. Evidence from a wide range of experiments highlights this shortcoming. Previous theoretical and empirical work has sought to address this weakness by considering learning across an ensemble of multiple games simultaneously. Here we extend this framework, incorporating artificial neural networks, to allow for an investigation of the interaction between the perceptual and functional similarity of the games composing the larger ensemble. Using this framework, we conduct a theoretical investigation of a population that encounters both stag hunts and prisoner's dilemmas, two situations that are strategically different but which may or may not be perceptually similar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2018
National Category
Other Mathematics
Research subject
Mathematics/Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28179 (URN)10.1007/s11229-014-0641-9 (DOI)000422664200003 ()2-s2.0-84920843045 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-2390
Available from: 2015-06-09 Created: 2015-06-09 Last updated: 2018-02-08Bibliographically approved
Cownden, D., Eriksson, K. & Strimling, P. (2017). A popular misapplication of evolutionary modeling to the study of human cooperation. Evolution and human behavior, 38(3), 421-427
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A popular misapplication of evolutionary modeling to the study of human cooperation
2017 (English)In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 421-427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To examine the evolutionary basis of a behavior, an established approach (known as the phenotypic gambit) is to assume that the behavior is controlled by a single allele, the fitness effects of which are derived from a consideration of how the behavior interacts, via life-history, with other ecological factors. Here we contrast successful applications of this approach with several examples of an influential and superficially similar line of research on the evolutionary basis of human cooperation. A key difference is identified: in the latter line of research the focal behavior, cooperation, is abstractly defined in terms of immediate fitness costs and benefits. Selection is then assumed to act on strategies in an iterated social context for which fitness effects can be derived by aggregation of the abstractly defined immediate fitness effects over a lifetime. This approach creates a closed theoretical loop, rendering models incapable of making predictions or providing insight into the origin of human cooperation. We conclude with a discussion of how evolutionary approaches might be appropriately used in the study of human social behavior. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2017
National Category
Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35348 (URN)10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.01.004 (DOI)000399966800018 ()2-s2.0-85009961853 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2018-03-06Bibliographically approved
Kimmo, E., Strimling, P., Andersson, P. & Lindholm, T. (2017). Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 59-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction
2017 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-1031, E-ISSN 1096-0465, Vol. 69, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ultimatum game is a common economic experiment in which some participants reject another's unfair offer of how to split some money, even though it leaves them both worse off. This costly behavior can be seen as enforcement of a fairness norm and has been labeled "altruistic punishment", suggesting that it is a Moral thing to do. But is this behavior viewed as moral by participants? Is it viewed as punishment? And are the payoff consequences of the behavior sufficient to determine the answers to these questions? To investigate this we framed costly punishment in two different ways: either as rejection of an offer (the standard ultimatum game framing) or as reduction of payoff. In a series of paid and hypothetical experiments we found that moral concerns about costly punishment depended on the framing. Specifically, the reduction frame elicited more moral concern about, and less use of, costly punishment than did the rejection frame. Several implications are discussed.

National Category
Mathematics Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-34957 (URN)10.1016/j.jesp.2016.09.004 (DOI)000392774500006 ()2-s2.0-84994860073 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-23 Created: 2017-02-23 Last updated: 2018-03-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7164-0924

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