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Campana, Pietro EliaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1351-9245
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Jurasz, J. K., Dabek, P. B. & Campana, P. E. (2020). Can a city reach energy self-sufficiency by means of rooftop photovoltaics?: Case study from Poland. Journal of Cleaner Production, 245, Article ID 118813.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Can a city reach energy self-sufficiency by means of rooftop photovoltaics?: Case study from Poland
2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 245, artikel-id 118813Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The process of decarbonising economies has to take place on multiple levels. One of the objectives is to ensure renewables-based energy self-sufficiency of cities. Cities have become home to the majority of the world's population, and at the same time contribute enormously to environmental pollution. Considering the above, the purposes of this paper are threefold: to formulate a methodology for estimating rooftop photovoltaics (PV) potential in urban areas based on detailed Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data; to calculate the spatial variability of load and photovoltaics energy supply, and thus to distinguish zones with various levels of energy self-sufficiency; and finally, to scrutinise the economic and environmental aspects of such a solution in given conditions. Wroclaw, the capital city of the Lower Silesia voivodeship in south-west Poland (Central Europe), was selected as a case study. The city has a population of close to 650,000 and an annual electricity consumption slightly exceeding 2.2 TWh. Industry constitutes 46% of that demand, and households 31%. The results show that up to 850 MW p of rooftop PV can be installed in the city, which has the potential to reduce the electrical energy related emissions by almost 30% and simultaneously to increase the city's energy self-sufficiency. Although energy storage, in the form of batteries, slightly improves both the autarky and environmental indices, the relation between potential PV generation and load makes them very infrequently useful (mostly in summer) and not economically justified. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020
Nyckelord
Renewable energy, Self-sufficiency, Power system transition, LiDAR, GIS
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46687 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118813 (DOI)000503739400023 ()2-s2.0-85074887651 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-01-09 Skapad: 2020-01-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-02-20Bibliografiskt granskad
Quitoras, M. R., Campana, P. E. & Crawford, C. (2020). Exploring electricity generation alternatives for Canadian Arctic communities using a multi-objective genetic algorithm approach. Energy Conversion and Management, 210, Article ID 112471.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Exploring electricity generation alternatives for Canadian Arctic communities using a multi-objective genetic algorithm approach
2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 210, artikel-id 112471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Indigenous peoples in the Northern communities of Canada are experiencing some of the worst catastrophic effects of climate change, given the Arctic region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world. Paradoxically, this increasing temperature can be attributed to fossil fuel-based power generation on which the North is almost totally reliant. At the moment, diesel is the primary source of electricity for majority of Arctic communities. In addition to greenhouse gas and other airborne pollutants, this situation exposes risk of oil spills during fuel transport and storage. Moreover, shipping fuel is expensive and ice roads are harder to maintain as temperatures rise. As a result, Northern governments are burdened by rising fuel prices and increased supply volatility. In an effort to reduce diesel dependence, the multi-objective microgrid optimization model was built in this work to handle the complex trade-offs of designing energy system for an Arctic environment and other remote communities. The tool uses a genetic algorithm to simultaneously minimize levelised cost of energy and fuel consumption of the microgrid system through dynamic simulations. Component submodel simulation results were validated against an industry and academic accepted energy modeling tool. Compared to previous energy modeling platforms, proposed method is novel in considering Pareto front trade-offs between conflicting design objectives to better support practitioners and policy makers. The functionality of the method was demonstrated with a case study on Sachs Harbour, in the Northernmost region of the Northwest Territories. The algorithm selected a fully hybrid wind-solar-battery-diesel system as the most suited technically, economically and environmentally for the community. The robustness of the results was assessed by performing system failure analysis of the model results. Overall, the modeling framework can help decision makers in identifying trade-offs in energy policy to transition the Canadian Arctic and other remote communities towards more sustainable and clean sources of energy.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2020
Nyckelord
Arctic environment, Energy model, Genetic algorithm, Microgrid, Optimization, Renewable energy
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47384 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112471 (DOI)2-s2.0-85081220973 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-19 Skapad: 2020-03-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Prabaharan, N., Campana, P. E., Jerin, A. & Palanisamy, K. (2019). A new approach for grid integration of solar photovoltaic system with maximum power point tracking using multi‐output converter. In: : . Paper presented at Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid REM2018 (pp. 521-526). , 159
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A new approach for grid integration of solar photovoltaic system with maximum power point tracking using multi‐output converter
2019 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a new approach for grid integration of solar photovoltaic system using modified incremental conductance maximum power point tracking algorithm with multi-output converter and multilevel inverter. The multi-output converter is a combination of boost converter and switched capacitor function to generate different self-balanced output voltages using single switch, single inductor, 2N-1 diodes and 2N-1 capacitors. This topology is proposed to be used as DC link in applications where several controlled voltage levels are required with self-balancing and unidirectional current flow, such as photovoltaic (PV) or fuel cell generation systems with multilevel inverter. The utilization of multilevel inverter in the proposed system provides better quality of output voltage and current waveform thereby reducing the size of passive filters. Also, it eliminates the requirement of bulky transformers for grid integration. Multicarrier unipolar phase disposition pulse width modulation technique is employed for triggering the switches of the multilevel inverter. The proposed system is tested with standard test conditions using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Serie
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102
Nyckelord
converter; grid integration; inverter; multilevel inverter; photovoltaic; solar
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41681 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2018.12.005 (DOI)000471291100085 ()2-s2.0-85063796062 (Scopus ID)
Konferens
Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid REM2018
Tillgänglig från: 2018-12-18 Skapad: 2018-12-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Varini, M., Campana, P. E. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). A semi-empirical, electrochemistry-based model for Li-ion battery performance prediction over lifetime. Paper presented at Fall Meeting and Exhibit of the European-Materials-Research-Society (E-MRS), SEP 17-20, 2018, Warsaw Univ Technol, Warsaw, POLAND. Journal of Energy Storage, 25, Article ID UNSP 100819.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A semi-empirical, electrochemistry-based model for Li-ion battery performance prediction over lifetime
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, E-ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 25, artikel-id UNSP 100819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Predicting the performance of Li-ion batteries over lifetime is necessary for design and optimal operation of integrated energy systems, as electric vehicles and energy grids. For prediction purposes, several models have been suggested in the literature, with different levels of complexity and predictability. In particular, electrochemical models suffer of high computational costs, while empirical models are deprived of physical meaning. In the present work, a semi-empirical model is suggested, holding the computational efficiency of empirical approaches (low number of fitting parameters, low-order algebraic equations), while providing insights on the processes occurring in the battery during operation. The proposed model is successfully validated on experimental battery cycles: specifically, in conditions of capacity fade > 20%, and dynamic cycling at different temperatures. A comparable performance to up-to-date empirical models is achieved both in terms of computational time, and correlation coefficient R-2. In addition, analyzing the evolution of fitting parameters as a function of cycle number allows to identify the limiting processes in the overall battery degradation for all the protocols considered. The model suggested is thus suitable for implementation in system modelling, and it can be employed as an informative tool for improved design and operational strategies.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ELSEVIER, 2019
Nyckelord
Li-ion battery, Semi-empirical model, Performance and lifetime prediction, Ageing mechanisms
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45878 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2019.100819 (DOI)000489689000014 ()2-s2.0-85073706203 (Scopus ID)
Konferens
Fall Meeting and Exhibit of the European-Materials-Research-Society (E-MRS), SEP 17-20, 2018, Warsaw Univ Technol, Warsaw, POLAND
Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-31 Skapad: 2019-10-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-31Bibliografiskt granskad
Yan, J., Yang, Y., Campana, P. E. & He, J. (2019). City-level analysis of subsidy-free solar photovoltaic electricity price, profits and grid parity in China. Nature Energy, 4(8), 709-717
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>City-level analysis of subsidy-free solar photovoltaic electricity price, profits and grid parity in China
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nature Energy, ISSN 2058-7546, Vol. 4, nr 8, s. 709-717Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, China has become not just a large producer but a major market for solar photovoltaics (PV), increasing interest in solar electricity prices in China. The cost of solar PV electricity generation is affected by many local factors, making it a challenge to understand whether China has reached the threshold at which a grid-connected solar PV system supplies electricity to the end user at the same price as grid-supplied power or the price of desulfurized coal electricity, or even lower. Here, we analyse the net costs and net profits associated with building and operating a distributed solar PV project over its lifetime, taking into consideration total project investments, electricity outputs and trading prices in 344 prefecture-level Chinese cities. We reveal that all of these cities can achieve—without subsidies—solar PV electricity prices lower than grid-supplied prices, and around 22% of the cities’ solar generation electricity prices can compete with desulfurized coal benchmark electricity prices.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
Nyckelord
Commerce, Electric power generation, Electric power transmission networks, Profitability, Solar concentrators, Solar energy, Solar power generation, Coal electricities, Electricity generation, Electricity output, Electricity prices, Solar electricity, Solar photovoltaic electricity, Solar photovoltaics, Solar PV systems, Costs
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45100 (URN)10.1038/s41560-019-0441-z (DOI)000481484400019 ()2-s2.0-85070785396 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-28 Skapad: 2019-08-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-11
Zhang, C., Campana, P. E., Liu, C., Wang, K. & Yan, J. (2019). Crowdfunding preferences for a sustainable milk product with integrated photovoltaic water pumping system in China. Applied Energy, 255, Article ID 113694.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Crowdfunding preferences for a sustainable milk product with integrated photovoltaic water pumping system in China
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, artikel-id 113694Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper studies the role of potential investors in financing renewable energy systems—specifically, relating to crowdfunding as a financing mechanism, with the enhancement of internet and social-media tools. The research question in this study is whether crowdfunding with a novel socio-technical product reward program attracts potential customers to a more sustainable milk product with a specific integrated photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system. The particular case study we empirically investigated is product reward crowdfunding in dairy milk production in China. The milk production chain was supplied by PVWP system integration, which generated solar energy both for feed production for dairy cows and for the operation of dairy farms. 48 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted between the research team and customers in order to perform qualitative analyses of the determinants of customers’ milk purchase behaviors. In addition, 357 online surveys were collected for quantitative analysis. Binary and ordered probit regressions were employed to use survey date to systematically estimate purchase intention and willingness-to-pay for sustainable milk. Customer behaviors, environmental consciousness, and individual socio-demographic factors were investigated as potential explanatory variables. Over 82% of the survey participants showed intentions to purchase the sustainable milk with the PVWP system. In the survey and interview samples, results showed that milk quality, nutrition improvement, emissions reduction, and environmental benefits attributed to the integrated PVWP system were the major factors considered by interviewees who showed intentions to purchase the crowdfunded dairy milk. Regression model results suggested that potential customers with higher income levels, and those of parenting age, and those with young children or planning to have children, had a higher willingness-to-pay than other customers for the crowdfunded sustainable dairy milk. The familiarity with and popularity of online shopping and pre-sale purchases in China made customers more open to and proactive towards pre-pay and crowdfunding mechanisms. This article evaluated key factors which may influence potential customers for crowdfunding, and used a discrete choice model to estimate customers’ willingness-to-pay for reward-based projects. These results could help producers of sustainable milk products to identify potential target groups in China and estimate market demand. This exploratory study could provide a framework with both quantitative and qualitative assessment of crowdfunding for renewable energy systems in a national or international context. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Nationell ämneskategori
Energisystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45257 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113694 (DOI)000497978100009 ()2-s2.0-85071887585 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-19 Skapad: 2019-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-12-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Abas, N., Kalair, A. R., Seyedmahmoudian, M., Naqvi, M., Campana, P. E. & Khan, N. (2019). Dynamic simulation of solar water heating system using supercritical CO2 as mediating fluid under sub-zero temperature conditions. Applied Thermal Engineering, 161, Article ID 114152.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Dynamic simulation of solar water heating system using supercritical CO2 as mediating fluid under sub-zero temperature conditions
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 161, artikel-id 114152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

CO2 is becoming increasingly important as a mediating fluid, and simulation studies are indispensable for corresponding developments. In this study, a simulation-based performance investigation of a solar water heating system using CO2 as a mediating fluid under sub-zero temperature condition is performed using the TRNSYS® software. The maximum performance is achieved at a solar savings fraction of 0.83 during July. The as lowest solar savingss fraction of 0.41 is obtained during December. The annual heat production of the proposed system under Fargo climate is estimated to be about 2545 kWh. An evacuated glass tube solar collector is designed, fabricated and tested for various climate conditions. Moreover, a detailed comparison of the system's performance at sub/supercritical and supercritical pressures shows that the annual heat transfer efficiency of the modeled system is 10% higher at supercritical pressure than at sub/supercritical pressures. This result can be attributd to the strong convection flow of CO2 caused by density inhomogeneities, especially in the near critical region. This condition resuls in high heat transfer rates.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Nyckelord
NatRef, Refrigerant, Solar water heating, Sub-zero temperature, Supercritical CO2
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45099 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.114152 (DOI)000488887200070 ()2-s2.0-85070810540 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-28 Skapad: 2019-08-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Mancuso, M. V., Campana, P. E. & Yan, J. (2019). Evaluation of Grid-Connected Micro-Grid Operational Strategies. In: : . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) (pp. 1273-1278). , 158
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Evaluation of Grid-Connected Micro-Grid Operational Strategies
2019 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the operational performances of a grid-connected microgrid with integrated solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage. The study is based upon the techno-economic specifications and theoretical performance of the distributed energy resource and storage systems, as well as on measured consumer load data and electrical utility retail and distribution data for representative residential and commercial loads for the city of Västerås, Sweden. The open-source Matlab®-based simulation tool, OptiCE, is used for performing simulations and optimization. To support the attainment of one of the objectives, peak shaving of the consumer load, a battery operational strategy algorithm has been developed to balance peak shaving and PV self-consumption. Comparisons among three types of battery, lead-acid, lithium-ion and vanadium-redox flow, are also performed. A 117 kW p photovoltaic system paired with a lithium-ion battery of 41.1 kWh capacity is the optimal solution found for the considered commercial load. The calculated battery capacity represents the best trade-off for the set multi-objective optimization problem. The simulation of this system predicts the possibility to shave the customer load profile peaks up to 20% for the month of April. The corresponding self-consumption ratio is 88%. Differences in the relationship between the load profiles and the system performance have been qualitatively noted. Furthermore, the simulation results for lead-acid, lithium-ion and vanadium-redox flow battery systems reveal that lithium-ion batteries delivers the best trade-off between total annualized cost and peak shaving performance for both residential and commercial applications.

Serie
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102
Nyckelord
Battery; Microgrid; Optimization; Peak shaving; Photovoltaic
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41690 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.315 (DOI)000471031701099 ()2-s2.0-85063866890 (Scopus ID)
Konferens
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-12-18 Skapad: 2018-12-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Campana, P. E., Wästhage, L., Nookuea, W., Tan, Y. & Yan, J. (2019). Optimization and assessment of floating and floating-tracking PV systems integrated in on- and off-grid hybrid energy systems. Solar Energy, 177, 782-795
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Optimization and assessment of floating and floating-tracking PV systems integrated in on- and off-grid hybrid energy systems
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 177, s. 782-795Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Considering the targets of Thailand in terms of renewable energy exploitation and decarbonization of the shrimp farming sector, this work evaluates several scenarios for optimal integration of hybrid renewable energy systems into a representative shrimp farm. In particular, floating and floating-tracking PV systems are considered as alternatives for the exploitation of solar energy to meet the shrimp farm electricity demand. By developing a dynamic techno-economic simulation and optimization model, the following renewable energy systems have been evaluated: PV and wind based hybrid energy systems, off-grid and on-grid PV based hybrid energy systems, ground mounted and floating PV based hybrid energy systems, and floating and floating-tracking PV based hybrid energy systems. From a water-energy nexus viewpoint, floating PV systems have shown significant impacts on the reduction of evaporation losses, even if the energy savings for water pumping are moderate due to the low hydraulic head. Nevertheless, the study on the synergies between water for food and power production has highlighted that the integration of floating PV represents a key solution for reducing the environmental impacts of shrimp farming. For the selected location, the results have shown that PV systems represent the best renewable solution to be integrated into a hybrid energy system due to the abundance of solar energy resources as compared to the moderate wind resources. The integration of PV systems in off-grid configurations allows to reach high renewable reliabilities up to 40% by reducing the levelized cost of electricity. Higher renewable reliabilities can only be achieved by integrating energy storage solutions but leading to higher levelized cost of electricity. Although the floating-tracking PV systems show higher investment costs as compared to the reference floating PV systems, both solutions show similar competiveness for reliabilities up to 45% due to the higher electricity production of the floating-tracking PV systems. The higher electricity production from the floating-tracking PV systems leads to a better competitiveness for reliabilities higher than 90% due to lower capacity requirements for the storage systems.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Nyckelord
Floating photovoltaics, Optimization, Shrimp farming, Thailand
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-41773 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2018.11.045 (DOI)000456222500077 ()2-s2.0-85057745302 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-12-20 Skapad: 2018-12-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-14Bibliografiskt granskad
Benavente, F., Lundblad, A., Campana, P. E., Zhang, Y., Cabrera, S. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia: Considering the suppressed demand effect. Applied Energy, 235, 519-528
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia: Considering the suppressed demand effect
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, s. 519-528Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Rural electrification programs usually do not consider the impact that the increment of demand has on the reliability of off-grid photovoltaic (PV)/battery systems. Based on meteorological data and electricity consumption profiles from the highlands of Bolivian Altiplano, this paper presents a modelling and simulation framework for analysing the performance and reliability of such systems. Reliability, as loss of power supply probability (LPSP), and cost were calculated using simulated PV power output and battery state of charge profiles. The effect of increasing the suppressed demand (SD) by 20% and 50% was studied to determine how reliable and resilient the system designs are. Simulations were performed for three rural application scenarios: a household, a school, and a health centre. Results for the household and school scenarios indicate that, to overcome the SD effect, it is more cost-effective to increase the PV power rather than to increase the battery capacity. However, with an increased PV-size, the battery ageing rate would be higher since the cycles are performed at high state of charge (SOC). For the health centre application, on the other hand, an increase in battery capacity prevents the risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system. These results provide important insights for the application design of off-grid PV-battery systems in rural electrification projects, enabling a more efficient and reliable source of electricity.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Nationell ämneskategori
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-42422 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.10.084 (DOI)000458942800043 ()2-s2.0-85056217184 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-25 Skapad: 2019-01-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-14Bibliografiskt granskad
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ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1351-9245

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