mdh.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Magnússon, GunnlaugurORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5079-9581
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Rytzler, J. & Magnússon, G. (2019). Approaching Higher Education with Didaktik: University Teaching for Intellectual Emancipation.. European Journal of Higher Education (2), 190-202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaching Higher Education with Didaktik: University Teaching for Intellectual Emancipation.
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 2156-8235, E-ISSN 2156-8243, no 2, p. 190-202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

European higher education has been highly influenced by theBologna-process, entailing coordination and standardisation frompolicy to teaching practices. This led to increased demands onuniversity teachers. Courses in university pedagogy are requiredas part of competence development and have become decisivefor employment. Constructive Alignment has become a popularmodel, being in line with Bologna-process ideals. Emerging is aninstrumental view of higher education that risks excavatinguniversity pedagogy of its pedagogical dimensions and reducingthe autonomy of the university teachers with focus onstandardisation and emphasis on effective output.This paper proposes a Didaktik-approach to university pedagogy.We argue that Didaktik can help revive relational and emancipatoryelements of higher education. By viewing the relationship betweenteachers and students as a gathering around common interests, wemaintain that Didaktik emphasises teachers’ reflections regardingthe subject, the students, and other educational dimensions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Didaktik, higher education, university teaching, Bologna process, constructive alignment, intellectual emancipation
National Category
Social Sciences Educational Sciences
Research subject
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41101 (URN)10.1080/21568235.2018.1515030 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053071902 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A.-L., Wilder, J., Klang, N., Magnússon, G. & Lillvist, A. (2019). Teachers' perspectives on the learning situation in school of students with mild intellectual disabilities. Paper presented at THE WORLD CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF INTELLECTUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES (IASSIDD), 6-9 Aug 2019, Glasgow. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 63, 762-762
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers' perspectives on the learning situation in school of students with mild intellectual disabilities
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, E-ISSN 1365-2788, Vol. 63, p. 762-762Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Inclusive Education
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40061 (URN)10.1111/jir.12658 (DOI)
Conference
THE WORLD CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF INTELLECTUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES (IASSIDD), 6-9 Aug 2019, Glasgow
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Magnússon, G. & Rytzler, J. (2018). Didaktik som alternativ till en instrumentell högskolepedagogik. In: Eva Ärlamalm-Hagsér & Marie Öhman (Ed.), Högskolepedagogisk utveckling i teori och praktik: (pp. 9-22). Västerås: Mälardalens högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Didaktik som alternativ till en instrumentell högskolepedagogik
2018 (English)In: Högskolepedagogisk utveckling i teori och praktik / [ed] Eva Ärlamalm-Hagsér & Marie Öhman, Västerås: Mälardalens högskola , 2018, p. 9-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

I denna artikel diskuterar vi rådande utbildningspolitiska ideal för högre utbildning och deras konsekvenser för högskolepedagogikens pedagogiska och didaktiska dimensioner. Högskolepedagogik kontextualiseras som utbildningsfenomen i relation till en internationell utbildningspolitisk utveckling. Sedan diskuterar vi John Biggs Constructive Alignment (CA), som ett exempel på högskolepedagogiskt uttryck för denna utveckling. Vi menar att CA, trots det sympatiska perspektivet på studentens handling och lärande, gör undervisning och utbildning instrumentell och urholkar olika vetenskapliga ämnestraditioner. Vi föreslår att undervisning i högre utbildning borde diskuteras i termer av didaktik, som förankrar undervisningen i ämnet och den pedagogiska relationen mellan lärare, student och ämne. Vi betraktar didaktik som en teori om utbildning och  undervisning som bevakar utbildningens innehållsliga och mellanmänskliga dimensioner. Därmed argumenterar vi för didaktik som ett radikalt svar och möjligt alternativ till det rådande utbildningspolitiska idealet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens högskola, 2018
Series
Mälardalen studies in educational sciences ; 35
Keywords
Högskolepedagogik; Didaktik; Bologna processen; Constructive alignment;
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40025 (URN)978-91-7485-341-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A.-L., Wilder, J., Magnússon, G. & Klang, N. (2018). Teachers’ Experiences About The Teaching Situation For Pupils With Mild Intellectual Disability. In: : . Paper presented at EERA, Bolzano, 3-7 September 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teachers’ Experiences About The Teaching Situation For Pupils With Mild Intellectual Disability
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40908 (URN)
Conference
EERA, Bolzano, 3-7 September 2018
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Magnússon, G., Göransson, K. & Nilholm, C. (2018). Varying access to professional, special educational support: a total population comparison of special educators in Swedish independent and municipal schools. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 18(4), 225-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Varying access to professional, special educational support: a total population comparison of special educators in Swedish independent and municipal schools
2018 (English)In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Independent schools are securely established in the Swedish education system. Prior research shows they generally have fewer pupils in need of support and lower proportions of special educators. Here, results are presented from a total population study of Swedish special educators (n = 4252) examined after 2001. The aim was to explore and compare the occupational situations of special educators working in Swedish municipal and independent schools. This is done by studying their occupational situations and the values they express regarding identification of – and work with – special support. The results show that while the respondents are demographically similar and express similar values, they have very different occupational situations. Those employed in independent schools have fewer years’ experience as special educators, are more often employed part‐time than full‐time and are more likely to hold other positions in schools (such as head teacher) than those employed in municipal schools. The results further illustrate different organisational approaches towards special educational support. Apparent is that independent schools offer professional special educational resources to a lower degree and utilise them differently. This is likely to influence the situation of pupils in need of support, and has consequences for the image of the Swedish education system.

Keywords
School choice, independent schools, special education, special educators, inclusive education
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-39140 (URN)10.1111/1471-3802.12407 (DOI)000446171400001 ()2-s2.0-85034572212 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-5986
Available from: 2018-05-05 Created: 2018-05-05 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Magnússon, G. (2017). Enacting Contradictory educational ideals: Balancing marketization and social inclusion in practice. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enacting Contradictory educational ideals: Balancing marketization and social inclusion in practice
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background

The marketization of education is an international phenomenon, with widespread consequences for schools, teachers and pupils. The marketization of the Swedish education system is a particularly interesting and extreme case in the international and European context. The realisation of market ideology in the Swedish education system can be viewed as a success in terms of its implementation and public and political acceptance. For instance, the proportions of pupils attending independent schools and the number of independent schools have grown exponentially, and school choice is seen as a democratic right and supported by most established political parties. However, there are several problems. Most importantly, market elements have contributed to increased segregation related to pupils’ background, the provision of special support, and of attainment. This is a real dilemma for a system that has emphasised social inclusion and education for all, egalitarian views that are seen as a point of departure for the Swedish education system. Thus, Swedish education lives with a tension of two educational ideologies, an individualistic-market educational ideology and a collectivistic-egalitarian educational ideology. Of course, both ideologies are far from unidimensional and encompass several different values and concepts. 

Several studies conclude or assume that these ideologies – and the policies inspired by them – are contradictory and that market mechanisms will undermine inclusive ambitions. However, this may appear differently in different schools, as policies are interpreted and enacted rather than implemented. While there are examples of policy analyses regarding one or both of these ideologies, and studies regarding their contradictions and incompatibility, there have been few attempts to study empirically the interplay and consequences of their coexistence and enactment in schools. In particular, we know very little about ‘unexceptional’ or ‘ordinary’ schools and their enactment of policies.

The project’s main objective is to develop a theoretical understanding of how these educational ideologies influence school’s work and organisation via policy and the enactment of policy. Using interviews with head teachers, the research questions are:

  • How do head teachers address, define and reflect around the challenges of social inclusion and market oriented policies in their work and in their schools?
  • To what extent do they believe pupils in general, and vulnerable pupils in particular are affected by market mechanisms in education? What are the challenges and/or benefits?

 

 

The theoretical point of departure is inspired by the work of Michael Apple, (2004), Thomas Popkewitz, (2008) and Stephen Ball (1993; Ball et al., 2012). Questions about what education should accomplish, how it is organised and who is to be educated are often implicit in political discourse. Here, educational ideologies are seen as rendering different answers to these questions and thus leading to different implications for educational practice and organisation. It is argued that these ideologies have different conceptualization of society, democracy and even the individual citizen. While public education may historically have collectivistic ideals, the market ideal views the citizen-in-the-making as a consumer rather than as a participant in the shaping of future society. The individual consumer of education is thus to be able to choose schooling according to his/her preferences. This can be opposed to viewing schooling as contributing to social cohesion and inclusion by accommodating a plurality of pupils.

These ideologies in turn find their way to policies, i.e. products of compromises, agendas and influences of various actors at various stages. Often containing contradicting goals and ambitions, policies then have to be interpreted and enacted by schools in a meaningful manner that fulfils the will of regulating and governing agencies as well as appeals to their prospective clients, namely pupils and parents.

 

Method  

For the purposes of this study, head teachers of primary schools have been chosen as respondents. Being in a middle management position, head teachers in Sweden are held accountable for the both the educational and economic situation of their schools. They answer to their principal organiser (PO) regarding economics, whether the PO is a municipality or a private organisation. Simultaneously, they are also accountable for the day to day work, the attainment of the pupils and the organisational situation the teachers work within. Additionally, head teachers are legally responsible for the special educational services and the preventive work against bullying. Finally yet importantly, they are to promote their schools as they compete for pupils (and thus fiscal resources). It can thus be argued that if anyone would see the consequences of market mechanisms and the responsibility of maintaining or achieving social inclusion, it would be the head teachers.

Twenty school leaders from both municipal and independent schools in three municipalities will be interviewed and asked to reflect upon marketization of education and dimensions of social inclusion. They are asked how these ideologies translate into their work, the organisation of their school, their staff, pupils and guardians of the pupils. In addition, documents and policies from each municipality and each school will be analysed.

The selection of municipalities and respondents is strategic. The three municipalities chosen have had different political approaches as regards the acceptance of market influences and thus very different experiences of the introduction of school choice and competition between schools. Municipality A has been very positive towards choice and private actors, for instance, implementing a ‘purchaser-provider’ model in the school sector services for several years. Municipality B has on the other hand been restrictive and attempted to veto the introduction of privately run schools several times. The third municipality is markedly smaller than the other two, and had not had any independent schools up until quite recently. In order to enrich the material with different experiences and perspectives, respondents will be contacted from schools with varying pupil demographics, in areas with varying social situations, and from both publically run schools and independent schools. These semi-structured interviews will take approximately an hour each and will be recorded and transcribed for subsequent analysis, using qualitative content analysis. Other theoretical devices, such as profession theory and organisation theory, may become useful to interpret these results.

Expected outcomes/results

The interviews are to be conducted in the upcoming month. The expected results are assumed to shed light upon how these educational ideologies, namely the individualistic-market ideology and the collectivistic-egalitarian ideology, can influence day to day work in primary schools. A common assumption is that they are incompatible and contradictory, and this is expected to appear in the responses. However, some prior research has shown that they live side by side in practice. That is not to say that one does not influence or diminish the other, rather that schools find ways to balance the two, resolving dilemmas as they arise. Hopefully, the paper can render a more nuanced understanding of these educational ideologies, how the coexistence of them can appear in the local context, and how schools enact seemingly contradictory policies.

Additionally, this research can contribute to an understanding of the role of head teachers as actors within the school system in general, and the individual schools in particular, especially as regards the consequences of marketization of the education system.

Intent of publication 

The results presented here are to be submitted to an international peer-reviewed journal shortly after presentation at the conference.

 

 

 

References  

Andersson, E., B. Malmberg & Östh, J. (2012). Travel to school distances in Sweden 2000-2006: changing school geography with equality implications. Journal of Transport Geography, 23:34-45.

Apple, M. W. (2004). Ideology and curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge.

Ball, S. J. (1993). What is policy? Texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse, 13(2): 10-17. Reprinted in Ball, S.J. (2006). (Ed.) Education Policy and Social Class. The selected works of Stephen J. Ball. New York: Routledge pp. 43-66

Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools do Policy. Policy Enactment in Secondary Schools. London, England: Routledge.

Booth, T., Ainscow, M. & Dyson, A. (1997). Understanding Inclusion and exclusion in the English competitive education system. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(4), 337-355.

Dyson, A. & Gallanaugh, F. (2007). National policy and the development of inclusive school practices: a case study. Cambridge Journal of Education, 37(4), 437-488

 Englund, T. (1998a). Utbildning som “public good “ eller “private good”? In T. Englund (Ed.), Utbildningspolitiskt systemskifte?  (pp. 107-142). Stockholm: HLS förlag.

Lubienski, C. (2009). Do Quasi-markets Foster Innovation in Education? A Comparative Perspective. OECD Education Working Papers No. 25, OECD Publishing.

Lundahl, L., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A.-S. and Lundström, U. (2013). Educational marketization the Swedish way. Education Inquiry, 4(3): 497–517.

Magnússon, G. (2015). Traditions and Challenges. Special Support in Swedish Independent Compulsory Schools. (Dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University.

Popkewitz, T. (2008). Cosmopolitanism and the Age of School Reform. Science, Education, and Making Society by Making of the Child. New York, NY: Routledge.

Rönnberg, L. (2015). Marketization on export: Representations of the Swedish free school model in English media. European Education Research Journal, 14(6), 549-565.

SNAE [The Swedish National Agency for Education]. (2012b). Likvärdig utbildning i svensk grundskola? En kvantiativ analys av likvärdighet över tid. Stockholm, Sweden: The National Agency for Education.

SNAE. (2014a). Private actors in preschools and schools. A mapping of independent education providers and owners in Sweden. Stockholm, Sweden: The National Agency for Education.

 SOU 2013:56. Friskolorna i samhället. Betänkande av friskolekommmittén. [The independent schools in society. Considerations from the independent school committee]. Stockholm, Sweden: Fritzes

Trumberg, A. (2011). Den delade skolan. Segregationsprocesser i det svenska skolsystemet. Diss. Örebro: Örebro Universitet.

 Vlachos, J. (2011). Friskolor i förändring. In L. Hartman (Ed.), Konkurrensens konsekvenser – vad händer med svensk välfärd? (pp.66-110). Stockholm, Sweden: SNS förlag.

Waldow, F. (2009). Undeclared imports: silent borrowing in educational policy-making and research in Sweden. Comparative Education, 45(4), 477-494.

Keywords
Marketization; Inclusion; Educational ideologies; Policy; Policy enactment
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36509 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2017
Projects
Att balansera marknad och social inkludering i praktiken - Rektorer om iscensättning av utbildningsideal.
Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-09-26 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Magnússon, G. (2016). Parallell Paradigm shifts?: Developments of Market Ideals and Ideals of Inclusion in the Swedish Education System. In: : . Paper presented at NFPF-NERA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parallell Paradigm shifts?: Developments of Market Ideals and Ideals of Inclusion in the Swedish Education System
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Prior research indicates that the marketization of the Swedish education system has contributed to segregation, particularly between schools. Research on school choice, independent schools and special educational provision further strengthens this image which, in an education system previously seen as highly inclusive, must be seen as a disconcerting development. However, the interplay between the individualist discourse of market education and the more collective oriented discourse of inclusive education has not been studied to a high degree on a theoretical level. This article presents and compares developments within Swedish education as encompassing paradigm shifts taking place in international and national discourse on education. The first shift regards the shift from a state centred education system based upon collectivist ideals to a marketized education system based upon individualist ideals. The other shift regards a shift in how the need for special educational support was understood and defined leading to a move from a segregating special educational provision – where individuals were compensated for their deficits – to inclusive education as an ideal – encompassing different positions as regards participation in classrooms, curriculum and peer activities.Commonalities and differences between the two emerging paradigms are discussed as well as how they have affected each other. The article also relates these paradigms to political ideals and discourses about what education is and how it should be organised. As such, both shifts are seen as interventions for more democratic education, each departing from a different view of what democracy is and who is to be in focus for it. Conclusions are drawn about how different understandings of the concept of inclusion may be coloured by the hegemonic market paradigm's focus on the individual, leading to a different understandings of inclusion. This is thus a theoretical contribution to the discussion about inclusive education. As such it utilises theoretical tools from educational philosophy and democratic theory as well as theoretical works about special education and inclusive education, in particular Thomas Skrtic and Clark, Dyson and Millward. Although the focus is upon developments in the Swedish education system, the discussion and conclusions have relevance on an international level, particularly for the Nordic countries.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31276 (URN)
Conference
NFPF-NERA
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2016-12-27
Magnússon, G. (2016). Representations of special support: Independent schools’ descriptions of special educational provision. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 31(2), 155-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representations of special support: Independent schools’ descriptions of special educational provision
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, ISSN 0885-6257, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 155-170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An important argument for the introduction of school choice in Sweden, was that independent schools would be a source for innovation. But do independent schools follow traditional patterns of special education, or do they aim for alternative organisational solutions, approaching inclusive education? Here, results from a total population questionnaire of the Swedish independent schools (N = 686; response rate = 79%) are presented. Four hundred written responses to two open-ended questions were received. The responses covered topics such as resource allocation, school descriptions and good practice. Themes and categories were condensed using qualitative content analysis and the results are theorised in terms of special educational perspectives and inclusive education. Results show examples of alternative and inclusive approaches, as well as examples of traditional understanding and organisation of special support within the field. The idea of market competition as a force of innovation is not supported in this material. Marketing and niching of schools can contribute to a less inclusive education system. More research that is both large scale and contextual is needed to understand further how schools cope with contradicting educational ideals and policy when competing for pupils.

Keywords
Independent schools, school choice, inclusive education, special education, special support, market competition, Sweden
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31288 (URN)10.1080/08856257.2015.1125685 (DOI)000373108600001 ()2-s2.0-84958529032 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Fristående skolors arbete med elever i behov av särskilt stöd
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-4701
Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Magnússon, G., Göransson, K. & Nilholm, C. (2015). Similar Situations? Special Needs in Different Groups of Independent Schools. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 59(4), 377-394
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similar Situations? Special Needs in Different Groups of Independent Schools
2015 (English)In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, ISSN 0031-3831, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explores differences between different groups of Swedish independent schools' work with pupils in need of special support (PNSS). Data comes from a total population study of independent schools. Data is analyzed using six categories of profile that may affect the special educational values at the schools, and therefore the situation for PNSS. Additionally, the data is analyzed with regard to the school ownership structure. Results show that diagnosis is important for receiving support, despite contrary legislative intentions. The groups differ regarding proportions of PNSS (12-100%), incidence of refusals of admission (8-40%), and in the way they explain problems and organize support. Generally, there is little challenge to a deficit perspective in views on school difficulties and the organization of support; market rationality may be a contributing factor. There are more differences between educational profiles of schools than there are between types of school ownership.

Keywords
inclusion, independent schools, pupils in need of special support, school choice
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25672 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2014.904422 (DOI)000357019600001 ()2-s2.0-84933676709 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Magnússon, G.; Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Eskilstuna, Swedenemail: gunnlaugur.magnusson@mdh.se

Available from: 2014-07-14 Created: 2014-07-14 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G., Klang, N., Magnússon, G. & Nilholm, C. (2015). Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning. Karlstad: Karsltads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning
Show others...
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karsltads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, 2015. p. 75
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2015:13
Keywords
speciallärare, specialpedagog, yrkesroll, enkätstudie
National Category
Social Sciences Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28735 (URN)978-91-7063-624-0 (ISBN)
Projects
Speciella yrken? Speciallärares och specialpedagogers arbete och utbildning
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-5986
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-21 Last updated: 2017-10-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5079-9581

Search in DiVA

Show all publications