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Publications (10 of 275) Show all publications
Johansson, B., Leander, B., Causevic, A., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2019). Classification of PROFINET I/O Configurations utilizing Neural Networks. In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA: . Paper presented at 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019 (pp. 1321-1324). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of PROFINET I/O Configurations utilizing Neural Networks
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2019 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1321-1324Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In process automation installations, the I/O system connect the field devices to the process controller over a fieldbus, a reliable, real-time capable communication link with signal values cyclical being exchanged with a 10-100 millisecond rate. If a deviation from intended behaviour occurs, analyzing the potentially vast data recordings from the field can be a time consuming and cumbersome task for an engineer. For the engineer to be able to get a full understanding of the problem, knowledge of the used I/O configuration is required. In the problem report, the configuration description is sometimes missing. In such cases it is difficult to use the recorded data for analysis of the problem.In this paper we present our ongoing work towards using neural network models as assistance in the interpretation of an industrial fieldbus communication recording. To show the potential of such an approach we present an example using an industrial setup where fieldbus data is collected and classified. In this context we present an evaluation of the suitability of different neural net configurations and sizes for the problem at hand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Field devices, Fieldbus, In-process, Neural network model, Process controllers, PROFInet, Real time, Signal value, Factory automation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47118 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2019.8869024 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074197516 (Scopus ID)9781728103037 (ISBN)
Conference
24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019
Available from: 2020-02-20 Created: 2020-02-20 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Johansson, B., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2019). Concurrency defect localization in embedded systems using static code analysis: An evaluation. In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 30th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2019: . Paper presented at 30th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2019; Berlin; Germany; 28 October 2019 through 31 October 2019; Category numberCFP1979F-ART; Code 157721 (pp. 7-12). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concurrency defect localization in embedded systems using static code analysis: An evaluation
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 30th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 7-12Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Defects with low manifestation probability, such as concurrency defects, are difficult to find during testing. When such a defect manifests into an error, the low likelihood can make it time-consuming to reproduce the error and find the root cause. Static Code Analysis (SCA) tools have been used in the industry for decades, mostly for compliance checking towards guidelines such as MISRA. Today, these tools are capable of sophisticated data and execution flow analysis. Our work, presented in this paper, evaluates the feasibility of using SCA tools for concurrency defect detection and localization. Earlier research has categorized concurrency defects. We use this categorization and develop an object-oriented C++ based test suite containing defects from each category. Secondly, we use known and real defects in existing products' source code. With these two approaches, we perform the evaluation, using tools from some of the largest commercial actors in the field. Based on our results, we provide a discussion about how to use static code analysis tools for concurrency defect detection in complex embedded real-Time systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Concurrency, Defects, Real Time, RTOS, SCA, Static Code Analysis, C++ (programming language), Codes (symbols), Compliance control, Embedded systems, Interactive computer systems, Object oriented programming, Real time systems, Software reliability, Technical presentations, Compliance checking, Defect localizations, Embedded real time systems, Static code analysis tools
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47390 (URN)10.1109/ISSREW.2019.00034 (DOI)2-s2.0-85080936338 (Scopus ID)9781728151380 (ISBN)
Conference
30th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2019; Berlin; Germany; 28 October 2019 through 31 October 2019; Category numberCFP1979F-ART; Code 157721
Available from: 2020-03-19 Created: 2020-03-19 Last updated: 2020-03-19Bibliographically approved
Salman, C. A., Struhar, V., Papadopoulos, A., Behnam, M. & Nolte, T. (2019). Fogification of industrial robotic systems: Research challenges. In: IoT-Fog 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT: . Paper presented at 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, IoT-Fog 2019, 15 April 2019 (pp. 41-45). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fogification of industrial robotic systems: Research challenges
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2019 (English)In: IoT-Fog 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2019, p. 41-45Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To meet the demands of future automation systems, the architecture of traditional control systems such as the industrial robotic systems needs to evolve and new architectural paradigms need to be investigated. While cloud-based platforms provide services such as computational resources on demand, they do not address the requirements of real-time performance expected by control applications. Fog computing is a promising new architectural paradigm that complements the cloud-based platform by addressing its limitations. In this paper, we analyse the existing robot system architecture and propose a fog-based solution for industrial robotic systems that addresses the needs of future automation systems. We also propose the use of Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) services for real-time communication and OPC-UA for information modelling within this architecture. Additionally, we discuss the main research challenges associated with the proposed architecture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2019
Keywords
Automation, Computer architecture, Fog, Industrial research, Internet of things, Robotics, Cloud based platforms, Computational resources, Control applications, Industrial robotic systems, Information modelling, Proposed architectures, Real time performance, Real-time communication, Fog computing
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-43888 (URN)10.1145/3313150.3313225 (DOI)000473542200009 ()2-s2.0-85066045184 (Scopus ID)9781450366984 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT, IoT-Fog 2019, 15 April 2019
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Thörn, J., Vidimlic, N., Friebe, A., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2019). Probabilistic Timing Analysis of a Periodic Task on a Microcontroller. In: The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019: . Paper presented at The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 10 Sep 2019, Zaragoza, Spain (pp. 1419-1422).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probabilistic Timing Analysis of a Periodic Task on a Microcontroller
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2019 (English)In: The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 2019, p. 1419-1422Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present our ongoing work towards a realistic probabilistic timing analysis of embedded software systems subject to timing requirements. In order to provide such an analysis that captures necessary and important behavioural features of the software system under analysis, including the underlying platform, we have implemented a real-time system running on a Rasberry Pi microcontroller on which we have performed a series of experiments and measurements. The results so far suggest a new model for analysis that captures more detailed behaviour and consequently provides a more accurate and correct probabilistic analysis.

Keywords
probabilistic timing analysis, response time, Markov Chain
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46268 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2019.8869210 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074202970 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-0303-7 (ISBN)
Conference
The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 10 Sep 2019, Zaragoza, Spain
Projects
PARIS - Practical Probabilistic Timing Analysis of Real-Time Systems
Available from: 2019-12-12 Created: 2019-12-12 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Relefors, J., Momeni, M., Pettersson, L., Hellström, E., Thunell, A., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2019). Towards Automated Installation of Reinforcement Using Industrial Robots. In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA: . Paper presented at 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019 (pp. 1595-1598). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Automated Installation of Reinforcement Using Industrial Robots
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2019 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1595-1598Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The construction industry is today among the least automated industries with a long tradition of utilizing manual labour. Despite the potential benefits of automation, only a few examples of using robots to automate (parts of) construction have been presented over the past years. In this paper we present our ongoing work towards automated installation of reinforcement, a traditionally very heavy and labour intensive work. We use industrial robots and we discuss the potential benefits and challenges of such robotic automation in construction. Our overall goal is to achieve a fully automated robotic solution for flexible serial production of custom made non-identical reinforcement cages. In the paper we highlight and analyse the main challenges that must be addressed in order to reach a functioning and efficient solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Construction industry, Factory automation, Reinforcement, Robotics, Automated industry, Fully automated, Labour-intensive, Non-identical, Potential benefits, Robotic automation, Robotic solutions, Serial production, Industrial robots
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46535 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2019.8869343 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074194750 (Scopus ID)9781728103037 (ISBN)
Conference
24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019, 10 September 2019 through 13 September 2019
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Lager, A., Spampinato, G., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2019). Towards Reactive Robot Applications in Dynamic Environments. In: The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019: . Paper presented at The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 10 Sep 2019, Zaragoza, Spain (pp. 1603-1606).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Reactive Robot Applications in Dynamic Environments
2019 (English)In: The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 2019, p. 1603-1606Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Traditionally, industrial robots have been deployed in fairly static environments, to perform highly dedicated tasks. These robots perform with very high precision and throughput. However, nowadays there is an increasing demand for utilizing robots in more dynamic environments, also performing more flexible and less specialized operations — high mix/low volume. Both traditional industrial robots and force-limited robots are used in collaborative, dynamic environments. Such robot applications introduce new challenges when it comes to efficiency and robustness. In this paper, we propose an architecture for reactive multi-robot applications in the context of dynamic environments, and we analyze the main research challenges that must be tackled for its realization. A logistics use case, with robots picking customer orders from the shelves of a warehouse, is used as a running example to support the description of the key challenges.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-46269 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2019.8868963 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074194456 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-0303-7 (ISBN)
Conference
The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 10 Sep 2019, Zaragoza, Spain
Projects
ARRAY - Automation Region Research Academy
Available from: 2019-12-12 Created: 2019-12-12 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Friebe, A., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2019). Work-in-progress: Validation of probabilistic timing models of a periodic task with interference - A case study. In: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium: . Paper presented at 40th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, RTSS 2019; Hong Kong; China; 3 December 2019 through 6 December 2019; Category numberCFP19092-ART; Code 158990 (pp. 524-527). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 9052191.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work-in-progress: Validation of probabilistic timing models of a periodic task with interference - A case study
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 524-527, article id 9052191Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Probabilistic timing analysis techniques have been proposed for real-time systems to remedy the problems that deterministic estimates of the task's Worst-Case Execution Time and Worst-Case Response-Time can be both intractable and overly pessimistic. Often, assumptions are made that a task's response time and execution time probability distributions are independent of the other tasks. This assumption may not hold in real systems. In this paper, we analyze the timing behavior of a simple periodic task on a Raspberry Pi model 3 running Arch Linux ARM. In particular, we observe and analyze the distributions of wake-up latencies and execution times for the sequential jobs released by a simple periodic task. We observe that the timing behavior of jobs is affected by release events during the job's execution time, and of other processes running in between subsequent jobs of the periodic task. Using a data consistency approach we investigate whether it is reasonable to model the timing distribution of jobs affected by release events and intermediate processes as translations of the empirical timing distribution of non-affected jobs. According to the analysis, this paper shows that a translated distribution model of non-affected jobs is invalid for the execution time distribution of jobs affected by intermediate processes. Regarding the wake-up latency distribution with intermediate processes, a translated distribution model is improbable, but cannot be completely ruled out.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Model validation, Periodic task, Probabilistic timing analysis, Task interference, Computer operating systems, Interactive computer systems, Probability distributions, Response time (computer systems), Timing circuits, Wakes, Data consistency, Distribution models, Sequential jobs, Time distribution, Timing Analysis, Work in progress, Worst case response time, Worst-case execution time, Real time systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-47561 (URN)10.1109/RTSS46320.2019.00055 (DOI)2-s2.0-85083242582 (Scopus ID)9781728144030 (ISBN)
Conference
40th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, RTSS 2019; Hong Kong; China; 3 December 2019 through 6 December 2019; Category numberCFP19092-ART; Code 158990
Available from: 2020-04-23 Created: 2020-04-23 Last updated: 2020-04-30Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Lisper, B., Sandström, K. & Nolte, T. (2018). A resource efficient framework to run automotive embedded software on multi-core ECUs. Journal of Systems and Software, 64-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A resource efficient framework to run automotive embedded software on multi-core ECUs
2018 (Swedish)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, p. 64-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing functionality and complexity of automotive applications requires not only the use of more powerful hardware, e.g., multi-core processors, but also efficient methods and tools to support design decisions. Component-based software engineering proved to be a promising solution for managing software complexity and allowing for reuse. However, there are several challenges inherent in the intersection of resource efficiency and predictability of multi-core processors when it comes to running component-based embedded software. In this paper, we present a software design framework addressing these challenges. The framework includes both mapping of software components onto executable tasks, and the partitioning of the generated task set onto the cores of a multi-core processor. This paper aims at enhancing resource efficiency by optimizing the software design with respect to: 1) the inter-software-components communication cost, 2) the cost of synchronization among dependent transactions of software components, and 3) the interaction of software components with the basic software services. An engine management system, one of the most complex automotive sub-systems, is considered as a use case, and the experimental results show a reduction of up to 11.2% total CPU usage on aquad-core processor, in comparison with the common framework in the literature. 

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36448 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.01.040 (DOI)000428493000005 ()2-s2.0-85041901291 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-18 Created: 2017-09-18 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Dehnavi, S., Kargahi, M., Papadopoulos, A. & Nolte, T. (2018). A Time-Predictable Fog-Integrated Cloud Framework: One Step Forward in the Deployment of a Smart Factory. In: CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18: . Paper presented at CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 09 May 2018, Tehran, Iran (pp. 54-62).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Time-Predictable Fog-Integrated Cloud Framework: One Step Forward in the Deployment of a Smart Factory
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2018 (English)In: CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 2018, p. 54-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights cloud computing as one of the principal building blocks of a smart factory, providing a huge data storage space and a highly scalable computational capacity. The cloud computing system used in a smart factory should be time-predictable to be able to satisfy hard real-time requirements of various applications existing in manufacturing systems. Interleaving an intermediate computing layer-called fog-between the factory and the cloud data center is a promising solution to deal with latency requirements of hard real-time applications. In this paper, a time-predictable cloud framework is proposed which is able to satisfy end-to-end latency requirements in a smart factory. To propose such an industrial cloud framework, we not only use existing real-time technologies such as Industrial Ethernet and the Real-time XEN hypervisor, but we also discuss unaddressed challenges. Among the unaddressed challenges, the partitioning of a given workload between the fog and the cloud is targeted. Addressing the partitioning problem not only provides a resource provisioning mechanism, but it also gives us a prominent design decision specifying how much computing resource is required to develop the fog platform, and how large should the minimum communication bandwidth be between the fog and the cloud data center.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38638 (URN)10.1109/RTEST.2018.8397079 (DOI)000467076600008 ()2-s2.0-85050457708 (Scopus ID)9781538614754 (ISBN)
Conference
CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 09 May 2018, Tehran, Iran
Projects
PREMISE - Predictable Multicore Systems
Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Faragardi, H. R., Vahabi, M., Fotouhi, H., Nolte, T. & Fahringer, T. (2018). An efficient placement of sinks and SDN controller nodes for optimizing the design cost of industrial IoT systems. Software, practice & experience, 48(10), 1893-1919
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An efficient placement of sinks and SDN controller nodes for optimizing the design cost of industrial IoT systems
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2018 (English)In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1893-1919Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, a growing trend has emerged toward using Internet of Things (IoT) in the context of industrial systems, which is referred to as industrial IoT. To deal with the time-critical requirements of industrial applications, it is necessary to consider reliability and timeliness during the design of an industrial IoT system. Through the separation of the control plane and the data plane, software-defined networking provides control units (controllers) coexisting with sink nodes, efficiently coping with network dynamics during run-time. It is of paramount importance to select a proper number of these devices (i.e., software-defined networking controllers and sink nodes) and locate them wisely in a network to reduce deployment cost. In this paper, we optimize the type and location of sinks and controllers in the network, subject to reliability and timeliness as the prominent performance requirements in time-critical IoT systems through ensuring that each sensor node is covered by a certain number of sinks and controllers. We propose PACSA-MSCP, an algorithm hybridizing a parallel version of the max-min ant system with simulated annealing for multiple-sink/controller placement. We evaluate the proposed algorithm through extensive experiments. The performance is compared against several well-known methods, and it is shown that our approach outperforms those methods by lowering the total deployment cost by up to 19%. Moreover, the deviation from the optimal solution achieved by CPLEX is shown to be less than 2.7%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-40919 (URN)10.1002/spe.2593 (DOI)000443587100009 ()2-s2.0-85052673487 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6132-7945

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