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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:00 Västerås Campus (+ Online/Zoom), Västerås
    Frasheri, Mirgita
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Modelling and Control of the Collaborative Behavior of Adaptive Autonomous Agents2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on autonomous agents and vehicles has gained momentum in the past years, which is reflected in the extensive body of literature and the investment of big players of the industry in the development of products such as self-driving cars. Additionally, these systems are envisioned to continuously communicate and cooperate with one another in order to adapt to dynamic circumstances and unforeseeable events, and as a result will they fulfil their goals even more efficiently.The facilitation of such dynamic collaboration and the modelling of interactions between different actors (software agents, humans) remains an open challenge.This thesis tackles the problem of enabling dynamic collaboration by investigating the automated adjustment of autonomy of different agents, called Adaptive Autonomy (AA). An agent, in this context, is a software able to process and react to sensory inputs in the environment in which it is situated in, and is additionally capable of autonomous actions. In this work, the collaborative adaptive autonomous behaviour of agents is shaped by their willingness to interact with other agents, that captures the disposition of an agent to give and ask for help, based on different factors that represent the agent's state and its interests.The AA approach to collaboration is used in two different domains: (i) the hunting mobile search problem, and (ii) the coverage problem of mobile wireless sensor networks. In both cases, the proposed approach is compared to state-of-art methods.Furthermore, the thesis contributes on a conceptual level by combining and integrating the AA approach -- which is purely distributed -- with a high-level mission planner, in order to exploit the ability of dealing with local and contingent problems through the AA approach, while minimising the requests for a re-plan to the mission planner.

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  • Djäknegård, Julia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Pallman, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    KUNSKAP OM KOMMUNIKATIONSVERKTYGET SBAR2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nurse is responsible with a lot of information for many patients. It’s very important that there are no misinterpretation or communication errors. The nurse is required to make assessments and reports efficiently. To facilitate, there’s the SBAR communication tool that will support the nurse to provide relevant information about the patient. Purpose: The purpose was to survey the nurse’s use of SBAR as a communication tool. Method: A general literature review in which seven quantitative and three qualitative articles were analyzed. Results: Many of the nurses felt that SBAR was a good communication tool that helped them in their reporting. The nurses also felt that it was easier to talk to the doctors as it provided a common language. The tool was effective and patient safety increased by using SBAR. However, deficiencies still occurred as SBAR tools were not fully integrated and not all nurses were willing to use this, due to lack of training. Conclusion: SBAR was a good tool that facilitates getting relevant information and makes it easier for nurses to report. However, more training was required in how SBAR should make all the nurses more comfortable with their reporting.

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  • Derehall, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hälsofrämjande arbete inom hemtjänsten: En kvalitativ studie om äldres upplevelser kring välbefinnande och en meningsfull vardag2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta utefter hälsofrämjande aspekter är ett grundläggande tillvägagångsätt inom folkhälsorelaterat arbete. Inom hemtjänsten kan ett hälsofrämjande arbete tillämpas genom att inkludera Antonovskys teori om KASAM. Teorin visar på att individer som upplever hanterbarhet, begriplighet och meningsfullhet kan uppnå känslan av sammanhang. Att uppleva en känsla av sammanhang kan vidare bidra till hälsa, välbefinnande och en tillfredsställande vardag. Syftet med studien var att undersöka äldre människors upplevelser kring hur hemtjänsten kan bidra till välbefinnande och en meningsfull vardag. Studien är kvalitativ och innefattas av ett målstyrt urval med sex semistrukturerade intervjuer från äldre som bor i Eskilstuna och som har daglig hjälp av hemtjänsten. Intervjufrågorna var utformade utefter begreppen hanterbarhet, begriplighet och meningsfullhet. Resultatet belyser att hemtjänstpersonalen, tid, kontinuitet, struktur och inflytande har en avgörande roll för att äldre ska uppleva ett välbefinnande och en meningsfull vardag. Resultatet kan nyttjas för att öka kunskapen kring hur kommuner som bedriver hemtjänstinsatser kan förstärka och upprätta ett arbete mot Socialstyrelsens nationella värdegrund.

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  • Frasheri, Mirgita
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cano-Garcia, Jose
    University of Malaga, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Parada, Eva
    University of Malaga, Spain.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Urdiales, Cristina
    University of Malaga, Spain.
    Adaptive Autonomy in Wireless Sensor Networks2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving nodes in a Mobile Wireless Sensor Network (MWSN) typically have two maintenance objectives: (i) extend the coverage of the network as long as possible to a target area, and (ii) extend the longevity of the network as much as possible. As nodes move and also route traffic in the network, their battery levels deplete differently for each node. Dead nodes lead to loss of connectivity and even to disengaging full parts of the network. Several reactive and rule-based approaches have been proposed to solve this issue by adapting redeployment to depleted nodes. However, in large networks a cooperative approach may increase performance by taking the evolution of node battery and traffic into account. In this paper, we present a hybrid agent-based architecture that addresses the problem of depleting nodes during the maintenance phase of a MWSN. Agents, each assigned to a node, collaborate and adapt their behaviour to their battery levels. The collaborative behavior is modeled through the willingness to interact abstraction, which defines when agents ask and give help to one another. Thus, depleting nodes may ask to be replaced by healthier counterparts and move to areas with less traffic or to a collection point. At the lower level, negotiations trigger a reactive navigation behaviour based on Social Potential Fields (SPF). It is shown that the proposed method improves coverage and extends network longevity in an environment without obstacles as compared to SPF alone.

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  • Frasheri, Mirgita
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Miloradović, Branko
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GLocal: A Hybrid Approach to the Multi-Agent Mission Re-Planning Problem2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-robot systems can be prone to failures during plan execution, depending on the harshness of the environment they are deployed in. As a consequence, initially devised plans may no longer be feasible, and a re-planning process needs to take place to re-allocate any pending tasks. Two main approaches emerge as possible solutions, a global re-planning technique using a centralized planner that will redo the task allocation with the updated world state information, or a decentralized approach that will focus on the local plan reparation, i.e., the re-allocation of those tasks initially assigned to the failed robots.The former approach produces an overall better solution, while the latter is less computationally expensive.The goal of this paper is to exploit the benefits of both approaches, while minimizing their drawbacks. To this end, we propose a hybrid approach {that combines a centralized planner with decentralized multi-agent planning}. In case of an agent failure, the local plan reparation algorithm tries to repair the plan through agent negotiation. If it fails to re-allocate all of the pending tasks, the global re-planning algorithm is invoked, which re-allocates all unfinished tasks from all agents.The hybrid approach was compared to planner approach, and it was shown that it improves on the makespan of a mission in presence of different numbers of failures,as a consequence of the local plan reparation algorithm.

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  • Andersson, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Women’s sports: A discourse analytic investigation into the representation of women in sports media2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Language is affected by the society in which it is used. Men and women have not had the same status in society, which means that the language used about them may potentially be different. A domain in society that was created for men is sports, yet, nowadays women also feature in sports. The aim of this study is to explore how women and their performances in sports are represented in newspapers. Previous research in the field of language, gender and sports has found that women are not depicted in the same way as men (Lundquist Wanneberg, 2011; Bissel, 2006; Segrave, McDowell and King III, 2006). To study how women are represented in sports articles, six articles about female athletes were analyzed through Critical Discourse Analysis. The analysis was based on Fairclough and Wodak’s (2010) framework that focuses on the domains of representation, relations and identities. These domains were divided into five categories: terms used to refer to the athletes, attributes, performance, sport descriptions and emotions. This allowed an analysis which showed how the world of sports views women, how women are represented as athletes, and the relation between the athletes and their sports. The analysis showed that women are depicted as ‘female’ athletes, not just athletes. This could be found through the usage of, for example, the noun and possessive marker women’s, which is used as a premodifier to describe the sports throughout the texts. It was also found that the world of sports is normally one where men are active and therefore it had to be explained when women were excellent at their sport, even when compared to men. This could be found through the usage of explanatory language, which clearly stated that the female athletes in question are or can be better than men. 

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  • Rilegård, Linnea
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Olin, Tim
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Postoperativ patientöverlämning: En allmän litteraturöversikt ur vårdpersonalens perspektiv2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient handoff is a complex task where receiving personnel expect to receive important information about the patient’s condition. Emphasis is placed on working risk prevention to accomplish the best patient safety. The use of a communication tool reduces the risk of lost information during handoff. When communication at postoperative handoff is inadequate, it increases the risk of serious complications. Person-centered nursing was used as a health care perspective. Aim: To illustrate factors which affect postoperative patient handoff from the professional’s perspective. Design: Qualitative method with general literature review with 23 articles included. Findings: Overall factors affecting patient handoff were communication, patient condition and teamwork, and work environment. Conclusion: Frequent use of well-structured communication tools improved patient handoff. By adapting to the patient’s condition and by the team showing respect for its members the handoff can become more effective. A good working environment was important for preventing risk in patient safety. The presented information could contribute to improved knowledge amongst the healthcare professionals working with postoperative handoffs. The knowledge could make the handoffs better and could lead to better and safer postoperative care which improves patient safety and person-centered care.

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  • Muslic, Aja
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Olmats, Evelina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    COMPASSION FATIGUE: En allmän litteraturöversikt om uppkomst och strategier2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Empati kan definieras som förmågan att uppleva en annan människas känslor och sammanför kärnan inom vårdandet. Compassion fatigue är en form av utmattningssyndrom där sjuksköterskan förlorar förmågan att känna empati för patienten och dennes anhöriga. Tillståndet kan skapa negativa fysiska, psykiska och andliga besvär som påverkar sjuksköterskans välmående. Problem: När det emotionella engagemanget begränsas i mötet med patienten på grund av sjuksköterskans känslor av compassion fatigue leder det till att patientsäkerheten äventyras, samt att sjuksköterskans egen hälsa åsidosätts. Förebyggande åtgärder bör identifieras för att minska uppkomsten av utmattningen. Syftet: Att kartlägga faktorer för uppkomsten och strategier för att motverka compassion fatigue hos sjuksköterskor. Metod: En allmän litteraturöversikt har tillämpats med åtta kvantitativa, tre kvalitativa artiklar samt en artikel med mixad metod. Resultat: Faktorer som påverkar uppkomsten av compassion fatigue anses vara flertal demografiska och arbetsrelaterade faktorer. Förebyggande strategier för sjuksköterskor var stöd från kollegor samt tillvarata fritiden med familj och fritidsaktiviteter. Slutsats: Stödjande åtgärder från arbetsplatsen i samband med hållbara arbetstider samt ökad kunskap om faktorer kan minska risken att sjuksköterskor blir utbrända och utvecklar compassion fatigue. Fysisk aktivitet och tid med familj och vänner var strategier som minskade risken för uppkomst av compassion fatigue hos sjuksköterskor.

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    Compassion fatigue, Aja & Evelina
  • Hellman, Olivia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Bragman, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Erfarenheter av att utföra munvård: En allmän litteraturöversikt ur sjuksköterskors perspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Lundin, Roger
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Nissinen, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att främja nattsömnen: En allmän litteraturöversikt över vårdåtgärder vid demens2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia is a common disease today and about 10% of the population in Sweden develop dementia. Dementia is associated with cognitive problems and troublesome symptoms, and is evident in the patient as the disease progresses. Problems: Sleep disorders can be a major problem for people with dementia, their relatives and even the healthcare staff.  As a consequence of sleep disorders negative symptoms like agitation, depression and apathy can be enhanced. This leads to a greater workload for the healthcare staff and more effort emotionally for the relatives. Purpose: The purpose is to describe interventions that improves night sleep in people with dementia. Method: A literature review. The basis consists of 13 articles with both qualitative and quantitative approach. Result: Three categories appeared where night sleep might be promoted through activities, treatments and closeness. In addition to the enhanced night's sleep, the results also showed that improvement in agitation, depression and apathy might be achieved through these interventions. Conclusion: Night sleep in people with dementia can be improved through the interventions reported in the results. The result indicate that in order to perform good care the interventions have to be based on individual conditions.

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  • Pettersson, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Högnäsbacka, Emelie
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Personcentrerad vård: En litteraturstudie om sjuksköterskors erfarenheter2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Personcentrerad vård är ett begrepp inom vården vars syfte är att se den unika människan i vårdandet. Personcentrerad vård är en av sjuksköterskans kärnkompetenser. Det innebär att vården ska tillgodose de krav och förväntningar samhället har för att säkerställa en god samt säker vård. Patienter vill vara delaktiga i vårdandet, de vill dela med sig av sina livsberättelser samt känna sig sedda som en person och inte som sin sjukdom. Anhöriga uppmärksammar även vikten av att vara delaktiga i patienternas vård samt att få ta del av relevant information kring vårdandet. Syfte: Att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av personcentrerad vård och dess utmaningar. Metod:Examensarbetet är en litteraturstudie med deskriptiv syntes. Resultat: Resultatet uppvisar att sjuksköterskor har en positiv inställning till personcentrerad vård, där de betonar vikten av relationsskapande och att se patienter som unika människor. Sjuksköterskorna har även erfarenhet av att de inte har rätt förutsättningar och känner sig begränsade i utförandet av personcentrerad vård. Slutsats: Personcentrerad vård är viktigt för både patienter, anhöriga samt sjukskörskor. Att vårda efter patienternas förutsättningar och mål, där patienter är delaktig och anses vara betydelsefullt. Det finns brister som hindrar sjuksköterskor från att utföra personcentrerad vård vilket upplevs som problematisk.

    Nyckelord: Delaktighet, kommunikation, tidsbrist, vårdrelation. 

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-08 09:15 Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge
    Warneryd, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The social power grid: The role of institutions for decentralizing the electricity grid2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s existing electricity grids face several challenges if they are to continue to provide a stable supply in the future. Aging electricity grids and the massive implementation of renewable sources require a different flexibility and robustness of future grids. Large amounts of renewable sources are implemented locally and on a small scale, increasing pressure on distribution grids to manage variable generation and bi-directional power flows. A decentralized electricity system includes both new technological designs as well as social re-organizations where prosumers become more prominent in the development and responsibilities of the electricity system. The existing centralized electricity system is fundamentally different from the decentralized, and the transformation requires an institutional framework which support the logics of decentralized technologies and organizations. Some technologies which are relevant for a decentralized electricity system include solar PV and MGs. The aim of the thesis is to investigate how the transformation toward a decentralized electricity system affects and is affected by informal institutions among relevant actors, specifically prosumers, and formal institutions related to the existing electricity system. To guide the aim this research uses a conceptual framework stemming from the theoretical field of sustainability transitions with a special emphasis on institutions. The results show that a wide variety of experienced values enhances the positive experiences with solar PV technology and thus prosumers increase their engagement and responsibilities in their own electricity system. Moreover, the values are used to enhance the positive narrative of the niche and thereby increase the attractiveness for external actors. In the formative developing field of community MGs, institutions play an important role. Informal institutions shape the formal institutional development, which also influences the informal institutions in return, by enhancing opportunities for certain groups, such as the energy democracy movement, to reach out with their message. Thus, it is concluded that informal institutions play a significant role in the development of a decentralized electricity system, affecting several niche development parameters and influencing the initial trajectories to further develop. Moreover, it is concluded that institutional developments are crucial for the development of community MGs and that informal institutional developments within communities are shaping the formal institutional developments in the sector.    

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