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Hadjikhani, Annoch IsaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9009-3575
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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Lindh, C., Rovira Nordman, E., Melén Hånell, S., Safari, A. & Hadjikhani, A. I. (2018). Digitalization in the global sales era: The analysis of a cross-national dataset. In: : . Paper presented at European International Business Academy Conference, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digitalization in the global sales era: The analysis of a cross-national dataset
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Consumers shop increasingly on-line without thinking of national borders. This circumstancehighlights the need to increase the understanding of consumers’ cross-national purchasing and e-commerce. This study focuses on consumers’ online purchasing behaviour, studying consumers’ internet skills, website perceived ease of use and web-trust as antecedents of purchase intent. By analysing a cross-national data set of 788 consumers from different countries, the results show that consumers which make online-purchases are skilled internet- users. Moreover, the lack of trust that consumers may feel when making online-purchases, canbe lessened by a website’s perceived ease of use. The results have implications for future studiesabout e-commerce as an international phenomenon.

Keywords
EASE OF USE, INTERNET SKILLS, WEB-TRUST, PURCHASE INTENT, INTERNATIONAL E-COMMERCE
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41486 (URN)
Conference
European International Business Academy Conference, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A., Hadjikhani, A. I. & Thilenius, P. (2014). The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms' regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour. International Business Review, 23(1), 155-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms' regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour
2014 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commitment in the internationalization process model (IP-model) is challenged by the search for knowledge through experience and interactions. Critics opposing this logic even forced the founder of the model to call for the need for integration of other elements in order to understand irregular behaviour like rapid internationalization, loss of commitment and market exit. Aligned with this call, the paper raises the question of how the IP-model can be applied to analyse both regular/incremental and irregular/non-incremental behaviour of the firms. To reach an answer, the paper proposes a theoretical view by adding expectation and unknown uncertainty to the IP-model and examines this in a case study. The contribution is a further development of the IP-model by merging these two concepts that provide tools for understanding irregular behaviour. The paper analyses a Swedish firm's internationalization in different foreign markets for the period of 1995-2009. Conclusions support the understanding of how the model can describe regular incremental and irregular non-incremental commitment behaviour.

Keywords
Commitment, Expectation, Incremental and non-incremental behaviour, Internationalization process, Known and unknown uncertainty, Regular and irregular behaviour
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23505 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2013.03.005 (DOI)000329419600015 ()2-s2.0-84888434238 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ekman, P., Hadjikhani, A. I., Pajuvirta, A. & Thilenius, P. (2014). Tit for tat and big steps: The case of Swedish banks' internationalization 1961-2010. International Business Review, 23(6), 1049-1063
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tit for tat and big steps: The case of Swedish banks' internationalization 1961-2010
2014 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1049-1063Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines four major Swedish banks' internationalization process patterns during the period 1961-2010. The study complements earlier studies by also considering the banks' levels of market commitment. One objective is to determine if 'Tit for tat'-behaviour seen in earlier studies of Swedish banks still prevails after the deregulation. Adding to earlier studies, this study also considers the level of market activities and commitments. A secondary purpose is to examine how the financial crisis has affected the banks with reference to the banks' internationalization patterns. The empirical study is based on archival data on the studied banks' foreign operations. The results show that the banks' behaviour follows 'Tit for tat'-behaviour but that the internationalization has accelerated after the deregulation, hence being carried out with 'big steps' rather than small steps. The analysis also shows that the mimetic behaviour is complemented by other types of internationalization behaviours. The differences in bank internationalization also mean that the effect of a financial crisis varies depending on how the banks have internationalized.

National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26723 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.06.014 (DOI)000343391300003 ()2-s2.0-84923226242 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A. (2013). Expectations in the internationalization process – The case of two Swedish banks’ foreign activities 1995-2010. (Licentiate dissertation). Västerås: Mälardalen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expectations in the internationalization process – The case of two Swedish banks’ foreign activities 1995-2010
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Studies of banks’ internationalization are few, particularly of Swedish banks’ and studies holding a process view of internationalization. This is surprising considering the fact that banks’ have an incredibly important role in our societies. Furthermore, the Swedish banks have until recently been restricted from internationalizing. However today the four largest Swedish banks have all become multinational. The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyze the two Swedish banks Handelsbanken and Swedbank’s internationalization process between the years 1995-2010. This achieved by covering all relevant foreign markets that the banks are active in during their internationalization process in a longitudinal cross-case study based on archival sources (i.e. newspaper articles, press releases and annual reports). The analytical framework is constructed from behavioral theories and follows a process view of firms’ internationalization by applying the concepts of market commitment, market knowledge and expectation. Latterly firms’ expectation is included to take the future dimension into account in understanding firms’ internationalization behavior.

Conclusions made in this thesis show that the banks internationalization process has some semblances but otherwise they show completely different internationalization behaviors. The study shows that firms’ internationalization process is bound to what the firm will expect of the future and that this expectation is very different based on what knowledge the firm has and its experience. Furthermore the study evidences through empirical findings that the internationalization process of firms’ is also strongly related to the state of the market, i.e. stable or unstable.

Abstract [sv]

Studier av bankers internationalisering är relativt få i sitt omfång, särskilt om svenska banker och studier med en teoretisk process vy över internationalisering. Det här är ganska överraskande med tanke på hur viktiga bankerna är i vårt samhälle. Samtidigt var det inte särskilt länge sedan som bankerna var reglerade från att internationalisera medan de idag fyra stora svenska bankerna samtliga har blivit multinationella. Därför är syftet med denna avhandling är att beskriva och analysera de två svenska bankerna Handelsbanken och Swedbanks internationaliserings process mellan åren 1995 och 2010. Studien följer samtliga relevanta marknader som bankerna är aktiva i under deras internationalisering process genom två longitudinella fallstudier baserad på arkiv data (framför allt tidningsartiklar, pressmeddelanden och årsredovisningar). Det analytiska ramverket är grundat på beteendeteorier och följer bankernas internationalisering ur en process vy med koncepten marknadsåtagande, marknadskunskap och förväntningar. Den senare är inkluderat i syfte att fånga in den framtida dimensionen påverkan på företags internationaliserings beteende.

Slutsatser som görs i avhandlingen är t.ex. att bankernas internationaliseringsprocess har sina likheter i vissa aspekter men är ändå helt olika i deras internationaliseringsbeteende. Studien visar att företags internationaliseringsprocess är bunden till vad företagen förväntar sig av framtiden och att denna förväntning kan se väldigt olika ut beroende på vilka kunskaper och erfarenheter företaget besitter. Därutöver gör studien det empiriska upptäckten att företags internationaliserings process är starkt beroende på marknadstillståndet, d.v.s. om det är stabilt eller instabilt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2013
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 169
Keywords
Expectation, bank, commitment, knowledge, internationalization, process, case
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-19045 (URN)978-91-7485-114-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-06-11, Pi, Högskoleplan 1, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-27 Created: 2013-05-23 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A. I., Pajuvirta, A. & Thilenius, P. (2012). Internationalization of Swedish Banks in Russia and the Impact of Political Environment (28ed.). In: Amjad Hadjikhani, Ulf Elg, Pervez Ghauri (Ed.), Business, Society, and Politics: (pp. 173-193). Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internationalization of Swedish Banks in Russia and the Impact of Political Environment
2012 (English)In: Business, Society, and Politics / [ed] Amjad Hadjikhani, Ulf Elg, Pervez Ghauri, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, 28, p. 173-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter one of few studies made of banks’ internationalization process in emerging markets, focusing on behaviour relating to the political environment is presented. Aiming to understand banks’ behaviour in the Russia, an analytical framework built on the internationalization process model incorporating the impact of political environment is developed. The empirical data in the chapter concern Sweden’s four largest banks’ expansion into the Russian market and is presented in form of an long- itudinal cross-case study with secondary data between years 1990 and 2010, collected retrospectively. The secondary data consist of newspaper articles, annual reports and press releases. Findings show that in stable periods, Swedish banks have followed the pattern of the internationalization process model when expanding into the Russian market. In periods of instability, the banks’ behaviour is heterogenic and can be opportunistic or cautious. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012 Edition: 28
Series
International Business and Management, ISSN 1876-066X
Keywords
Emerging market, financial crisis, banks, internationalization process, Russia
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-21712 (URN)10.1108/S1876-066X(2012)0000028016 (DOI)978-1-78052-990-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-09-30 Created: 2013-09-30 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A., Lindh, C. & Thilenius, P. (2012). The impact of discontinuity on firms' business relationship behaviour. European Business Review, 24(2), 134-150
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of discontinuity on firms' business relationship behaviour
2012 (English)In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 134-150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: With a comparative aim, the purpose of this paper is to challenge the general assumption behind relationship longevity. The question under attention is whether firms' relationship of a discontinuous nature is different from continuous relationships and if so what this diversity entails. In the essay, a conceptual view is developed and tested statistically. The ambition is to add new knowledge to the field of business relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The essay's theoretical foundation rests on relationship theory and employs the four relationship behaviour elements of trust, commitment, cooperation and adaptation. Differences/similarities in the effects among these elements are tested for two types of relationships, i.e. those of continuous and discontinuous exchange, using data from 353 Swedish firms. Findings: The results show that a firm's behaviour in continuous relationships rests on incremental change, in the sense that the relationship elements of trust, commitment, cooperation and adaptation display sequential and progressive effects. This supports the common notion of a gradual strengthening of the business relationship resulting in longevity. Contrary to this, a firm's behaviour in discontinuous relationships is guided by the level of trust, which thus forms the base for the remaining elements. The absence of incremental change in the relationship behaviour and the pivotal role of trust mean that these relationships are weaker and are faced with interruptions and interference from competitors. Thereby business firms are confronted with different marketing challenges. The differences in the relationship behaviour of the two types signify that the view of relationships indeed needs advancement. Originality/value: Falling from a continuous to a discontinuous business relationship is becoming more common due to reasons such as market crises, business or firm crisis or because of the nature of the businesses as such. While earlier research studied the relationships' continuity and discontinuity separately, this paper enriches the earlier efforts and compares the two types. Understanding the differences between the two types of relationship can enrich the knowledge, not only for researchers but also for business managers.

Keywords
Adaptation, Business cycles, Channel relationships, Commitment, Cooperation, Market crisis, Project marketing, Sweden, Trust
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17897 (URN)10.1108/09555341211204008 (DOI)2-s2.0-84857733208 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A., Lindh, C. & Thilenius, P. (2010). The Effect of Discontinuity in Business Relationship. In: Proceedings from the 26th IMP-conference in Budapest, Hungary in 2010: . Paper presented at 26th IMP-conference in Budapest, Hungary, 2-4 Sept., 2010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Discontinuity in Business Relationship
2010 (English)In: Proceedings from the 26th IMP-conference in Budapest, Hungary in 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-11672 (URN)
Conference
26th IMP-conference in Budapest, Hungary, 2-4 Sept., 2010
Available from: 2011-02-01 Created: 2011-02-01 Last updated: 2016-01-18Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A., Pourmand, F. & Thilenius, P. (2009). Impact of international political units on smallbusiness firms’ relationships – the case of EU andSwedish small firms. International Journal of Business Environment, 2(4), 435-452
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of international political units on smallbusiness firms’ relationships – the case of EU andSwedish small firms
2009 (English)In: International Journal of Business Environment, ISSN 1740-0589, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 435-452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-7349 (URN)10.1504/IJBE.2009.028794 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-01-14Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A. & Thilenius, P. (2009). Industrial relationships and the effects of different types of connections. Industrial Marketing Management, 38(6), 679-686
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial relationships and the effects of different types of connections
2009 (English)In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 679-686Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emphasizing the primary and secondary functions in business networks, this paper is based on the presumption that the primary function of the focal dyadic relationship is connected to business, political, ancillary and competitive relationships, i.e. what has been denoted as the secondary function. The question is how these secondary functions affect the primary function. The conceptual view developed for the focal dyadic relationship is founded on the two key relationship concepts of trust and commitment. The empirical study is based on a survey of 353 firms and their most important customer relationships. The analysis examines nine hypotheses through a structural model in LISREL. Conclusions from the statistical test show the heterogeneity in the impacts of these different types of connections on trust and commitment. Knowledge of the impact of these connections can aid the further understanding of relationship connections and also assist business firms in developing strategies towards these units.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-7348 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2009.05.011 (DOI)000269966900014 ()2-s2.0-68249089013 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A., Lee, J.-W. & Thilenius, P. (2006). Commitment Dimensions in the International Industrial Relationship. In: Business Networks and International Marketing: (pp. 401-418). Doo Yang Publishing Co. (Seoul, South Korea)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commitment Dimensions in the International Industrial Relationship
2006 (English)In: Business Networks and International Marketing, Doo Yang Publishing Co. (Seoul, South Korea) , 2006, p. 401-418Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Doo Yang Publishing Co. (Seoul, South Korea), 2006
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-2931 (URN)
Available from: 2007-03-18 Created: 2007-03-18 Last updated: 2015-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9009-3575

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