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Dodig-Crnkovic, GordanaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9881-400X
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Dodig-Crnkovic, G. & Burgin, M. (Eds.). (2019). Philosophy and Methodology of Information: The Study of Information in the Transdisciplinary Perspective. Singapore: World Scientific
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Philosophy and Methodology of Information: The Study of Information in the Transdisciplinary Perspective
2019 (Engelska)Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The book gives up-to-date, multi-aspect exposition of the philosophy and methodology of information, and related areas within the nascent field of the study of information. It presents the most recent achievements, ideas and opinions of leading researchers in this domain, as well as from physicists, biologists and social scientists. Collaboration of researchers from different areas and fields opens new perspectives for the understanding of information essential in the innovative development of science, technology and society.

The book is meant for readers conducting research into any aspect of information, information society and information technology. The ideas presented give new insights for those who develop or implement scientific, technological or social applications. They are especially for those who are participating in setting the goals for science in general and sciences of information in particular.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Singapore: World Scientific, 2019
Nyckelord
Philosophy and Methodology of InformationTransdisciplinary researchTheory of SciencePhilosophy of ScienceMethodology of ScienceScientific Methods
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier Mänsklig interaktion med IKT
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45145 (URN)978-981-3277-51-9 (ISBN)
Projekt
PICO - Philosophy of Information and Computing
Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-05 Skapad: 2019-09-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Giovagnoli, R., Crucitti, A. & Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2019). Robotics and the quality of life: the case of robotics assisted surgery. PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRIES, 7(1), 77-87
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Robotics and the quality of life: the case of robotics assisted surgery
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRIES, ISSN 2281-8618, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 77-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Robotics is one of the most developing technological field that combines many scientific disciplines and has important social, ethical and economical effects. The philosophical debate on Artificial Intelligence is part of the classical branch of the philosophy of mind and developed interesting results crossing several disciplines (such as psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, neurobiology etc.). Many interesting views moved mostly from Turing challenges about human and machine intelligence. After a general presentation of new trends in the ambit of AI, which try to intend computing as natural and embodied, we present the case of robotics assisted surgery as a very important example of a practice which requires also practical considerations.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
EDIZIONI ETS, 2019
Nyckelord
Turing machine, natural computing, robotics, roboethics, robotic assisted surgery
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43147 (URN)10.4454/philinq.v7i1.240 (DOI)000463212400006 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-18 Skapad: 2019-04-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Holstein, T. & Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2018). Avoiding the intrinsic unfairness of the trolley problem. In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering: . Paper presented at 2018 ACM/IEEE International Workshop on Software Fairness, FairWare 2018, 29 May 2018 (pp. 32-37).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Avoiding the intrinsic unfairness of the trolley problem
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, 2018, s. 32-37Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

As an envisaged future of transportation, self-driving cars are being discussed from various perspectives, including social, economical, engineering, computer science, design, and ethical aspects. On the one hand, self-driving cars present new engineering problems that are being gradually successfully solved. On the other hand, social and ethical problems have up to now being presented in the form of an idealized unsolvable decision-making problem, the so-called "trolley problem", which is built on the assumptions that are neither technically nor ethically justifiable. The intrinsic unfairness of the trolley problem comes from the assumption that lives of different people have different values. In this paper, techno-social arguments are used to show the infeasibility of the trolley problem when addressing the ethics of self-driving cars. We argue that different components can contribute to an "unfair" behaviour and features, which requires ethical analysis on multiple levels and stages of the development process. Instead of an idealized and intrinsically unfair thought experiment, we present real-life techno-social challenges relevant for the domain of software fairness in the context of self-driving cars. 

Nationell ämneskategori
Datorsystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40368 (URN)10.1145/3194770.3194772 (DOI)000447014100006 ()2-s2.0-85051217985 (Scopus ID)9781450357463 (ISBN)
Konferens
2018 ACM/IEEE International Workshop on Software Fairness, FairWare 2018, 29 May 2018
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-17 Skapad: 2018-08-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2017). Nature as a Network of Morphological Infocomputational Processes for Cognitive Agents. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 226(2), 181-195
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Nature as a Network of Morphological Infocomputational Processes for Cognitive Agents
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 226, nr 2, s. 181-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a view of nature as a network of infocomputational agents organized in a dynamical hierarchy of levels. It provides a framework for unification of currently disparate understandings of natural, formal, technical, behavioral and social phenomena based on information as a structure, differences in one system that cause the differences in another system, and computation as its dynamics, i.e. physical process of morphological change in the informational structure. We address some of the frequent misunderstandings regarding the natural/morphological computational models and their relationships to physical systems, especially cognitive systems such as living beings. Natural morphological infocomputation as a conceptual framework necessitates generalization of models of computation beyond the traditional Turing machine model presenting symbol manipulation, and requires agent-based concurrent resource-sensitive models of computation in order to be able to cover the whole range of phenomena from physics to cognition. The central role of agency, particularly material vs. cognitive agency is highlighted.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2017
Nyckelord
Morphological computing, emergent properties, cognition, infocomputation, computing nature
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35429 (URN)10.1140/epjst/e2016-60362-9 (DOI)000394358200004 ()2-s2.0-85008429803 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-06-05 Skapad: 2017-06-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-06-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Lowe, R., Dodig-Crnkovic, G. & Almér, A. (2017). Predictive Regulation in Affective and Adaptive Behaviour: An Allostatic-Cybernetics Perspective. In: Jordi Vallverdu, Manuel Mazzara, Max Talanov, Salvatore Distefano, Robert Lowe (Ed.), Advanced Research on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures: (pp. 148-176). Sweden: IGI
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Predictive Regulation in Affective and Adaptive Behaviour: An Allostatic-Cybernetics Perspective
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Advanced Research on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures / [ed] Jordi Vallverdu, Manuel Mazzara, Max Talanov, Salvatore Distefano, Robert Lowe, Sweden: IGI , 2017, s. 148-176Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, different notions of allostasis (the process of achieving stability through change) as they apply to adaptive behavior are presented. The authors discuss how notions of allostasis can be usefully applied to Cybernetics-based homeostatic systems. Particular emphasis is placed upon affective states – motivational and emotional – and, above all, the notion of 'predictive' regulation, as distinct from forms of 'reactive' regulation, in homeostatic systems. The authors focus here on Ashby's ultrastability concept that entails behavior change for correcting homeostatic errors (deviations from the healthy range of essential, physiological, variables). The authors consider how the ultrastability concept can be broadened to incorporate allostatic mechanisms and how they may enhance adaptive physiological and behavioral activity. Finally, this chapter references different (Cybernetics-based) theoretical frameworks that incorporate the notion of allostasis. The article then attempts to untangle how the given perspectives fit into the 'allostatic ultrastable systems' framework postulated by the authors. Predictive Regulation in Affective and Adaptive Behaviour: An Allostatic-Cybernetics Perspective (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311112080_Predictive_Regulation_in_Affective_and_Adaptive_Behaviour_An_Allostatic-Cybernetics_Perspective [accessed Nov 17 2017].

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Sweden: IGI, 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier Annan samhällsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37497 (URN)10.4018/978-1-5225-1947-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85027510045 (Scopus ID)1522519475 (ISBN)
Projekt
PICO - Philosophy of Information and Computing
Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-19 Skapad: 2017-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Johnsen, A., Dodig-Crnkovic, G., Lundqvist, K., Hänninen, K. & Pettersson, P. (2017). Risk-based decision-making fallacies: Why present functional safety standards are not enough. In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings. Paper presented at 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017, 3 April 2017 through 7 April 2017 (pp. 153-160). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Risk-based decision-making fallacies: Why present functional safety standards are not enough
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 153-160Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Functional safety of a system is the part of its overall safety that depends on the system operating correctly in response to its inputs. Safety is defined as the absence of unacceptable/unreasonable risk by functional safety standards, which enforce safety requirements in each phase of the development process of safety-critical software and hardware systems. Acceptability of risks is judged within a framework of analysis with contextual and cultural aspects by individuals who may introduce subjectivity and misconceptions in the assessment. While functional safety standards elaborate much on the avoidance of unreasonable risk in the development of safety-critical software and hardware systems, little is addressed on the issue of avoiding unreasonable judgments of risk. Through the studies of common fallacies in risk perception and ethics, we present a moral-psychological analysis of functional safety standards and propose plausible improvements of the involved risk-related decision making processes, with a focus on the notion of an acceptable residual risk. As a functional safety reference model, we use the functional safety standard ISO 26262, which addresses potential hazards caused by malfunctions of software and hardware systems within road vehicles and defines safety measures that are required to achieve an acceptable level of safety. The analysis points out the critical importance of a robust safety culture with developed countermeasures to the common fallacies in risk perception, which are not addressed by contemporary functional safety standards. We argue that functional safety standards should be complemented with the analysis of potential hazards caused by fallacies in risk perception, their countermeasures, and the requirement that residual risks must be explicated, motivated, and accompanied by a plan for their continuous reduction. This approach becomes especially important in contemporary developed autonomous vehicles with increasing computational control by increasingly intelligent software applications.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Datorsystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36194 (URN)10.1109/ICSAW.2017.50 (DOI)000413089000029 ()2-s2.0-85025634021 (Scopus ID)9781509047932 (ISBN)
Konferens
2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017, 3 April 2017 through 7 April 2017
Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-10 Skapad: 2017-08-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-02Bibliografiskt granskad
Sapienza, G., Dodig-Crnkovic, G. & Crnkovic, I. (2016). Inclusion of Ethical Aspects in Multi-criteria Decision Analysis. In: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016: . Paper presented at 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 5 April 2016 (pp. 1-8).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Inclusion of Ethical Aspects in Multi-criteria Decision Analysis
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Decision process is often based on multi-faceted and mutually opposing criteria. In order to provide rigorous techniques for problem structuring and criteria aggregation used for classification and ranking of alternatives, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) has been used as a method to achieve architectural decisions. Even though it has already been argued in literature that MCDA essentially depends on value systems of decision-makers, it is a question how the decision result reflects a particular criterion, requirement or a particular decision. This is especially true if a criterion is not precisely specified. In this paper we analyse the ethical aspects of MCDA. In our analysis we argue that it is in the long run necessary to make value basis of decision-making and ethical considerations explicit and subject for scrutiny. As a support to encourage introduction of transparent value-based deliberation we propose an extended MCDA scheme that would explicitly take into account ethical analysis. As an illustration, we present an industrial case study for the Software (SW)/Hardware (HW) partitioning of a wind turbine application in which different decisions can be taken, depending on the ethical aspects. 

Nyckelord
Embedded Systems, Ethical Aspects, Ethics, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Application programs, Decision theory, Operations research, Philosophical aspects, Software architecture, Wind turbines, Architectural decision, Ethical considerations, Industrial case study, Multi-criteria decision analysis, Ranking of alternatives, Decision making
Nationell ämneskategori
Inbäddad systemteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32524 (URN)10.1109/MARCH.2016.8 (DOI)000382526100001 ()2-s2.0-84979519277 (Scopus ID)9781509025732 (ISBN)
Konferens
1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 5 April 2016
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-18 Skapad: 2016-08-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-09-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2016). The Architecture of Mind as a Network of Networks of Natural Computational Processes. Philosophies MDPI, 1(1), 111-125
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Architecture of Mind as a Network of Networks of Natural Computational Processes
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Philosophies MDPI, ISSN 2409-9287, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 111-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In discussions regarding models of cognition, the very mention of “computationalism” often incites reactions against the insufficiency of the Turing machine model, its abstractness, determinism, the lack of naturalist foundations, triviality and the absence of clarity. None of those objections, however, concerns models based on natural computation or computing nature, where the model of computation is broader than symbol manipulation or conventional models of computation. Computing nature consists of physical structures that form layered computational architecture, with computation processes ranging from quantum to chemical, biological/cognitive and social-level computation. It is argued that, on the lower levels of information processing in the brain, finite automata or Turing machines may still be adequate models, while, on the higher levels of whole-brain information processing, natural computing models are necessary. A layered computational architecture of the mind based on the intrinsic computing of physical systems avoids objections against early versions of computationalism in the form of abstract symbols manipulation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2016
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier Annan teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-32856 (URN)10.3390/philosophies1010111 (DOI)
Externt samarbete:
Projekt
PICO - Philosophy of Information and ComputingMorphological Computing in Cognitive Systems
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-25 Skapad: 2016-08-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Burgin, M. & Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2015). A Taxonomy of Computation and Information Architecture: ECSA 2015 ASDS Workshop. In Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSAW '15). ACM, New York, NY, USA.. In: 9th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops ECSAW 2015: . Paper presented at 9th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops ECSAW 2015, 7-11 Sep 2015, Dubrovnik/Cavtat, Croatia. , Article No. 7
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Taxonomy of Computation and Information Architecture: ECSA 2015 ASDS Workshop. In Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSAW '15). ACM, New York, NY, USA.
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: 9th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops ECSAW 2015, 2015, Vol. Article No. 7Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents taxonomy of models of computation. It includes Existential (Physical, Abstract and Cognitive), Organizational, Temporal, Representational, Domain/Data, Operational, Process-oriented and Level-based taxonomy. It is connected to more general notion of natural computation, intrinsic to physical systems, and particularly to cognitive computation in living organisms and artificial cognitive systems. Computation is often understood through the Turing machine model, in the fields of computability, computational complexity and even as a basis for the present-day computer hardware and software architectures. However, several aspects of computation, even those existing in today's applications, are left outside in this model, thus adequate models of real-time, distributed, self-organized, resource-aware, adaptive, learning computation systems are currently being developed.

Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-30449 (URN)10.1145/2797433.2797440 (DOI)978-1-4503-3393-1 (ISBN)
Konferens
9th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops ECSAW 2015, 7-11 Sep 2015, Dubrovnik/Cavtat, Croatia
Projekt
PICO - Philosophy of Information and ComputingITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-21 Skapad: 2015-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Jägemar, M. & Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2015). Cognitively Sustainable ICT with Ubiquitous Mobile Services - Challenges and Opportunities. In: The 37th International Conference on Software Engineering ICSE: . Paper presented at 37th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2015; Florence; Italy; 16 May 2015 through 24 May 2015 (pp. 531-540). (37)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cognitively Sustainable ICT with Ubiquitous Mobile Services - Challenges and Opportunities
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: The 37th International Conference on Software Engineering ICSE, 2015, nr 37, s. 531-540Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has led to an unprecedented development in almost all areas of human life. It forms the basis for what is called “the cognitive revolution” – a fundamental change in the way we communicate, feel, think and learn based on an extension of individual information processing capacities by communication with other people through technology. This so-called “extended cognition” shapes human relations in a radically new way. It is accompanied by a decrease of shared attention and affective presence within closely related groups. This weakens the deepest and most important bonds, that used to shape human identity. Sustainability, both environmental and social (economic, technological, political and cultural) is one of the most important issues of our time. In connection with “extended cognition” we have identified a new, basic type of social sustainability that everyone takes for granted, and which we claim is in danger due to our changed ways of communication. We base our conclusion on a detailed analysis of the current state of the practice and observed trends. The contribution of our article consists of identifying cognitive sustainability and explaining its central role for all other aspects of sustainability, showing how it relates to the cognitive revolution, its opportunities and challenges. Complex social structures with different degrees of proximity have always functioned as mechanisms behind belongingness and identity. To create a long-term cognitive sustainability, we need to rethink and design new communication technologies that support differentiated and complex social relationships.

Nyckelord
Cognitive sustainability, Social sustainability, Sustainable ICT, Cognitive revolution, Privacy, Shared attention, Social cognition, Software engineering for social good.
Nationell ämneskategori
Programvaruteknik Datorsystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28131 (URN)10.1109/ICSE.2015.189 (DOI)000380572400065 ()2-s2.0-84951830525 (Scopus ID)9781479919345 (ISBN)
Externt samarbete:
Konferens
37th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2015; Florence; Italy; 16 May 2015 through 24 May 2015
Tillgänglig från: 2015-06-09 Skapad: 2015-06-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9881-400X

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