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  • Evaldsson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Grönberg, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    MATEMATIK ÖVERALLT?: En kvalitativ studie om hur åtta förskollärare redogör för hur de undervisar och synliggör matematik i förskolan.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att genom semistrukturerade intervjuer få ökad kunskap om vilket innehåll åtta förskollärare ger matematikundervisningen i förskolan. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna studien tolkats från är Alan Bishops matematiska aktiviteter samt ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Resultatet visar hur förskollärarna anser att matematik finns överallt samt hur de genom språk och samspel tar till vara på olika vardagssituationer för att utveckla barnens lärande inom ämnet. Vidare påvisar resultatet en variation i hur och när de matematiska aktiviteterna förekommer. Slutsatsen av studien är att förskollärarens roll samt ämneskunskap är en central del i barns möjligheter till lärande inom matematik samt att yrket är komplext då undervisning ska utgå från barnens intresse men samtidigt arbeta mot läroplanens strävansmål.

  • Lindblom, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "Jag känner mer och mer att mitt val är rätt för mig": En grundad teori om barnfrihet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka hur det barnfria beslutet motiveras. Detta har genomförts genom intervjuer med 6 personer som identifierar sig som barnfria, inom ramen för metoden grundad teori. Denna metod valdes för att så förutsättningslöst som möjligt studera barnfrihet vilket även gör att frågeställningen vuxit fram genom forskningsprocessens gång. Det barnfria beslutet kan beskrivas utifrån fem kategorier: Att gå sin egen väg, Normkritik, En ifrågasättande omgivning, Reflektion samt Ett välrotat beslut. Dessa kategorier relaterar till varandra genom en process av reflekterande som utgår ifrån kärnkategorin Att gå sin egen väg, vilket innebär en avsaknad av barnlängtan samt viljan att prioritera annat. Genom inverkan av ifrågasättande från omgivningen och en normkritisk hållning leder det barnfria beslutet till reflektion och omvärderande. Utifrån denna process blir det barnfria beslutet välrotat vilket innebär att det är blivit ett bättre grundat beslut stärkt av yttre motiv. Teorier om individualisering, reflexivitet och identitetsskapande utifrån Beck, Beck-Gernsheim och Giddens har diskuterats i relation till resultatet. Studiens resultat sammanfaller delvis med tidigare studier på ämnet men har ett bredare fokus eftersom det inkluderar både kvinnor och män.

  • Hård, Jenny
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Compassion energy: Vårdandets kraft - en intervjustudie ur sjuksköterskestudenters perspektiv.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibakgrunden framkommer det att allt fler sjuksköterskor mår allt sämre i sin profession vilket kan leda till förlamande trötthet och känslomässig utmattning.Syftetvar att beskriva sjuksköterskestudenters uppfattningar kring vilka faktorer som kan bidra till att finna kraft i vårdandet.Metoden som användes var en induktiv kvalitativ innehållsanalys där data utgjordes av intervjuer från sju deltagande sjuksköterskestudenter.Resultatet presenteras i kategorierna (1) Att kunna göra skillnad för patienten (2) Tidens möjligheter och begränsningar (3)Arbetsgruppens betydelse, med respektive underkategorier (1)Vara medlidsam och bekräftelse i mötet med patienten (2)Tid för patienten viktigt, tid för reflektion behövs och tid för återhämtning krävs (3)Känna stöd i arbetsgruppen och gemenskap i arbetsgruppen. Slutsatsen är att olika faktorer samverkar för att bidra till att finna kraft i vårdandet. Själva kraften i vårdandet verkar ligga i det utbyte av bekräftelse som uppstår i den förtroendeingivande relation i mötet med patienten. Den förtroendeingivande relationen är beroende av att sjuksköterskan innehar ett medlidsamt förhållningssätt och drivs av en vilja att kunna göra skillnad för varje enskild patient. Yttre miljöfaktorer, som tidens möjligheter och begränsningar samt arbetsgruppens betydelse är lika viktiga samverkande faktorer som bidrar till att finna kraft i vårdandet.

  • Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Fridbäck, Louise
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskan som lots för patientens återhämtning: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When patients and relatives in the recovery process experience that the nurse is absent, left without professional support and lacking knowledge about her new life situation, further suffering may occur. Accumulated knowledge can clarify nurse’s experience of which nursing interventions that might contribute to patient recovery from illness. Aim: To describe nurse experience of nursing interventions that might support patient’s recovery. Method: A literature review was conducted on ten qualitative studs. These were analyzed with descriptive synthesis. Result: The results identified three themes and from these six subthemes. It was found that it was important to take part of the patient's story and get to know the patient and to work on the basis of realistic nursing actions and goals tailored to the unique patient's needs and resources. A safe environment around the patient will be a support for the recovery through the nurse's approach and attendance, and that relations and associated relatives affected. Personal-, physical-, social-, and emotional support; promoted patient's recovery. Conclusion: The nurse's overall experience on which nursing interventions that promote the unique patient's recovery was adapted to the patient as a whole.

  • Abdullah, Tara
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Nutritionsrelterade problem hos äldre patienter: En litteraturstudie ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hammad, Bzhar Azad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kadom, Saja
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    BULLERPROBLEM INTILL MOTORVÄGAR: Kartläggning av bullernivåer vid Kopparlunden intill E18 i Västerås2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project illustrates today's noise problems caused by high-speed highways.  The area that has been studied is Kopparlunden along the E18, in Västerås which reflects a long and unique industrial history from the late 1800's. In the current situation  the municipality of Västerås is doing a transformation of the existing industry into a modern residential area with the  new homes, workplaces and services. The purpose of the work is to identify noise and study traffic-related noise problems in this area, partly to check the result of noise values ​​against the requirements, and to propose noise reduction measures. This work is based on own noise measurements and calculations as well as on the study of a couple of relevant reference objects. The result of own noise  measurement and calculations at all four points was about 60 – 63 dBA equivalent on two meter high over ground and about 61 – 67 dBA at five meters high over ground. This means that the measured values exceed the guideline values of approximately 8 dBA at two meters height and 12 dBA at 5 meters height according to BBR. For satisfactory sound levels to be obtained in Kopparlunden, several solutions need to be implemented such as an evacuation corridor between facades and apartments, increased distances between buildings and the noise source, noise screen and well proper placement and design of buildings.

  • Ayoub, Ayoub
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Berg, Carl Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design of a Dynamic Boom Suspension System in a Hybrid Wheel Loader2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel loaders are under the influence of low frequency vibrations that may be harmful for the health of the operator, and for the productivity of the machine. The strong vibrations can significantly impact the operation of the machine since they are not equipped with wheel suspension systems and due to their work environment in rough terrains with uneven surfaces. The risk of spilling or dropping the load is also increased and they can introduce higher mechanical stress that can wear out parts faster. The focus of this thesis work is to develop an approach for damping these vibrations dynamically by improving the functionality of the electrohydraulic system in Volvo's prototype wheel loader LX1. The dynamic damping system controls the cylinder of the lift framework to make it behave as a damper. The system utilizes the lift cylinder pressure and piston position as feedback to adjust the oil flow in the cylinder using the proposed control system. Results indicate that the proposed technique is capable of attenuation that is comparable with the existing boom suspension system based on accumulators through simulations and experimental tests.

  • Forsberg, Axel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Wavelet-Based Surface Electromyogram Feature Extraction for Hand Gesture Recognition2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research field of robotic prosthetic hands have expanded immensely in the last couple of decades and prostheses are in more commercial use than ever. Classification of hand gestures using sensory data from electromyographic signals in the forearm are primary for any advanced prosthetic hand. Improving classification accuracy could lead to more user friendly and more naturally controlled prostheses. In this thesis, features were extracted from wavelet transform coefficients of four channel electromyographic data and used for classifying ten different hand gestures. Extensive search for suitable combinations of wavelet transform, feature extraction, feature reduction, and classifier was performed and an in-depth comparison between classification results of selected groups of combinations was conducted. Classification results of combinations were carefully evaluated with extensive statistical analysis. It was shown in this study that logarithmic features outperforms non-logarithmic features in terms of classification accuracy. Then a subset of all combinations containing only suitable combinations based on the statistical analysis is presented and the novelty of these results can direct future work for hand gesture recognition in a promising direction.

  • Gustafsson Häll, Josefine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evaluation of Grasp-and-Extend Hand Dynamics and Intelligent Modeling of Grasp Hand Dynamics2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis looks to find dynamics in hand movements to further be used in stroke rehabilitation research. To be able to provide feedback during rehabilitation could help with movement recovery for a stroke patient for whom these movements have been damaged. Data was recorded from both right and left hands of the participants. The data was evaluated, both between different participants and different hands on the same participant. Different movements were separated to be examined individually. Both classification and prediction was performed and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks were used for classification as well as for prediction. The data used in the prediction training was the data recorded while the hand was closing and the data used in the classification training was the data recorded while the hand was closing into a grip and relaxing again. The classification was able to find classes in the data successfully. The prediction proved more problematic. However, the results show that there are definite improvements that could be done to improve the networks performances while predicting the movement and that the radial basis function neural network still is interesting to consider in future research on the subject.

  • Johansson, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Novel Cluster-Based SVM to reduce classification error in noisy EEG data: towards real-time brain-robot interfaces2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to control a robotic platform using signals form the human brain is something that has been considered science fiction for a long time. With the technology available today however, it has more or less become a reality. Electroencephalography or EEG for short is a widely used method for extracting signals form the brain. The signals in this thesis contains motor imagery (MI) commands that are supposed to be sent through a brain computer interface (BCI) to control a mobile robot. This thesis investigates deeper in-to classification of these signals, specifically optimising classification accuracy of noisy EEG data, that previously has been unsatisfactory classified with support vector machine (SVM). It is paramount that the classification accuracy is as high as possible when used in a BCI since the robot can cause damage if the commands are faulty. A new cluster-based SVM is developed that discards uncertain trials and minimises the false positive rate in an attempt to increase the accuracy. The algorithm increases the classification accuracy compared to SVM alone by 8 percentage points. Alongside this new algorithm, eye movement artefacts and separability of the MI commands are analysed to further investigate classification accuracy influences.

  • Alam, Usman
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Music in Motion - Smart Soundscapes2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nyberg Bohm, Annica
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Matematikkartläggning och uppföljning i förskoleklass: Åtta förskoleklassers arbete med kartläggning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Från höstterminen 2018 är förskoleklass en obligatorisk skolform i Sverige. Den 1 juli 2018 tillgängliggörs ett kartläggningsmaterial i matematik för förskoleklass. Redan idag innefattar uppdraget att uppmärksamma elever i behov av extra anpassningar eller särskilt stöd tidigt, samt göra de insatser som behövs. Elevernas grundläggande aritmetiska kunskaper kartläggs idag i olika stor utsträckning som ett första steg i att anpassa undervisningen utifrån elevernas förutsättningar och behov. Denna studie syftade till att undersöka hur förskoleklasslärare använde kartläggningsmaterial i matematik, vad som gjordes för de elever som riskerade att inte utvecklas mot skolans kunskapskrav samt vilka förutsättningar, möjligheter och hinder lärarna såg i arbetet med tidiga insatser. Studien hade en kvalitativ ansats, där datainsamlingen skedde genom halvstrukturerade intervjuer med nio undervisande lärare i förskoleklass i en kommun där ett kartläggningsmaterial i grundläggande aritmetik tagits fram och implementerats på kommunnivå. Utifrån ett sociokulturellt och relationellt perspektiv med systemteorin som utgångspunkt lyftes likheter och skillnader fram mellan de nio lärarnas upplevelser av arbetet med kartläggning och tidiga insatser. Resultatet visade att samtliga lärare i studien såg vikten av att kartlägga elevers förkunskaper och gjorde det, samtidigt som studien visade tydliga brister i hur insatser sedan införlivades och hur kartläggningen låg till grund för den fortsatta undervisningen. Arbetet behövde tydliggöras och stärkas genom samverkan mellan olika professioner i skolsystemet där specialläraren har en viktig funktion och tid måste avsättas för att klara uppdraget, något som också efterfrågades av informanterna.

  • Klosinska, Paulina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nohrstedt, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Barns inflytande och delaktighet i förskolan: En enkätstudie om barns inflytande och delaktighet i planerade aktiviter2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka hur barn får inflytande och delaktighet i planerade aktiviter i förskolan. Studien tar en utgångspunkt i ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Studien är baserad på enkäter och har en kvalitativ forskningsmetod. Resultatet tyder på att pedagoger i förskolan har olika erfarenheter om hur de arbetar med barns inflytande och delaktighet i planerade aktiviter. Slutsatsen är att pedagogers förhållningsätt påverkar hur barn får inflytande och delaktighet i planerade aktiviter. 

  • Johansson, Robin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekstedt, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Effektivisering av en produktion präglad av många produktvarianter2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Change is taking place all the time and it has happened as much for the last 50 years as in the entire human history. Hence changes are taking place at an ever higher rate, it is a must for companies to keep up with the development and streamline themselves to not be outdone by other companies. Companies compete with each other by offering high quality products at attractive prices with short lead times. Lean philosophy has become a widespread tool for companies to work with in this necessary streamlining work.

    The purpose of the work in this report is to streamline the manufacturing of elementary products at the case company. The reason has been to chart how the production process works today by performing a value-flow analysis. Our project is based on the value-flow analysis to find what deficiencies there is in the production and create an improved future position.

    Value-flow analysis, shortened VSM in literature, is a Lean production tool for mapping the flow of a product or service. It is a visual tool that helps identify value-enhancing and non-value enhancing parts and clearly illuminate wastes.

    The case company has a large product mix where many of the products undergo different processes, making it difficult to perform a proper value-flow analysis. We constrained our work to the 80/20 products and within these products found a suitable product family for our value-flow analysis, which symbolizes a large part of the case company's production. The improvements we propose mean a significant reduction of lead time within the production, which means more efficient production with lower costs and shorter delivery times.

    The production strategy we present that in theory leads to a significant reduction in lead time, requires further investigations and needs to be adapted to the case company's production with a high product mix before implementation.

  • Fridholm, Victoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    IMPROVE MAINTENANCE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY BY USING HISTORICAL BREAKDOWN DATA FROM A CMMS: Exploring the possibilities for CBM in the Manufacturing Industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Explore how historical data from a CMMS can be used in order to improve maintenance effectiveness and efficiency of activities, and investigate the possibilities for CBM in the manufacturing industry in the context of digitalization. 

    Research questions: RQ1: To what extent could condition-based maintenance or other maintenance types being used in order to predict, prevent or in other way eliminate historical breakdowns/faults? 

    RQ2: Which significance has an organization's degree of maturity to reduce the number of breakdowns? 

    Method: A case study was performed at Volvo Construction Equipment Operations in Eskilstuna, who manufactures machinery for the construction industry. The case study was compiled in two phases. Phase one was a quantitative study where raw data were collected from a CMMS and tabulated in order to later perform in-depth analysis. Phase two was designed to collect information that generated a wider understanding of the research area, by performing interviews and observations. A literature study was performed to compare the empirical findings with peer-reviewed information to ensure the quality of the study. The data is compiled and analyzed with an abductive approach. The analysis was followed by a discussion of how the research findings could support identifying possibilities of different maintenance types in the future. 

    Conclusion: The result showed that using historical breakdown data from a CMMS can be useful in order to identify organization’s current state and what possibilities different maintenance types have to decrease the number of breakdowns. To what extent the breakdowns can be decreased relies not only on the maintenance type but also an organizations maturity level. The case study´s result showed that by combining different maintenance types and increasing degree of maturity, Volvo could decrease the historical breakdowns with 86,5%. By only using CBM with current maturity level, 56% of the historical breakdowns could be predicted. However, to decide how many breakdowns that is cost-effective to prevent and precisely what maintenance type that should be used requires a cost analysis which this study is not covering. 

  • Nordin, Tilda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Ylva
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mindfulness och Perspektivtagande ur ett innovationsperspektiv: Om en individs empatiska och kreativa förmåga påverkar innovation i grupp2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsfråga:

    Finns det ett positivt samband mellan individens nivå av kreativitet/mindfulness och individens nivå av empati?

     

    Hypotes:

    A: Empati och mindfulness/kreativitet korrelerar positivt.

    B: Empati och mindfulness/kreativitet ökar flow synchronization och bidrar till innovation i grupp.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med denna undersökning är att undersöka om det finns en eventuell korrelation mellan en individs empatiska nivå och individens kreativa förmåga. Syftet är vidare att undersöka om individers mindfulness och perspektivtagande förmåga underlättar det kreativa arbetet i grupp, för att främja det innovativa arbetet.

     

    Metod: Studien har utgått ifrån en kvantitativ metod där två̊ öppna intervjuer (samtal), tre enkätundersökningar samt en workshop har använts till studiens empiriska syfte. Litteraturstudier och sökningar i MDH:s databaser har bidragit till den teori som studien grundar sig i. Dessutom har samtal med kunniga på området genomförts.   

     

    Slutsats: De slutsatser som kan dras från denna studie är att mindfulness och perspektivtagande (empati) inte korrelerar positivt med varandra utan att det snarare finns tendenser till ett samband mellan de två. Dessutom har mindfulness och perspektivtagande tillsammans en positiv effekt på flow synchronization under en gruppuppgift. Dock så behöver dessa resultat styrkas då denna undersökning varit begränsad i sina möjligheter.

  • Larsson, Louise
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Fridolfsson, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Föräldrasamverkan i praktiken: En kvalitativ studie om hur förskollärare samverkar med hemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att synliggöra förskollärares beskrivningar av hur de arbetar med föräldrasamverkan i praktiken samt få syn på förskollärares uppfattningar om vad som kännetecknar en god samverkan. Studien har en kvalitativ ansats där åtta förskollärare intervjuats för att få syn på deras uppfattningar om föräldrasamverkan. Studiens resultat visade att samtliga förskollärare anser att det är av vikt att ha en fungerande samverkan mellan hem och förskola. Den dagliga kommunikationen används för att skapa goda relationer för att främja föräldrars inflytande och delaktighet. Utifrån resultatet går det att dra slutsatsen att det finns svårigheter i arbetet med föräldrasamverkan, främst svårigheter med kommunikationen och föräldrars engagemang och förståelse för samverkan. Dock beskrivs föräldrasamverkan som ett område som behöver arbetas med samt utvecklas, för att få alla föräldrar delaktiga i verksamheten.

  • Fernström, Rasmus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Vinkelgivare Koncept för konstruktion och montering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lovén, Cathrine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Muñoz, Nicole
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    "Läs högt för barnen!”: En kvalitativ studie om fyra lärares tankar och arbetssätt kring högläsning.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Högläsning är ett vanligt förekommande arbetssätt inom skolan. Vi har därför gjort en kvalitativ intervju- och observationsstudie vars syfte är att ta reda på hur fyra lärare i grundskolan (årskurs 4–6) arbetar med och förhåller sig till högläsning. Vår studie visar att lärarna är eniga om att högläsning är positivt för elevers språkutveckling. Dels för att eleverna ökar sitt ordförråd, dels för att högläsning stimulerar förmågor som kreativitet och fantasi när de får möta olika genrer. Något som lärarna uppmärksammade var att det var extra viktigt att högläsa för sina elever eftersom det finns många barn som inte får ”högläsningsstunder” i exempelvis hemmet. Det framgår även i vår studie att tre 2 av fyra lärare arbetar med att inkludera eleverna när läraren högläser. Endast en av lärarna läste ur boken utan att föra någon form av samspel eller dialog med eleverna. Tidigare forskning visar främst att högläsning är för barn i yngre åldrar, dock så väljer även lärare i äldre årskurser att läsa högt för dem.

  • Gamalielsson Lindberg, Julia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Svensson, Erica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Factors Affecting Earnings: A Research on American Data2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During a lifetime an individual is faced with the decision whether or not to pursue additional years of education, and one may ask if this will generate some sort of payoff, for example, if higher earnings is to be received later in life. The aim of this paper is to investigate how an individual’s earnings is affected by the amount of years one spends in school and also to see if gender and experience are contributing factors. We will investigate these relationships by first introducing the two theories “Human Capital” and “The Mincer Equation”. These build upon each other and are connected. Thereafter, modifications of the Standard Mincer equation will develop our four different regression equations. These regressions will be run on an American cross-sectional data set, by use of the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS).

    Our chosen explanatory variables do affect earnings and the specific data set shows that additional years of schooling do increase earnings. We also found a distinct difference in hourly earnings between men and women.

  • Pop Gorea, Robert Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    The Solow-Swan Model & The Romer Model - A Simulated Analysis -2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to understand and model the complex phenomenon of economic growth has been an old and interesting pursuit. Many such models have been proposed and two of the most prominent canditates are the Solow-Swan and Romer models. This paper investigates the similarities and differences of the a priori mentioned models on a balanced growth path and on a partial transition dynamics - only the capital dynamics - using numerical simulations. Furthermore, the problem of the speed of convergence shall be analyzed and a method for the analysis will be presented. The simulations are investigated by means of different economic scenarios, called experiments, and are used to illustrate the capabilities and incapabilities of each model. The findings of this paper are that both models are adequate for the investigation of economic growth. However, as seen by the mathematical analysis and the experiments, the incapability of the Solow-Swan model to adequately explain the technological growth rate is a strong disadvantage over the more modern Romer model. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the choices of the numerical values - using real world data - which should be used for the variables of the Solow-Swan and Romer models.

  • Zanforlini, Lucas Waldem
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    The Impact of Remittances on the Economic Growth of Developing Countries: A Literature Review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Firms, financial institutions and governments have been the main source for international

    financial flows to developing countries. Moreover, from the late 1990s remittances sent from

    migrants abroad to their home countries became a vital source of income as they exceed

    official development assistance or aids.

    Our interest concerns on how remittances affect economic growth in developing countries.

    However, we have come across considerable contradictory findings regarding the positive or

    negative contribution of remittances to a sustainable economic development.

    A main obstacle in detecting the effect on economic growth is due to the problem of

    measuring the real financial flows across countries and to the informal channels migrants use

    to send money.

    Unlike many studies, which are based on empirical method, this paper is based on a literature

    review as we are interested in a broader overview of the subject.

    Comparing various findings, we conclude that remittances contribute positively to economic

    growth.

    The level of contribution is based on how remittance receiving families use the inflows of

    money inflows. Both physical and human investment have a larger impact on the economic

    growth in a long-term perspective, while direct consumption on primary goods activate a

    multiplier effect of aggregate demand which results beneficial to the entire economy.

    Particularly attention is dedicated to the need of policy interventions to optimize the positive

    impact of remittances and prevent their possible bad side effects.

  • Nasir, Samia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Larsson, Elina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    The impact of immigration on the Swedish Economy2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The flow of immigrants between Europe and many other countries is often brought up in the discussion of the labor market. It is also questioned whether an increased immigration is beneficial for the society and the economy of the receiving country.

    This paper is an investigation of the above-mentioned problem “does immigration benefit a country’s economy and what are the effects of immigration on the economy?”. Furthermore, we will especially look at how immigration benefits the natives in the country with respect to labor and capital income. We will also investigate if there is a difference in education and skills between immigrants and natives and we will also examine the consequences of this. The discussion about benefits and liabilities to the society that has arisen, due to the welfare effects in the economy, will also be brought up and analyzed.

    The thesis work will mostly be a study of theoretical findings, where we will discuss the previous researches and important models, for instance Borjas (1999), who uses a model that gives a solid result of how much natives benefit from immigration in term of labor and capital earnings. To support the theoretical part, we have gathered the data from Eurostat and Swedish migration Authority, which will help to find some empirical results as well. This paper also includes a regression model that measures the change in the unemployment rate where the independent variables are GDP growth rate and immigration inflow.

  • Machacny, Michaela
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hallbäck, Ismael
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Students saving: What are the governing factors of students saving?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Few studies regarding savings among students have been conducted, particularly studies looking at students in Sweden, as the general assumption is that students cannot save.

     

    Purpose: Investigate what factors may affect students saving behavior

     

    Method: The thesis will be done by a quantitative and deductive approach. To investigate what factors affect students saving we conducted several hypotheses tests through regression analysis.

     

    Result and Conclusion: The investigation showed that through our estimates we were able to find three significant variables at a 5% level; Income, Worked Before and Saving Before and a general fit of the model of 16.36%. One possible explanation for the poor fit is the complexity of human behavior and thusly that it is hard to explain.

     

    Keywords: Students, saving, consumption theory, statistics, age, behavioral, finance

  • Westbom, Emelie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Seteánszki, Evelyn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Harish, Sahanna
    Performance analysis of the Swedish Pension Fund Market using CAPM2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is frequently used in the world of finance to predict the price of various securities. In this thesis, the model will be examined on the Swedish pension fund market to evaluate three main questions. If CAPM holds on the Swedish pension fund market, to examine selected funds with various performance measurements and to predict the values for a smaller selection of funds and make a comparison to the actual returns. To achieve the aims, historical data has been used for the period of 2009-2017 selecting fifteen Swedish based pension funds from the four largest banks in Sweden. Time series regression was performed and also calculations for Sharpe, Treynor and Jensen’s Alpha. The result of the analysis is that CAPM holds for 9 of the 15 funds that was evaluated. Handelsbanken Svenska Småbolag was the top ranked fund in the ranking system, with highest position in all the performance measurements. The result of the prediction test was that the funds with the highest betas yielded the most accurate return.

  • Määttä Johnson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Söderblom, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Samverkan i förskolan ur ett föräldraperspektiv: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att studera hur föräldrar med olika sociala bakgrunder uppfattar och upplever samverkan mellan förskola och hem. I undersökningen har vi valt att utgå från ett maktperspektiv med utgångspunkt från Dolk (2013) tolkningar av Michel Foucaults teorier om makt. Genom arbetet har vi följt vetenskapsrådets (2017) forskningsetiska principer. En kvantitativ forskningsansats där föräldrars upplevelser av samverkan i förskolan ligger till grund för undersökningen. En digital enkät som metod vid datainsamlingen skickades ut via Facebook till utvald målgrupp (föräldrar med barn i förskolan). Resultatet visar att många, framförallt resursstarka föräldrar upplever att det finns brister vad gäller samverkan mellan hem och förskola. Det blev också tydligt att föräldrar som är förskollärare “bemöts” olika jämfört med andra föräldrar. Slutsatsen av studien är att det krävs att förskollärare skapar goda relationer med alla föräldrar, där förskolan från början behöver tydliggöra vad samverkan mellan hem och förskola innebär.

  • Nordin, Malena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Stadelmann Berglund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Specialpedagogiskt arbete för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter vid övergång till gymnasieskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att få syn på vilka rutiner som fanns vid övergången mellan grundskola och gymnasieskola för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Utöver det ville vi synliggöra hur det praktiska arbetet med dessa elever såg ut för specialpedagog/ speciallärare. Detta belyste vi utifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Forskningsansatsen för detta arbete var kvalitativ. Datainsamlingen genomfördes i form av halvstrukturerade intervjuer med en intervjuguide som stöd. Fem specialpedagoger/speciallärare från fem gymnasieskolor intervjuades, dessa representerade både yrkes- och studieförberedande program. Materialet från intervjuerna analyserades utifrån det sociokulturella perspektivet och diskuterades i relation till styrdokument och tidigare forskning om övergångar och specialpedagogiskt arbete. Studien visade att rutinerna för övergångar styrdes av tidigare erfarenheter av överlämningar, elevunderlaget och elevernas individuella behov, resurser och organisation. Skolorna lade stor vikt vid att skapa goda relationer genom inskolningssamtal vid skolstart vilket ansågs gynna fortsatt arbete med elever i behov av stödinsatser. Specialpedagogerna/ speciallärarna arbetade tillsammans med lärarna med extra anpassningar inom den ordinarie undervisningen och stödet på gymnasiet var övervägande kompensatoriskt. Särskilt stöd förekom men låg då utanför elevens ordinarie schema. Elevens individuella behov och välmående styrde arbetet med stödinsatserna. Utifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv var eleven högst delaktig i sin skolgång, skolans synsätt och elevens upplevelse av sitt stödbehov blev avgörande för hur skolans stödinsatser och det praktiska arbetet organiserades.

  • Larsson, Joy
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Bland kändisar och känslor: En studie av språkbruket i barntidningarna Julia och Kamratposten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka det språk som används i två tidningar som riktar sig till barn och unga i åldrarna 8­­­­­­­­–14. Detta främst genom att analysera tilltalet samt användandet av referensord, men även genom att se till diverse språkhandlingar samt förekomsten av olika teman. Dessutom undersöks vilka ämneskategorier som förekommer i tidningarna samt hur stort utrymme de får i varje nummer. Resultaten visar att båda tidningarnas ton är välkomnande och medryckande. Julias avsändare är till stor del ett ”vi” som vänder sig till läsaren som individ, medan Kamratpostens avsändare främst är ett ”jag” som vänder sig till läsarna som grupp. Gällande ämneskategorierna finns ett stort kändisfokus i båda tidningarna, men läsarnas egna röster får också träda fram i många inslag och på många sidor. Dessutom finns ett produktfokus både i Julia och i Kamratposten. 

  • Kan, Anna Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Återkoppling som en del av undervisningen i träningsskolan: Fokusgrupper och intervjuer om några speciallärares arbete med återkoppling och formativ bedömning och dess betydelse för undervisningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här kvalitativa studien var att få en fördjupad förståelse för de åtta speciallärarnas arbete med återkoppling och formativ bedömning, samt dess betydelse för undervisningen i träningsskolan. Data i studien samlades in med fokusgruppssamtal som metod, och fördjupades med berättelser ur utsagor av samma informanter i halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Den teoretiska ramen utgick från didaktik, som låg till grund för arbetet med återkoppling i studien. I kapitlet diskussion tolkades studiens utfall med hjälp av en didaktisk modell - den didaktiska triangeln. Genom återkoppling om såväl hinder för elevens lärande som om elevens proximala utvecklingszon kan speciallärarna finna rätt stöd och den hjälp som eleven behöver. Speciallärarna i studien ansåg att återkoppling till elever med utvecklingsstörning bör vara enkel för dem att förstå och skall ges i stunden. Digital teknik med filmer och bilder kan användas som verktyg i återkopplingen och visa progressionen i elevernas lärande. Ett viktigt arbete i återkopplingen är att finna elevernas proximala utvecklingszon. Resultaten av studien visade att återkoppling till egen undervisningspraktik hjälper speciallärarna att skapa undervisning som främjar elevernas lärande, kritiskt granskar planeringen och ger nödvändigt stöd, samt utmanar eleverna inom gränsen för deras proximala utvecklingszon.

  • Öhrberg, Simon
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Boytchev, Boris
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Patienters erfarenheter av parenteral näringstillförsel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hakopian, Ani
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Food habits and environmental awareness among adolescents in Västerås: A study of neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status based on the NESLA study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with high socioeconomic status have better food habits and are more environmentally aware, due to higher education level and income. To establish healthy food habits, it requires that there are good prerequisites such as food stores with a wide range of fresh food since it is associated with healthy food habits of an individual and absence of good food stores is mainly affecting disadvantaged groups. The aim of this study is to describe food habits and environmental awareness among adolescents in Västerås and investigate if there are differences regarding food habits, environmental awareness and prerequisites for healthy food habits between adolescents living in neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status. The study is a quantitative study with a cross-sectional study design. Secondary data was used from the study Neighborhood, sustainable lifestyle and health among adolescents (NESLA), which was conducted in autumn of 2017 on adolescents from year two and three in high school.

    The result shows that the adolescents’ have a low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high consumption of candy, chips, other snacks and soda. The majority of the adolescents’ eats at a fast food restaurant at least once a week. Almost half of the adolescents’ eats breakfast every day and the majority eats lunch at school every day a regular week. Most of the adolescents are environmentally aware, since they are worried about environmental issues and climate changes and believe that their lifestyle choices can affect the environment. A significant correlation between high environmental awareness and unhealthy food habits is found. There is no statistically significant difference between neighborhood-level socioeconomic status and food habits, and for being worried about environmental issues and climate changes. Significant differences are found between adolescents from neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and believing in that lifestyle choices affects the environment. Adolescents living in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods reported that they have greater prerequisites for healthy food habits compared to middle-high and high socioeconomic status neighborhoods. The ecological model was used as a theoretical perspective to discuss the results.   

  • Jensen, Sarah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Nilsson, Ylva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Utvecklingsprojekt teamrond: En möjlig väg till ökad delaktighet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Att lida av försämring i psykisk ohälsa med tillhörande medicinering, kan medföra att det egna engagemanget i den psykiatriska vården påverkas. Under senare år har politiska initiativ gjorts för att stärka patienters delaktighet under pågående vård. Tidigare forskning påvisar dock att vårdpersonalen utgår från en paternalistisk syn, där man besitter en expertroll där patienten genom informationsförlust och bristande dialog utesluts från möjlighet att delta i beslutsfattande, vilket medför att rätten till delaktighet inte efterlevs.

    Teoretisk referensram: Tidvattenmodellen har utgjort ramverk för studien samt i Utvecklingsprojekt teamrond.

    Syftet: Att beskriva personers erfarenheter av delaktighet under vårdtiden på en allmänpsykiatrisk slutenvårdsavdelning före och efter implementering av utvecklingsprojekt Teamrond.

    Metod: Studien utfördes med Mixed Method embedded concurrent design. Datainsamlingen utfördes genom semistrukturerade intervjuer vid mättillfällena. Den dominerade kvalitativa datan analyserades induktivt genom innehållsanalys och kvantitativ data hanterades med deskriptiv statistik.

    Resultat: I kvantitativa resultatet framgick att samtliga variabler frånsett delaktighet i beslutsfattandet förbättrades vid utvärderingsmätningen. Vid sammanställning med det kvalitativa resultatet tydliggjordes att målsättningen med Utvecklingsprojekt teamrond avseende ökad patientdelaktighet kunde uppnås.

    Slutsats: Vårdpersonalen kan genom att visa intresse för personens unika kunskap om sitt liv, skapa en känsla av förståelse, vilket genom ett vidgat perspektiv medför att vården utformas tillsammans.

    Nyckelord: Mixed Method, Patientdelaktighet, Patientupplevelser, Personcentrerad vård, Psykiatrisk slutenvård, Psykisk ohälsa.

  • Akterhag Lyxell, Kajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att åka berg-och-dalbana utan säkerhetsbälte: Upplevelser av att leva tillsammans med en partner med bipolär sjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bipolär sjukdom är en kronisk psykiatrisk sjukdom som karaktäriseras av kraftiga affektiva svängningar. Att vara nära anhörig och informell vårdgivare till en person med bipolär sjukdom associeras med en påtaglig börda. Rapporter visar att 46% av informella vårdgivare uppvisar depressiv problematik. Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur partners till personer med bipolär sjukdom upplever sin livssituation. En inledande öppen enkät identifierade urvalet som bestod av sex personer. I steg två genomfördes semistrukturerade djupintervjuer med deltagarna. Analysen visade fem teman: långsiktiga konsekvenser, emotionell och kommunikativ begränsning, egna känsloreaktioner, negativa och positiva beteenden samt framtidssyn. Resultatet visade en substantiell subjektiv samt objektiv börda upplevd av deltagarna, som oberoende av varandra delade samstämmiga känsloupplevelser och hur stigmatisering påverkade dem negativt i de copingstrategier de utvecklat med tiden. Studiens resultat bekräftar tidigare forskning men visade även på en brist på förståelse för gruppen.

  • Dahlström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Åbrink, Sophia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "Dom var bara allmänt trevliga och bemötte mig som en människa": Patienter och sjuksköterskor erfarenheter av vad som möjliggör respektive försvårar en vårdande relation inom rättspsykiatrisk vård2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research in the field caring relationship is available. However, it is limited in forensic psychiatric care. Especially studies that integrate patients and nurses experiences of the investigated phenomenon. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients and nurses experiences of what enables and aggravate a caring relationship in forensic psychiatry care. Methods: The results of the study are based on interviews of five patient in a forensic clinic and five nurses who works on the clinic. The study was performed with an inductive approach. Data were analyzed based on a qualitative content analysis. Results: In order for a caring relationship to be established the results indicates that the patients find it important to be seen as humans, that the carers do "that little extra" and that the carers and patients works at the same direction. The nurses found it important to familiarize themselves in the patient, to have a stabilized work with the team, to do "the little extra" and get the trust to cooperate. Conclusion: The results corresponds to the aim of the study. Both patients and nurses agreed that the nurse had the responsibility of the caring relationship. A similarity were shown between both of the groups such as time aspect, presence and a genuin interest from the carrier. Keywords: caring relationship, encounter, experiences, forensic psychiatric care, nurse, patient.

  • Suli, Sidorela
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    An Evaluation of Model-Based Testing for an Industrial Train Control Software2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the increasing complexity of software and the short release cycles are becoming a challenge for testing software in an efficient and effective way. Traditionally, creating tests is done manually by engineers, which are then automatically or manually executed on the actual software. Manually creating test cases is a time-consuming effort. For the last couple of decades, researchers have proposed ways to improve this process by automating parts of the testing steps. One of these approaches that have gained a lot of attention is called Model-Based Testing (MBT). MBT has been suggested as a way of automatically creating tests at a lower cost. Nonetheless, it is not very well studied how MBT is actually applied in industrial contexts and how these tests compare to manually written ones. This is particularly true for industrial control software such as the one found in the train domain, where strict requirements on testing are in place. In this thesis, we investigate the literature and review the related work on case studies on the MBT use in industry and its evaluation. We perform a case study to evaluate MBT on a train control management system provided by Bombardier Transportation. We use Comformiq Creator MBT Tool to create models for functional requirements of a master controller function and generate test cases. We provide the result of the modeling approach as well as a comparison between automatic test cases created by Conformiq Creator and manual test cases written by industrial engineers at Bombardier Transportation using the following metrics: test coverage and time spent on testing. The results of this comparison suggest that test coverage of MBT is higher and test cases are more detailed than manual testing. Our results are not conclusive in regard to the cost of using MBT, mainly because this depends on different testing scenarios and how testing is performed. We show that MBT is a suitable approach for modeling the functional requirements of a realistic industrial control software function. In this thesis work, we focus on system-level testing. As future work, applying MBT on lower levels of testing can be a promising way forward for evaluation. In addition, the transformation of these test cases into executable test scripts and the possible problems needs to be investigated further.

  • Arvidsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Gravem, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "...man kan ju inte vara delaktig i alla beslut, men i så mycket som möjligt vara delaktig.": Delaktighet vid omvårdnadsplanering inom rättspsykiatrisk vård2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ivström, Stephanie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Carlsson, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att stå bredvid i ovisshet: Åtta anhöriga får göra sin röst hörd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anhöriga hamnar ofta i bakgrunden av närståendes sjukdomar. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur anhöriga upplever emotionellt stöd, skuld samt hantering av att leva nära någon som överlevt en potentiellt livshotande fysisk sjukdom. Den hermeneutiskt upplagda studien baserades på semistrukturerade intervjuer. Åtta kvinnliga deltagare med differentierad sysselsättning och ålder kunde återfinnas genom snöbollsurval samt sociala medier. Analysen utfördes genom en meningskoncentrering, där fyra teman kunde återfinnas: de fanns där för mig, självanklagelser för känslor och tankar, lärdomar om det sårbara livet, samt att sysselsätta sig eller fly undan. Studien visade att det emotionella stödet upplevdes som konstant, skuld yttrades i form av tankar och känslor, deltagarna rapporterade nya lärdomar samt hanteringsprocessen var övergripande lik hos deltagarna. Studien kan ligga till grund för fördjupning inom området att vara anhörig. Dels för att främja förståelse men också för att låta anhöriga kliva ur skuggan och göra sin röst hörd.

  • Dahlström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Åbrink, Sophia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "Dom var bara allmänt trevliga och bemötte mig som en människa": Patienter och sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av vad som möjliggör respektive försvårar en vårdande relation inom rättspsykiatrisk vård2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research in the field caring relationship is available. However, it is limited in forensic psychiatric care. Especially studies that integrate patients and nurses experiences of the investigated phenomenon. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients and nurses experiences of what enables and aggravate a caring relationship in forensic psychiatry care. Methods: The results of the study are based on interviews of five patient in a forensic clinic and five nurses who works on the clinic. The study was performed with an inductive approach. Data were analyzed based on a qualitative content analysis.

    Results: In order for a caring relationship to be established the results indicates that the patients find it important to be seen as humans, that the carers do ”that little extra” and that the carers and patients works at the same direction. The nurses found it important to familiarize themselves in the patient, to have a stabilized work with the team, to do “the little extra” and get the trust to cooperate. Conclusion: The results corresponds to the aim of the study. Both patients and nurses agreed that the nurse had the responsibility of the caring relationship. A similarity were shown between both of the groups such as time aspect, presence and a genuin interest from the carrier. Keywords: caring relationship, encounter, experiences, forensic psychiatric care, nurse, patient.

  • Iliou, Effi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Nyberg, Liselotte
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Den socialt integrativa modellen: En kvalitativ studie om arbetet med elevhälsa i en skola2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Oskarsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Frännfors, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Enteral och parenteral nutrition: En allmän litteraturöversikt ur ett patientperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • von Zweigbergk, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Unga kvinnor i arbetslivet: En hermeneutisk studie om arbetets betydelse för unga kvinnors identitetsskapande2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Eriksson, Douglas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Investigation of the energy saving potential for an office building complex: A study on the viability of an on-site combined heat- and power supply system2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building stock in the European Union accounts for over 40% of final energy use, where the usage of non-residential buildings may be up to 40% higher than the residential sector. Improving building energy efficiency across all categories of buildings is one key goal of the European energy policies, made prominent by the Climate and Energy package, Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) and Energy Efficiency Directive (EED). In this study, a simulation model of an office-building complex utilizing district heating was created using transient simulation software TRNSYS. The model was validated using consumption data provided by the facility owner, after which an investigation of the energy saving potential along with the economic viability of adapting a new heat- and power supply system was conducted. The system designs were comprised of a geothermal energy system in combination with a PV-system and electricity storage. It was concluded that the systems were sufficient in maintaining an adequate indoor climate. Furthermore, the investments were ascertained as profitable and resulted in a decreased building specific energy demand.

  • Sundqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Rahimi, Elias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Utvärdering av solcellsanläggningar i Västerås: Jämförelse av verkligt systemutbyte mot teoretisk simulerad2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solar cells is one of the cleanest and most environmentally friendly ways to produce electricity. Västerås city has invested in a number of solar systems in public buildings as a step to solve the energy issues of the future and contribute to a sustainable environment. The purpose of this project is to compare the real system yield from Västerås city´s solar plants with simulations. Produces the solar plants as expected or not, and if not, what might be the cause. Data were collected about the solar cell installations, by Mälarenergi Elnät and Västerås city. The real system yield was calculated and then the solar plants were simulated in PVGIS (Photovoltaic Geographical Information System) to obtain the theoretical yield. This project shows that most of Västerås city´s solar plants have a yield that is as expected according to the simulations or higher. However, there are some solar plants with a low or very low yield compared to the simulations. The yield varies considerably during the year. For those plants where the yield has been studied monthly, the real yield is higher in the second half of the year compared with the first half. The self-consumption varies greatly between the different solar plants, but generally it is high. Some solar plants have a very high self-consumption of 100 % and some have a very low of 30-40 %. Some solar plants have a higher yield than expected and it may depends to the fact that the installed power is a few percent higher than what the manufacturer states. The simulations might be unsure, because losses, solar radiation and weather may vary. The solar plants that have a low yield compared to the simulations may have a broken or disconnected component, shading and dirt may also affect. To have as high self-consumption as possible is an economically advantage, as long as the plant is not under-dimensioned because the goal is to produce electricity. There is no clear pattern showing which of the four PVGIS simulations is best matched to reality.

  • Ahlén, Jenny
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nilsson, Frida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Att nätverka med systemiskt tänkande samt värdeskapande perspektiv: Värdeskapande perspektiv, systemiskt tänkande, nätverkande2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Saliba, Ninos
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Standardization of a production process2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Norberg, Andréa
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Effektivisering av operativt inköp: Fallstudie på Uddeholms AB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Investigate operational purchasing in industrial companies in Sweden. Furthermore,

    the study aims at investigating how companies work with continuous improvements in the

    operational purchasing process, measuring and evaluating results. To be able to answer the

    purpose of the study, three research questions have been formulated:

    1. Which non-value adding factors limit the efficiency of industrial operational procurement processes?
    2. How can industrial operational procurement processes potentially be improved?
    3. Which ratios can be used to measure and evaluate the outcome of purchasing processes?

    Methodology and execution: A literature study was conducted in parallel with a case study

    and benchmarking to answer the research questions. The literature study is based on a study of

    lean administration, operational purchasing and information-related challenges. The case study

    consists of value stream mapping of the operational procurement process of purchased

    materials, a description of order confirmation systems and delivery reporting, observations and

    interviews. The benchmarking study is based on interviews with operational buyers. Data from

    cases and benchmarking studies were analysed on the basis of the literature study.

    Findings: Various non-value adding factors that limit the operational purchasing efficiency

    have been identified and provide the basis for potential improvements. Based on results from

    fall, benchmarking and literature studies, proposed improvement proposals for the fall

    company.

    Recommendations: In the course of further research, more employees in organizations would

    be interviewed to broaden knowledge of common challenges in purchasing. Operational

    buyers, managers in improvement work, purchasing managers and corporate executives would

    be interviewed to provide different perspectives on decisive factors in streamlining operational

    purchasing processes.

    Keywords: Lean, Administration, Operational Purchases, Waste, Information Management in

    purchasing, Continuous Improvement, Improvement Tools

  • Tjäder, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ishak, Busuladzic
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Natriumbaserat Flödesbatteri: Experimentell undersökning av natriumbaserat flödesbatteri och analys av möjlig applicering i tunga fordon2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Pinto Dias dos Santos, Hewan Nayoli
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM) i praktiken: En studie av BIM i praktiken hos Peab Bygg Öst 12018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was written during the autumn term 2014 in cooperation with Peab region Bygg Öst 1 in Stockholm. The writing aims to investigate how they work with Building Information Modeling, BIM, in practice and increase understanding in how you can use the 3D technology in the professional working life.

    In order to define the thesis it has been written about three stages in the construction process: offer- and costing stage (construction bidding), projecting (preconstruction phase) and production (construction execution). Besides that the thesis also includes how BIM is used for visualization of the project and a report containing an investment of 3D printer has also been fulfilled. Additionally, the thesis also contains a description of an internal project that the writer has performed in the company. The internal project aims to develop the offer- and costing stage with BIM.

    The writing is based on studies on the subject and visits to some of Bygg Öst 1 ongoing projects. Results from the interview studies indicate that Peab Bygg Öst 1 in Stockholm is working with BIM for example collision handlings, preparation for big parts in the production, different types of visualizations and more. In short, the technology is used for ensuring the occasions in the construction process to improve the efficiency.

    The comparing of the literature and the interview study led to an understanding of the field of the subject and how wide it is. BIM is a broad topic and this 3D technology can be applied in work methods in different ways. The technique does not provide ready-made solutions or strategies to implement in a company, it has been learned that the implementation comes with some challenges.

    Because the technique is broad it may be beneficial that there are specific goals about what should be achieved in the result of the implementation of BIM in the construction process in order to ensure what achievements obtained with the help of the technology.

  • Hanifan, Olivia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kirchhausen, Laura
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Gender Role Stereotypes in Toy Commercials: A Two-Country Comparison Based on the Level of Gender Equality2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 383 toy commercials aired on Nickelodeon Sverige were coded over the duration of two weeks concerning the type of toy, gender portrayal, number of children of both gender, the dominant kind of interaction, the dominant kind of setting and gender orientation. The results were then compared with findings from a previous study conducted in the United States that used the same method to determine a possible relationship between the way the commercials were designed and the two countries' levels of gender equality. In Sweden, the much more gender equal country according to Hofstede's dimension of masculinity/femininity, most commercials featured children of both gender and stereotype usage way more rare than in the United States where also most commercials only showed solely girls or solely boys. Judging from these findings a relationship could therefore be found.

  • Huppert, Nathalia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Stenholm, Viggo
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Business modeling for predictive services in the process industry: A case study with a systems thinking approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify business opportunities created by digitalization. The purpose is to evaluate how these opportunities could be utilized, by identifying areas of improvements in the service portfolio.

    This study is a qualitative case study with an abductive approach, mainly using semi-structured interviews to collect data. The case study was conducted at ABB Industrial Automation Services, where the new Collaborative Operations Center was studied. The data was analyzed from a systems thinking perspective, using a Rich Business Framing sessions as an evaluation platform.

    The results illustrate how difficult the transition towards a more digitalized industry is. This stems from how different customers have reached different levels of automation in their plants. Therefore, the service portfolio must be flexible and agile, in order to cater to the different customer segments. This case study identified three customer segments, one focusing on internal activities, while the other two consist of customers that have reached different levels of maturity within digitalization. Different value potentials were identified, leading to a proposal of a service portfolio. The systems thinking approach was then evaluated, leading to the conclusion that it is a useful tool, but a time-consuming process.