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Carnesten, H., von Heideken Wågert, P., Wiklund Gustin, L., Toivanen, S., Skoglund, K., Jaarsma, T. & Andreae, C. (2024). Struggling in the dehumanized world of COVID—An exploratory mixed‐methods study of frontline healthcare workers' experiences. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Struggling in the dehumanized world of COVID—An exploratory mixed‐methods study of frontline healthcare workers' experiences
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aim

To explore healthcare workers' experiences of the changed caring reality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden.DesignAn online fully mixed-methods design.MethodsA web-based self-reported questionnaire with fixed and open-ended answers collected data from March to April 2021, analysed in three steps. First, free-text questions were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Then quantitative linear regression analyses using models covering stress and coping mechanisms were conducted. Finally, a meta-inference of qualitative and quantitative data emerged a new comprehensive understanding. The COREQ guidelines were used for reporting.

Results

Meta-inferenced results of quantitative and qualitative findings show the pandemic was a traumatic experience for healthcare workers. Main theme; When work became a frightening experience in a dehumanized reality, comprised four themes: Entering unprepared into a frightful, incomprehensible world; Sacrificing moral values and harbouring dilemmas in isolation; Lack of clear management; and Reorient in togetherness and find meaning in a changed reality. Qualitative results comprised four categories; Working in a dehumanized world; Living in betrayal of ones' own conscience; Lack of structure in a chaotic time and Regaining vitality together. Subdimensions comprehensibility and meaningfulness were associated significantly with post-traumatic stress disorder in multiple regression analysis. In multiple regression analysis, sense of coherence was the most prominent coping strategy.

Conclusions

Forcing oneself to perform beyond one's limit, sacrificing moral values and lacking management was a traumatic experience to healthcare workers during the pandemic. Reorienting as a way of coping was possible in togetherness with colleagues. There is an urgency of interventions to meet the needs among healthcare workers who took on a frontline role during the COVID-19 pandemic and to prevent mental health illness in future crisis.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65889 (URN)10.1111/jan.16083 (DOI)001155994100001 ()2-s2.0-85184195479 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-05 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-04-10Bibliographically approved
Andreae, C., Tingström, P., Nilsson, S., Jaarsma, T., Karlsson, N. & Köhler, A. K. (2023). Does problem-based learning improve patient empowerment and cardiac risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease in a Swedish primary care setting?: A long-term prospective, randomised, parallel single randomised trial (COR-PRIM). BMJ Open, 13(2), Article ID e065230.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does problem-based learning improve patient empowerment and cardiac risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease in a Swedish primary care setting?: A long-term prospective, randomised, parallel single randomised trial (COR-PRIM)
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2023 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e065230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To investigate long-term effects of a 1-year problem-based learning (PBL) on self-management and cardiac risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).

Design: A prospective, randomised, parallel single centre trial.

Settings: Primary care settings in Sweden.

Participants: 157 patients with stable CHD completed the study. Subjects with reading and writing impairments, mental illness or expected survival less than 1 year were excluded.

Intervention: Participants were randomised and assigned to receive either PBL (intervention) or home-sent patient information (control group). In this study, participants were followed up at baseline, 1, 3 and 5 years.

Primary and secondary outcomes: Primary outcome was patient empowerment (Swedish Coronary Empowerment Scale, SWE-CES) and secondary outcomes General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), self-rated health status (EQ-VAS), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), body mass index (BMI), weight and smoking. Outcomes were adjusted for sociodemographic factors.

Results: The PBL intervention group resulted in a significant improved change in SWE-CES over the 5-year period (mean (M), 39.39; 95% CI 37.88 to 40.89) compared with the baseline (M 36.54; 95% CI 35.40 to 37.66). PBL intervention group increased HDL-C level (M 1.39; 95% CI 1.28 to 1.50) compared with baseline (M 1.24; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.33) and for EQ-VAS (M 77.33; 95% CI 73.21 to 81.45) compared with baseline (M 68.13; 95% CI 63.66 to 72.59) while these outcomes remained unchanged in the control group. There were no significant differences in BMI, weight or scores on GSES, neither between nor within groups over time. The overall proportion of smokers was significantly higher in the control group than in the experimental group.

Conclusion: One-year PBL intervention had positive effect on patient empowerment, health status and HDL-C at a 5-year follow-up compared with the control group. PBL education aiming to improve patient empowerment in cardiac rehabilitation should account for sociodemographic factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Coronary heart disease, PRIMARY CARE, EDUCATION & TRAINING (see Medical Education & Training)
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-62622 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2022-065230 (DOI)000944467100062 ()36828650 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85148963535 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-30 Created: 2023-05-30 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Carnesten, H., von Heideken Wågert, P., Wiklund, L., Toivanen, S., Skoglund, K., Andreae, C. & Jaarsma, T. (2023). Struggling with frightening experiences in a transformed reality: A mixed methods study of healthcare workers’ experiences during the pandemic.. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Conference in Nursing Research, Reykjavik, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Struggling with frightening experiences in a transformed reality: A mixed methods study of healthcare workers’ experiences during the pandemic.
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact health care workers’ (HCWs’) mental health. Research show that psychological distress and hard challenges abide with strong commitment to contribute. Yet, in-depth understanding of HCWs’ experiences of the changed caring reality during the pandemic is missing. Mixed methods research (MMR) accommodates several features apart from employing either quantitative or qualitative methods. This presentation focuses on examples from the 13-step mixed method by Leech and Onwuegbuzie.

Methods: 97 HCWs in one hard-hit region in Sweden answered a web-based questionnaire measuring symptoms of stress (using DSM-5 criteria for post-traumatic stress syndrome, PTSD) in relation to perceived sense of coherence (SOC-scale) and self-compassion (SCS) as well as HCWs’ experiences. First, qualitative data (experiences of the pandemic) was analyzed by qualitative content analysis, then quantitative data (associations between PTSD and SOC/SCS) were analyzed with linear regression adjusted for covariates. Thirdly, a synthesis, the meta-inference of qualitative and quantitative data, explained a new comprehensive understanding. 

Results: By analyzing the categories and subcategories from the qualitative analysis in relation to symtoms of stress and SOC/SCS, a synthesis emerged. This was undertaken by merging and comparing the findings and discussing the new comprehensive understanding. Finally, to fully outline the mixed methods approach, qualitative and quantitative data were synthesized into a new comprehensive whole, a meta inference. 

Conclusion: This study moves away from dichotomic traditions between qualitative or quantitative approaches. By broadening the methodological departure this study may provide a new comprehensive understanding and contribute to enhance quality in MMR. 

Keywords
Stress, vårdande, sjuksköterskor, COVID-19, akutsjukvård, lidande, trauma
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Care Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-65059 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Conference in Nursing Research, Reykjavik, 2023
Projects
nurses’ lived experiences focusing on the meaning of stress and caring in hospital emergency settings during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Available from: 2023-12-20 Created: 2023-12-20 Last updated: 2023-12-21Bibliographically approved
Andreae, C., Lennie, T. A. & Chung, M. L. (2022). Diet variety mediates the relationship between appetite and micronutrient intake in patients with heart failure. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 00, 1-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diet variety mediates the relationship between appetite and micronutrient intake in patients with heart failure
2022 (English)In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 00, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims Eating a varied diet promotes adequate micronutrient intake. Poor appetite could decrease the desire to eat a varied dietleading to dietary micronutrient insufficiencies. The interrelationships among appetite, diet variety, and dietary micronutrientintake have not been investigated in patients with heart failure (HF). The purpose of the study was to determine whether therelationship between appetite and micronutrient insufficiency was mediated through diet variety.

Methodsand results A total of 238 patients with HF, mean age 61 ± 12.1; 68% male, and 45% NYHA class III/IV were included in this secondaryanalysis. Data collection consisted of a 4-day food diary and self-reported appetite on a 10-point visual analogue scale.Micronutrient insufficiency was defined as the total number of 17 minerals and vitamins that were insufficient in the diet.Diet variety was calculated as the number of 23 food types consumed over the 4 days. Mediation analysis, controlling for cov-ariates age, gender, NYHA class, and body mass index showed that diet variety mediated the relationship between appetiteand micronutrient insufficiencies [indirect effect = −0.0828, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.1585 to −0.0150]. There was nodirect effect of appetite on micronutrient insufficiency (c ́ = −0.1802; 95% CI = −0.3715 to.0111).

Conclusions Diet variety played a previously unrecognized role in the relationship between appetite and dietary micronutrient intake inpatients with HF. More research is needed to validate these associations in patients with HF.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61086 (URN)10.1093/eurjcn/zvac093 (DOI)000876643100001 ()36172803 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165520646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2024-01-23Bibliographically approved
Andreae, C., van der Wal, M. H. L., van Veldhuisen, D. J., Yang, B., Strömberg, A. & Jaarsma, T. (2021). Changes in Appetite During the Heart Failure Trajectory and Association With Fatigue, Depressive Symptoms, and Quality of Life. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 36(6), 539-545
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in Appetite During the Heart Failure Trajectory and Association With Fatigue, Depressive Symptoms, and Quality of Life
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 539-545Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Decreased appetite can contribute to malnutrition in patients with heart failure (HF). Little is known about the trajectory of appetite over time in patients with HF and the factors associated with decreased appetite after discharge from the hospital. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate changes in appetite over time and explore how fatigue, depressive symptoms, and quality of life are associated with decreased appetite. METHODS: Data from the multicenter randomized Coordinating study evaluating Outcomes of Advising and Counseling in Heart Failure were used. Logistic regression and mixed-effects logistic regression were used to investigate changes in appetite over time and to explore the relationship between appetite and fatigue, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 734 patients with HF (mean age, 69 years) were included. Decreased appetite was present at all follow-up measurements; however, decreased appetite was significantly lower at the 1-month (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.63), 6-month (OR, 0.31; CI, 0.20-0.47), 12-month (OR, 0.22; CI, 0.14-0.34), and 18-month (OR, 0.24; CI, 0.15-0.37) follow-ups compared with baseline. Decreased appetite was associated with fatigue (OR, 3.09; CI, 1.98-4.84), depressive symptoms (OR, 1.76; CI, 1.35-2.29), and low quality of life (OR, 1.01; CI, 1.01-1.02) across all measurement points adjusted for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Appetite improved after discharge; however, at all time points, at least 22% of patients reported decreased appetite. Fatigue, depressive symptoms, and low quality of life are factors associated with decreased appetite. Decreased appetite is a long-standing problem in that it does not disappear spontaneously after an acute HF deterioration.

Keywords
appetite, depressive symptoms, fatigue, heart failure, quality of life
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61878 (URN)10.1097/JCN.0000000000000756 (DOI)000756652700005 ()33136703 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85118597944 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Netherlands Heart FoundationNetherlands Heart Foundation [2000Z003]; Biosite France SAS; Jouy-en-Josas, France (brain natriuretic peptide); Roche Diagnostics Nederland BV, Venlo, the Netherlands; Novartis Pharma BV, Arnhem, the NetherlandsNetherlands Government

Available from: 2023-02-13 Created: 2023-02-13 Last updated: 2023-04-12Bibliographically approved
Khatib, R., Lee, G. A., Marques-Sule, E., Arnesdatter Hopstock, L., O’Donnell, S., Svavarsdóttir, M. H., . . . Stewart, C. (2020). Evaluating the extent of patient-centred care in a selection of ESC guidelines. European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, 6, 55-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the extent of patient-centred care in a selection of ESC guidelines
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2020 (English)In: European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, Vol. 6, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AbstractAims Patient-centred care (PCC) is the cornerstone for healthcare professionals to promote high quality care for patients with cardiovascular conditions. It is defined as ’Providing care that is respectful of, and responsive to, individual patient preferences, needs and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions’. PCC can improve patient outcomes and allow patients and healthcare professionals to manage care collaboratively using best available evidence. However, there is no clear understanding how extensively guidelines incorporate PCC recommendations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incorporation of PCC into a selection of guidelines published by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Methods and results Using a narrative literature review and expert consensus, the Science Committee within the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP) developed a checklist to determine PCC incorporation in clinical guidelines. Nine ESC guidelines were reviewed, with committee members independently evaluating five PCC aspects: patient voice and involvement, multidisciplinary involvement, holistic care recommendations, flexibility to meet patients’ needs, and provision of patient tools. The level of congruence in item ratings by experts was then compared. The incorporation of PCC using these respective five categories, ranged from 4% (patient tools) to 53% in the ’multidisciplinary involvement’ category. Conclusion Overall, the inclusion of PCC was low, indicating that patient perspectives and needs were less likely to be taken into account when developing, endorsing, or formulating recommendations. Future development of guidelines should ensure better incorporation of patients’ perspective, in particular, and other PCC aspects highlighted in this study.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61885 (URN)10.1093/ehjqcco/qcz025 (DOI)000520507000011 ()31119288 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85078576515 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-02-13 Created: 2023-02-13 Last updated: 2023-04-12Bibliographically approved
Hjelm, C., Andreae, C. & Isaksson, R.-M. (2019). From insecurity to perceived control over the heart failure disease: A qualitative analysis. Nursing & Care Open Access Journal, 6(3), 101-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From insecurity to perceived control over the heart failure disease: A qualitative analysis
2019 (English)In: Nursing & Care Open Access Journal, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 101-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims and objectives: The objective in our study was to explore chronic heart failure patients’ perceived control over their heart disease. Background: Higher levels of perceived control over one’s chronic heart disease are associated with lower levels of psychological distress and a higher quality of life. Design: The study has an explorative and descriptive design using a directed manifest qualitative content analysis according to Marring. Methods: The analysis was based on nine interviews with four men and five women aged between 62-85 years, diagnosed with chronic heart failure. The study followed consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). Results: Five categories emerged in the analysis, mirroring a step-by-step process. The first step, insecurity, was followed by evaluation, management and adjustment. The patients finally reached a higher level of perceived control over their lives in relation to their heart disease. Conclusions: Most of the patients stated that they could assess and manage symptoms and had adapted to their condition, which increased their level of perceived control. Relevance to clinical practice: These findings suggest that managing symptoms is important for strengthen the patients with chronic heart failure. The findings can help health care professionals in communication with the patient planning for self-care actions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MedCrave, 2019
Keywords
Control attitude scale, heart disease, heart failure, perceived control, self-care
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61884 (URN)
Available from: 2023-02-13 Created: 2023-02-13 Last updated: 2023-02-13Bibliographically approved
Wleklik, M., Lisiak, M., Andreae, C. & Uchmanowicz, I. (2019). Psychometric Evaluation Of Appetite Questionnaires In Elderly Polish Patients With Heart Failure. Patient Preference and Adherence, 13, 1751-1759
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychometric Evaluation Of Appetite Questionnaires In Elderly Polish Patients With Heart Failure
2019 (English)In: Patient Preference and Adherence, Vol. 13, p. 1751-1759Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Loss of appetite is caused by multifaceted disorders and affects an average of 40% of patients with heart failure (HF). The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) are designed to assess appetite among older adults. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of both CNAQ and SNAQ questionnaires in elderly Polish patients with HF. Methods: The study sample involved 103 patients aged amp;gt;= 65 years with HF diagnosed according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes II-IV. The study was conducted among hospitalized patients with HF. In the study, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire was used to assess the validity of the questionnaire. The evaluation of the following psychometric values was taken into account: data quality and homogeneity, factor structure, construct validity and internal consistency. Results: Parallel analysis confirmed the unidimensional structure of both CNAQ and SNAQ. The adjusted eigenvalues for CNAQ were 3.50 for the first factor and 0.62 for the second factor, and for SNAQ they were 2.2 and 0.31, respectively. For CNAQ, the desired CFA values were obtained after modification (RMSEA amp;lt;0.06, CFI, TLIamp;gt; 0.95), for SNAQ without modification (RMSEA amp;lt;0.06, CFI, TLIamp;gt; 0.95). The correlation between CNAQ and SNAQ and MNA was strong (rs = 0.8 and rs = 0.81, p amp;lt;0.001, respectively). The internal consistency of the CNAQ and SNAQ tools was 0.88 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: The CNAQ and SNAQ questionnaires have positive psychometric properties and can be used to evaluate appetite among elderly Polish patients with HF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2019
Keywords
appetite; elderly; heart failure; nutritional status
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61888 (URN)10.2147/PPA.S223016 (DOI)000490707700001 ()2-s2.0-85074488535 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-02-13 Created: 2023-02-13 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Andreae, C., Arestedt, K., Evangelista, L. & Strömberg, A. (2019). The relationship between physical activity and appetite in patients with heart failure: A prospective observational study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 18(5), 410-417
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between physical activity and appetite in patients with heart failure: A prospective observational study
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 410-417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Physical activity and appetite are important components for maintaining health. Yet, the association between physical activity and appetite in heart failure (HF) populations is not completely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity, functional capacity, and appetite in patients with HF. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. In total, 186 patients diagnosed with HF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-IV (mean age 70.7, 30% female), were included. Physical activity was measured using a multi-sensor actigraph for seven days and with a self-reported numeric rating scale. Physical capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test. Appetite was measured using the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire. Data were collected at inclusion and after 18 months. A series of linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, NYHA class, and B-type natriuretic peptide were conducted. Results: At baseline, higher levels of physical activity and functional capacity were significantly associated with a higher level of appetite in the unadjusted models. In the adjusted models, number of steps (p = 0.019) and the six-minute walk test (p = 0.007) remained significant. At the 18-month follow-up, all physical activity variables and functional capacity were significantly associated with appetite in the unadjusted regression models. In the adjusted models, number of steps (p = 0.001) and metabolic equivalent daily averages (p = 0.040) remained significant. Conclusion: A higher level of physical activity measured by number of steps/day was associated with better self-reported appetite, both at baseline and the 18-month follow-up. Further research is needed to establish causality and explore the intertwined relationship between activity and appetite in patients with HF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Appetite; heart failure; physical activity
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61865 (URN)10.1177/1474515119836567 (DOI)000469834300008 ()30866679 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063044307 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Centre for Clinical Research Sormland, Uppsala University, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation; Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden; King Gustaf V and Queen Victorias Freemason Foundation

Available from: 2023-02-13 Created: 2023-02-13 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Andreae, C. (2018). Appetite in patients with heart failure: Assessment, prevalence and related factors. (Doctoral dissertation).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appetite in patients with heart failure: Assessment, prevalence and related factors
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Appetite is an important component in nutrition for maintaining the food intake needed by the body. Decreased appetite is a common clinical problem in patients with heart failure. It has a negative impact on food intake and possibly on malnutrition and health outcomes. There is a lack of evidence on how to assess appetite in heart failure. Furthermore, there are knowledge gaps about factors associated with appetite and which role appetite plays for health status in heart failure.   Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate appetite in patients with heart failure. Four studies were conducted with the goal to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) (I) and to explore the prevalence of decreased appetite and related factors associated with appetite in patients with heart failure (II-IV).   Methods: A multicenter study was conducted in three outpatient heart failure clinics in the center of Sweden during 2009-2012. Data were collected through a baseline measurement (I-IV) and an 18-month follow-up (IV). The first study was a psychometric evaluation study (I), while the other studies had an observational cross-sectional design (II-III) and an observational prospective design (IV). One hundred and eighty-six patients diagnosed with heart failure and experiencing heart failure symptoms participated at baseline. At the 18-month follow-up study (IV), one hundred and sixteen participants from the baseline participated. Data were collected from medical records (pharmacological treatment, comorbidity, left ventricle ejection fraction, time of diagnosis), self-reported questionnaires (demographic background data, appetite, symptoms of depression, health status, sleep, self-reported physical activity), objective measurements (anthropometric assessment of body size, blood samples, six minutes’ walk test, and physical activity measured with an actigraph) and clinical assessment (New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, and cognitive assessment). The main outcome variables included appetite (I, II and IV) and health status (III). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the studies (I-IV).   Results: The majority of the participants had moderate heart failure symptoms, i.e., NYHA class II (n=114, 61%). Most of the participants were men (n=130, 70%). Mean age was 70,7 years, (SD=11,0), and mean BMI was 28.7 (SD=5.3). The CNAQ showed acceptable psychometric properties for assessing appetite in patients with heart failure (I). This thesis shows that 38% of the participants experienced an appetite level that put them at risk of weight loss (I). It was shown that factors such as biological, medical, psychological (II) and physical activity/exercise capacity (IV) are associated with appetite. Also, appetite was associated with impaired health status. However, this association was found to be moderated by symptoms of depression (III). Neither appetite nor physical activity changed during the 18-month follow-up (IV).   Conclusion: Decreased appetite is a serious phenomenon that needs attention in the care of patients with heart failure. Health care professionals can now use a validated and simple appetite instrument to assess appetite in heart failure. In addition, attention should be paid to elderly patients and those who have symptoms of depression, sleep problems, impaired cognitive function and impaired physical activity, as well as to patients on suboptimal medical treatment. Higher appetite was shown to contribute to a better health status, but this was only evident in patients without symptoms of depression. Therefore, special attention should be paid to symptoms of depression, as this risk factor affected the association between appetite and health status. This thesis enhances the understanding of the magnitude of the problem with decreased appetite in heart failure both in numbers and factors. New priorities in nutrition care and new ideas can be established, both in practice and in research, in order to improve a nutrition care that is vital for patients with heart failure.  

Keywords
Appetite, Age, Cognitive function, Depression, Health status, Heart failure, Malnutrition, Physical activity, Psychometrics, Pharmacotherapy, Sleep
National Category
Nursing Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-61864 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-145533 (DOI)
Public defence
2018-04-20, 09:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-02-14 Created: 2023-02-13 Last updated: 2023-02-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1482-767X

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