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Ekman, P., Thilenius, P. & Windahl, T. (2014). Extending the ERP system: considering the business relationship portfolio. Business Process Management Journal, 20(3), 480-501
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the ERP system: considering the business relationship portfolio
2014 (English)In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 480-501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – Research has shown that companies focus their internal processes when they adopt enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. However, the ERP systems need to expand their functionality to include customers and suppliers (with e-commerce functionality) to reach their full potential. The purpose of this paper is to consider business relationships as a resource but also a limitation when companies strive to get an extended ERP system.

Design/Methodology/approach – The paper presents an illustrative case study of an industrial company’s process of developing an extended ERP and how the company’s portfolio of business relationships has affected the solution. The analysis is supported by the markets-as-networks theory.

Findings – The process of developing an extended ERP system needs to incorporate the company’s business partners (customers and suppliers). It is a simultaneously bottom-up and top-down process given that the operative frontline staff hold the knowledge about the company’s business relationships while the corporate management has the means of extending the ERP system functionality and align it with the focal company’s strategy.

Research implications – Companies need to consider the fact that the technological and financial status of their customers and suppliers differ. Thus, an effective and flexible extended ERP system needs to include both a high-end and low-end solution as well as understand that a full interorganizational integration might not be realistic.

Originality/value – The paper puts forth business relationship portfolios as an important factor to consider when extending the ERP system functionality in the supply chain and towards customers. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014
Keywords
Extended ERP system, Adoption, Markets-as-networks, Business relationship portfolio
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23202 (URN)10.1108/BPMJ-08-2012-0085 (DOI)2-s2.0-84900405264 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-06 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A., Hadjikhani, A. I. & Thilenius, P. (2014). The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms' regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour. International Business Review, 23(1), 155-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms' regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour
2014 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commitment in the internationalization process model (IP-model) is challenged by the search for knowledge through experience and interactions. Critics opposing this logic even forced the founder of the model to call for the need for integration of other elements in order to understand irregular behaviour like rapid internationalization, loss of commitment and market exit. Aligned with this call, the paper raises the question of how the IP-model can be applied to analyse both regular/incremental and irregular/non-incremental behaviour of the firms. To reach an answer, the paper proposes a theoretical view by adding expectation and unknown uncertainty to the IP-model and examines this in a case study. The contribution is a further development of the IP-model by merging these two concepts that provide tools for understanding irregular behaviour. The paper analyses a Swedish firm's internationalization in different foreign markets for the period of 1995-2009. Conclusions support the understanding of how the model can describe regular incremental and irregular non-incremental commitment behaviour.

Keywords
Commitment, Expectation, Incremental and non-incremental behaviour, Internationalization process, Known and unknown uncertainty, Regular and irregular behaviour
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23505 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2013.03.005 (DOI)000329419600015 ()2-s2.0-84888434238 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ekman, P., Hadjikhani, A. I., Pajuvirta, A. & Thilenius, P. (2014). Tit for tat and big steps: The case of Swedish banks' internationalization 1961-2010. International Business Review, 23(6), 1049-1063
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tit for tat and big steps: The case of Swedish banks' internationalization 1961-2010
2014 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1049-1063Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines four major Swedish banks' internationalization process patterns during the period 1961-2010. The study complements earlier studies by also considering the banks' levels of market commitment. One objective is to determine if 'Tit for tat'-behaviour seen in earlier studies of Swedish banks still prevails after the deregulation. Adding to earlier studies, this study also considers the level of market activities and commitments. A secondary purpose is to examine how the financial crisis has affected the banks with reference to the banks' internationalization patterns. The empirical study is based on archival data on the studied banks' foreign operations. The results show that the banks' behaviour follows 'Tit for tat'-behaviour but that the internationalization has accelerated after the deregulation, hence being carried out with 'big steps' rather than small steps. The analysis also shows that the mimetic behaviour is complemented by other types of internationalization behaviours. The differences in bank internationalization also mean that the effect of a financial crisis varies depending on how the banks have internationalized.

National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26723 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.06.014 (DOI)000343391300003 ()2-s2.0-84923226242 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2014-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ekman, P., Erixon, C. & Thilenius, P. (2013). Information technology utilization for practical marketing activities: The IT-marketing gap. In: BUILDING AND MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS IN A GLOBAL NETWORK: CHALLENGES AND NECESSARY CAPABILITIES. Paper presented at The 29th International Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Conference in Atlanta (GA), August 30 – September 2, 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information technology utilization for practical marketing activities: The IT-marketing gap
2013 (English)In: BUILDING AND MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS IN A GLOBAL NETWORK: CHALLENGES AND NECESSARY CAPABILITIES, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates how industrial companies’ IT infrastructure match their applied marketing approach. The supporting theoretical framework is based upon the contemporary marketing practice (CMP) model that depicts companies as spanning from transactional to more relational and networked. This is supported by theories on the logic of IT systems and how users in industrial companies adopt them. The study is based upon two longitudinal subsequent case studies of a multinational company’s business with influential customers. The analysis shows that the utilized IT systems mainly follow efficiency logic that is useful for individual business transactions. However, the form of complex industrial business that industrial companies carries out are often relationship based and sometimes even incorporating the adjacent business network. Thus, there is a IT-marketing gap given that contemporary IT does not match the need the marketing practice of a modern industrial company.

Keywords
business relationship, business network, traContemporary marketing practice, information technology, transaction marketing, business relationship, business network
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-22325 (URN)
Conference
The 29th International Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Conference in Atlanta (GA), August 30 – September 2, 2013
Available from: 2013-11-01 Created: 2013-11-01 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
Erixon, C., Ekman, P. & Thilenius, P. (2013). Studying information system provider relationships impact on business relationships. In: BUILDNING AND MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS IN A GLOBAL NETWORK: CHALLENGES AND NECESSARY CAPABILITIES. Paper presented at The 29th International Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Conference, Friday, August 30 – Monday, September 2, 2013, Atlanta (GA), USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying information system provider relationships impact on business relationships
2013 (English)In: BUILDNING AND MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS IN A GLOBAL NETWORK: CHALLENGES AND NECESSARY CAPABILITIES, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Information systems are used for managing and supporting companies’ business relationships and have become an important part of companies’ exchanges with their customers. Information systems are usually managed by a third party, an information system provider (IS-provider). Companies are dependent on their information systems to maintain their business performances and are therefore also dependent on the IS-provider's competence. This paper studies the impact that a company’s IS-provider relationships have on its customer business relationships. By using the concept of connection and studying its degree of continuity and strength, the study offers insight on the impact of the IS-providers' relationships on a company's customer relationships. The study consists of a case study involving five customer relationships and four IS-provider relationships, creating twenty within-cases. The result shows that the companies' relationships are dependent on the exchanges with the IS-providers. This impact and the characteristic of the connection may vary over time, making the concept of continuity important to consider when evaluating a company's relationship with IS-providers. The study shows that it is important for companies to consider these two business relationships in relation to one another when managing the IS-provider relationship and the information systems that are used in customer relationships. Important management aspects can be missed in the evaluation of an IS-provider, if the connection between the relationships is left out of the analysis.

Keywords
Connection, business relationships, continuity, information system provider
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-22994 (URN)
Conference
The 29th International Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Conference, Friday, August 30 – Monday, September 2, 2013, Atlanta (GA), USA
Available from: 2013-11-26 Created: 2013-11-26 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A. I., Pajuvirta, A. & Thilenius, P. (2012). Internationalization of Swedish Banks in Russia and the Impact of Political Environment (28ed.). In: Amjad Hadjikhani, Ulf Elg, Pervez Ghauri (Ed.), Business, Society, and Politics: (pp. 173-193). Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internationalization of Swedish Banks in Russia and the Impact of Political Environment
2012 (English)In: Business, Society, and Politics / [ed] Amjad Hadjikhani, Ulf Elg, Pervez Ghauri, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, 28, p. 173-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter one of few studies made of banks’ internationalization process in emerging markets, focusing on behaviour relating to the political environment is presented. Aiming to understand banks’ behaviour in the Russia, an analytical framework built on the internationalization process model incorporating the impact of political environment is developed. The empirical data in the chapter concern Sweden’s four largest banks’ expansion into the Russian market and is presented in form of an long- itudinal cross-case study with secondary data between years 1990 and 2010, collected retrospectively. The secondary data consist of newspaper articles, annual reports and press releases. Findings show that in stable periods, Swedish banks have followed the pattern of the internationalization process model when expanding into the Russian market. In periods of instability, the banks’ behaviour is heterogenic and can be opportunistic or cautious. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012 Edition: 28
Series
International Business and Management, ISSN 1876-066X
Keywords
Emerging market, financial crisis, banks, internationalization process, Russia
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-21712 (URN)10.1108/S1876-066X(2012)0000028016 (DOI)978-1-78052-990-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-09-30 Created: 2013-09-30 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A., Lindh, C. & Thilenius, P. (2012). The impact of discontinuity on firms' business relationship behaviour. European Business Review, 24(2), 134-150
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of discontinuity on firms' business relationship behaviour
2012 (English)In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 134-150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: With a comparative aim, the purpose of this paper is to challenge the general assumption behind relationship longevity. The question under attention is whether firms' relationship of a discontinuous nature is different from continuous relationships and if so what this diversity entails. In the essay, a conceptual view is developed and tested statistically. The ambition is to add new knowledge to the field of business relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The essay's theoretical foundation rests on relationship theory and employs the four relationship behaviour elements of trust, commitment, cooperation and adaptation. Differences/similarities in the effects among these elements are tested for two types of relationships, i.e. those of continuous and discontinuous exchange, using data from 353 Swedish firms. Findings: The results show that a firm's behaviour in continuous relationships rests on incremental change, in the sense that the relationship elements of trust, commitment, cooperation and adaptation display sequential and progressive effects. This supports the common notion of a gradual strengthening of the business relationship resulting in longevity. Contrary to this, a firm's behaviour in discontinuous relationships is guided by the level of trust, which thus forms the base for the remaining elements. The absence of incremental change in the relationship behaviour and the pivotal role of trust mean that these relationships are weaker and are faced with interruptions and interference from competitors. Thereby business firms are confronted with different marketing challenges. The differences in the relationship behaviour of the two types signify that the view of relationships indeed needs advancement. Originality/value: Falling from a continuous to a discontinuous business relationship is becoming more common due to reasons such as market crises, business or firm crisis or because of the nature of the businesses as such. While earlier research studied the relationships' continuity and discontinuity separately, this paper enriches the earlier efforts and compares the two types. Understanding the differences between the two types of relationship can enrich the knowledge, not only for researchers but also for business managers.

Keywords
Adaptation, Business cycles, Channel relationships, Commitment, Cooperation, Market crisis, Project marketing, Sweden, Trust
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17897 (URN)10.1108/09555341211204008 (DOI)2-s2.0-84857733208 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Dahlin, P., Fors, J., Havila, V. & Thilenius, P. (2011). Business Netquakes: Finding relatedness in time in dynamic business networks. In: : . Paper presented at The Skagen Workshop 2011, Copenhagen Business School. Skagen, Denmark. January 26-29, 2011.. Skagen, Denmark
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business Netquakes: Finding relatedness in time in dynamic business networks
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skagen, Denmark: , 2011
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23636 (URN)
Conference
The Skagen Workshop 2011, Copenhagen Business School. Skagen, Denmark. January 26-29, 2011.
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2015-08-06Bibliographically approved
Ekman, P., Thilenius, P., Thompson, S. & Whitaker, J. (2011). Drivers and obstacles for global IT in the embedded multinational: A multiple case study. In: The impact of globalization on networks and relationship dynamics: . Paper presented at 27th International Marketing and Purchasing Conference, Glasgow from August 30 till September 3 2011 (pp. 1-22). Glasgow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers and obstacles for global IT in the embedded multinational: A multiple case study
2011 (English)In: The impact of globalization on networks and relationship dynamics, Glasgow, 2011, p. 1-22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multinational companies (MNCs) have been actively pursuing globally integrated information technology (IT) as a mechanism for better coordination and control of business processes. This paper presents a multiple case study of five MNCs’ experiences with global IT initiatives and explores the drivers and obstacles they encountered.  We conceptualize the MNC as being embedded in internal and external business relationships. The analysis shows that the MNCs’ main motives for global IT can be found in the headquarter-subsidiary relationship where global IT enables the firm to obtain economies of scale and increased control which in turn enables the MNC to become international or global oriented. The external embeddedness, i.e. the subsidiary-partner relationships as well as other connected business relationships in the local business networks, is one of the major obstacles for global IT as it requires a level of adaptability not inherent in the context of global IT standards.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Glasgow: , 2011
Keywords
multinational company, information technology, headquarter control, business relationship, embeddedness, case study
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14907 (URN)
Conference
27th International Marketing and Purchasing Conference, Glasgow from August 30 till September 3 2011
Available from: 2012-06-27 Created: 2012-06-27 Last updated: 2014-01-10
Ekman, P. & Thilenius, P. (2011). ERP selection through business relationships: adaptations or connections. International Journal of Entrepreneural Venturing, 3(1), 63-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ERP selection through business relationships: adaptations or connections
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneural Venturing, ISSN 1742-5360, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 63-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses how a generic form of information technology (IT), enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, can be selected by companies to enhance their business. ERP systems are a means of becoming more efficient through predefined standard functions called 'best practices'. Following the theory that markets are made up of business relationships in a network context, managerial advice would be to assess the vendor's existing business relationships. A company can harvest the inherent functions that an ERP system has from the vendor's prior interaction with other customers. This paper discusses how a company benefits from engaging in a new business relationship with an ERP vendor to become more competitive. However, this relationship is double-edged. A lesson is that the functions developed by the ERP vendor and the customer only offer a temporal competitive advantage, given that it can be used later in the ERP vendor's other connected business relationships.

Keywords
information technology; enterprise resource planning; ERP selection; best practice; business relationships; adaptation; connections; network infusion; case study; business networks
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Organisations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-11579 (URN)10.1504/IJEV.2011.037858 (DOI)2-s2.0-84885085411 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Automation RegionFöretags styrning med affärssystem
Available from: 2011-01-27 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2015-06-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3322-437X

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