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  • Ljungman, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Begränsat litteraturval och en statlig litterär kanon i gymnasiet: Undersökning om hur ett antal elever och några svensklärare tänker om litteraturvalet i allmänhet och hur de förhåller sig till idéer om en statlig litterär kanon för den svenska gymnasieskolan.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur ett antal elever och några svensklärare tänker om litteraturvalet i allmänhet och hur de förhåller sig till idéer om en statlig litterär kanon för den svenska gymnasieskolan samt hur lika respektive olika deras uppfattning är gällande en statlig litterär kanon. Studien utgick från både en kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod där tre svensklärare deltog i intervjuer och 40 gymnasielever deltog i en enkätundersökning. Studien visar att lärarna är medvetna om att det råder en sorts kanon i den svenska gymnasieskolan, lärarnas attityder spelar roll vid valet av litteratur och att både svensklärarna och gymnasieeleverna har olika uppfattningar om införandet av en statlig litterär kanon.

  • Köhn, Elvira
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Benefits of Simulation Models in Product Data Management System: A pilot study with cooling system simulation models2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The product development today handles increasingly complex products and to be able to compete on the current market companies need an effective PLM/PDM system to manage the lifecycle, models, and data connected to their products. Three of the factors for success in product development are time, cost, and quality. Which need to be supported by the processes and tool used in a project. Product development often uses both physical and analytical prototypes. The analytical method of simulation is an important element in product development that has started to shift from being a validation and verification tool at the last stages in the development process to be more included in the early stages. Simulation models often generate a big amount of data and because of this, the storing and management of them can be troublesome. Therefore, there is a need to have closer integration between design and simulation. The purpose of the thesis is to do an inquiry about what a PLM system contributes to in a company regarding their product development and why and how simulation models can be connected to the company’s PDM system.The methods used during the study were literature reviews, interviews, workshops, and a survey. The results show that in the literature the benefits of using a PLM and PDM system are connected to the factors for a successful product development which are time, quality and cost. While the employees think traceability, reuse of data and storing is the most important benefits. Simulation models are beneficial to the product development process and should, therefore, be stored in a way that there is a connection between the simulation model and the design model. For the employees, the highest-ranking benefits with adding simulation models to the system are traceability, reuse of simulation models and control over simulation models. A manual for how the simulation engineer can utilize the system and add simulation models to it are presented.

  • Gunnarsson, Angelica
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Elevers upplevelse av Sfi Svenska För Invandrare: Man hör mycket från andra skolor men min var jättebra2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Eftersom Svenska för invandrare (Sfi) både är ett allmänt debatterat område samtidigt som det är ett sparsamt kartlagt forskningsområde undersöker den här studien Sfi-utbildningen utifrån ett elevperspektiv. Genom en kritiskt fenomenologisk ansats ges elevernas enskilda upplevelser utrymme att höras. Med stöd av ett antal kritiskt fenomenologiska begrepp analyseras elevernas uttalanden för att ge en bild av de kringliggande strukturer som formar elevernas upplevelser. Med en kvalitativ ansats har 5 tidigare Sfi-elever intervjuats i en mindre stad i Sverige. Alla elever uttryckte positiva upplevelser trots att de har hört synpunkter från vänner som var frustrerade över att inte bli klara med utbildningen. Elevernas upplevelser formas av en rad olika faktorer som både kan kopplas till deras individuella förutsättningar men också tidigare och pågående traumatiska upplevelser, samhälleliga omständigheter och undervisningens kvalitet. En viktig del i övergången från Sfi till vidare studier och arbete var stödet från lärare och personer utanför utbildningen. Studiens slutsatser är att utbildningen fyllt sitt syfte för de intervjuade eleverna, men att urvalet till denna undersökning har påverkat resultatet då samtliga intervjuade elever hade tagit sig igenom utbildningen under en relativt kort tidsperiod och numera är etablerade i studie- och arbetsliv. Resultatet går att koppla till tidigare relevant forskning inom utbildning i svenska som andraspråk. Förslag på vidare studier är bland annat att undersöka gruppen elever inom Sfi- utbildningen som uppvisar en långsam kunskapsprogression och därmed tar längre tid för att slutföra utbildningen.

  • Dervish, Zahra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Unga kvinnors självkänsla: En studie om hur kommentarer på Instagram påverkar kvinnors självkänsla2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ulstrup, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Viktoria, Legrèn
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    FÖRSKOLLÄRARENS STRATEGIER I KONFLIKTHANTERING: Och hur förskollärarna motiverar sina val av strategier2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens syfte var att öka kunskaper om hur förskollärare arbetar med konflikthantering. Ur syftet formulerades två frågeställningar: Vilka strategier beskriver förskollärarna att de använder sig av i arbetet med konflikthantering? hur motiverar förskollärarna sina val av strategier?

     

    Metoden i det självständiga arbetet var en kvalitativ undersökning med semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta förskollärare på tre olika förskolor, en privat förskola och två kommunala förskolor. I undersökningen genomfördes en tematisk analys. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten vi valt är sociokulturellt perspektiv där interaktion är en viktig aspekt för hur vi människor lär av varandra och där språket samt proximala utvecklingszonen är centrala begrepp att förhålla sig till.

     

    Resultatet visar att förskollärarna använde strategier i form av: förebyggandestrategier, kommunikativa strategier, närvarande förskollärare, hjälpa barnen att sätta ord på känslor, positiv inställning, kroppsspråk i arbetet med konflikthantering och förklaringar till dessa strategier. I resultatets slutsats framkom det att förskollärarna är närvarande i konfliktsituationerna för att hjälpa barnen att finna olika strategier och för att lära sig att använda sina ord istället för att gå i affekt.

  • Hietaharju, Isabell
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    VILJAN RÄCKER JU INTE NÄR KUNSKAPEN SAKNAS: Sjuksköterskornas erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med psykisk ohälsa på äldreboenden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nilsson, Tor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sundqvist, Pernilla
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kompetens för teknik i förskola2019In: Forum för forskningsbaserad NT-undervisning / [ed] Karin Stolpe, Gunnar Höst och Andreas Larsson, Linköping, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Sadllah, Stapheen
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Muhammad, Mazen Riadh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Inköpsprocess och transportstrategi2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to identify how to implement a purchasing process in a small company and to investigate which means of transport is most suitable to use at the different delivery distances. The goal was divided into two research questions:

    • Research question 1: Which purchasing process and purchasing role should the company follow?

    • Research question 2: Which means of transport are most suitable to use in accordance with the needs of the company?

    The research method used to answer the goal and the research questions was a literature study and a case study. A literature review was made to understand the subject in a broader context and to gather a case study for empirical results. The case study was conducted at a small company in the construction industry in Södermanland in Sweden, which currently does not have a purchasing process. Based on collected empirical data, the company has encountered some problems. The first problem is that there was no purchasing process to be able to start after which it leads to the company buying in products and testing them if they are customizable and if they do or do not fit, the goods are saved in a containment unit. The second problem is regarding the choice of transportation method for purchased goods in relation to the distance and their needs.

    Students has, through literature studies, scientific articles and interviews with the company, produced an overview of how to structure and systematize purchasing work, and which means of transport are suitable for the company to be able to collect goods.

  • Höglund, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    En utmaning att hantera - Fysisk aktivitet inom psykiatrisk slutenvård: Sjuksköterskans uppfattning av att främja fysisk aktivitet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with a serious mental illness do not reach recommended minimum levels of physical activity despite the fact that research shows that it both prevents and is an effective nursing action in the event of mental illness. Despite proven research, physical activity is met as a nursing action with many obstacles and an uncertainty to be the driving force for the nursing action. Barker and Buchanan-Barker provide The Tidal model support to the nurse to be the enabler for a recovery process using physical activity. Purpose: To describe nurses perceptions of promoting physical activity for patients in psychiatric inpatient care. Method: Semistructured interviews with five nurses working in psychiatric inpatient care. Data was analyzed with a phenomenographic approach. Results: The perception that emerged is that the nurse can promote physical activity by Addressing the challenges, by working with patients and taking the profession's responsibility. conclusion: The respondents believe that physical activity is an evidence-based nursing action that is currently not considered Prioritized, but that the nurse, in collaboration with the patient, bring about a change based on the experience of the patient and thus be motivated for the nursing action to have a place within the inpatient care.

  • Pajala, Evelina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Olsson, Felicia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    En fantastisk värdegrund: En tematisk litteraturanalys av tre fantasyböcker och deras kopplingar till skolans värdegrundsarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en tematisk analys av tre fantasyböcker. De tre böcker vi har valt läses av många barn vilket gör att det är intressant att se vad böckerna innehåller och hur deras innehåll går att använda i skolans värdegrundsarbete. Därför har vi valt att undersöka vilka teman som skildras i texterna och hur dessa teman kan ge stöd till skolans värdegrundsarbete. Vi har också valt att undersöka hur äldre böcker kan ge stöd i värdegrundsarbetet. De böckerna som valdes ut var Gullivers resor, Narnia: Häxan och lejonet och Pax: Nidstången. Det vi kom fram till var att det finns teman i alla tre valda verk som går att använda i skolans värdegrundsarbete med lärarens hjälp. De teman som uppmärksammades var krig och konflikt, äventyret, kampen mellan gott och ont, flykten/äventyret och sökandet efter en familj.

  • Åkerlund, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Svenska som andra eller tredjespråk - spelar det någon roll?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka bakgrundsspråkens betydelse vid språkinlärning och mer specifikt att pröva sambandet mellan antalet bakgrundsspråk och studieresultat i svenska som andraspråk. För att undersöka detta har 26 vuxna elevers rapporterade tidigare språkkunskaper jämförts med deras respektive resultat på Nationella proven för svenska som andraspråk 1.    En kvantitativ analys har utförts där samband har beräknats. Resultatet visar inte att betygsnivån ökar i paritet med antalet språk eleven lärt in, implicit eller explicit. Däremot går det att se tendens till ett samband mellan att ha studerat språk tidigare och högre betyg. Studiens slutsats är att erfarenhet av att ha studerat språk tidigare har en positiv inverkan på inlärning av ytterligare språk medan antalet språk en individ har kunskaper i inte har någon påvisbar effekt på resultatet vid inlärning av ett nytt språk. 

  • Eliasson, Allex
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Ekroth, Simon
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Den läsande läraren?: En kvantitativ studie om blivande svensklärares läsvanor och attityder till läsning av skönlitteratur2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvantitativa studie behandlar blivande svensklärares läsvanor och attityder till läsning av skönlitteratur. Data har samlats in med hjälp av webbenkäter som skickats till samtliga lärarstudenter på en svensk högskola, med inriktning mot år 4-6. Bland de svarande kunde fyra olika läsartyper med särskiljande läsvanor identifieras. Av resultatet framgår att de som läser kontinuerligt uppvisar en mer positiv attityd till läsning av skönlitteratur. Studien indikerar därmed att mängden läsning som utförs av en individ till viss del påverkas av vilken uppfattning och tilltro som finns till läsningens positiva effekter. Resultatet visar också att lärarstudenter som grupp saknar en gemensam syn på litteraturens värde och status. En tydlig polarisering kan skönjas i uppfattningen om skönlitteraturens värde i skolans undervisning och för det demokratiska samhället, vilket indikerar en viss diskrepans mellan skönlitteraturens status hos blivande svensklärare och skolans läsfrämjande uppdrag. Sammantaget visar studien att det inte är en självklarhet att framtida lärare tillskriver litteraturen ett högt värde i skolsammanhang eller själva läser i särskilt hög utsträckning.

  • Sauter, Barrett
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ultra-light weight design through additive manufacturing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABB Corporate Research was looking to redevelop one product to be manufactured via polymer additive manufacturing (AM), as opposed to its previously traditionally manufacturing method. The current product is cylindrical in shape and must withstand a certain amount of hydrostatic pressure. Due to the pressure and the current design, the cannister is prone to buckling failure. The cannister is currently produced from two cylindrical tube parts and two spherical end sections produced from solid blocks of the same material. For assembly, an inner assembly is inserted into one of the tube parts and then all parts are welded together. This product is also custom dimensioned for each purchase order. The purpose of investigating this redevelopment for AM is to analyse if an updated inner design unique to additive manufacturing is able to increase the performance of the product by increasing the pressure it can withstand from both a material failure standpoint and a buckling failure. The redevelopment also aims to see if the component count and process count can be decreased. Ultimately, two product solutions are suggested, one for low pressure ranges constructed in ABS and one for high pressure ranges constructed in Ultem 1010. To accomplish this, relevant literature was referred to gain insight into how to reinforce cylindrical shell structures against buckling. Design aspects unique to AM were also explored. Iterations of these two areas were designed and analysed, which led to a final design choice being decided upon. The final design is ultimately based on the theory of strengthening cylindrical structures against buckling through the use of ring stiffeners while also incorporating AM unique design aspects in the form of hollow network structures. By utilizing finite element analysis, the design was further developed until it held the pressure required. Simulation results suggest that the ABS product can withstand 3 times higher pressure than the original design while being protected against failure due to buckling. The Ultem simulation results suggest that the product can withstand 12 times higher pressure than the current design while also being protected against failure due to buckling. Part count and manufacturing processes are also found to have decreased by half. Post-processing treatments were also explored, such as the performance of sealants under pressure and the effects of sealants on material mechanical properties. Results show that one sealant in particular, an acrylic spray, is most suitable to sealing the ABS product. It withstood a pressure of 8 bar during tests. The flexural tests showed that the sealant did indeed increase certain mechanical properties, the yield strength, however did not affect the flexural modulus significantly. This work gives a clear indication that the performance of this product is feasibly increased significantly from redeveloping it specifically to AM.

  • Beckman, Mathias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Christy Gerald Volden, Alex
    Performance Assessment of Electrical Motor for Electric Aircraft Propulsion Applications: Evaluation of the Permanent Magnet Motor and its Limitations in Aircraft Propulsion2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project will evaluate which kind of electrical motor is best suited for aircraft propulsion and which parameters effect the efficiency. An economic analysis was conducted, comparing the fuel price (Jet A1) for a gas turbine and the electricity price for an electric motor of 1MW. The study was conducted by using analytical methods in MATLAB. Excel was used to compile and present the data. The data used in this thesis project were assumed with regards to similar studies or pre-determined values. The main losses for the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) were calculated to achieve a deeper understanding of the most important parameters and how these parameters need to improve to allow for future electric propulsion systems. The crucial parameters for the losses were concluded to be the temperature, voltage level, electrical frequency, magnetic flux density, size of the rotor and rotational speed. The three main losses of a PMSM was illustrated through the analytical equations used in MATLAB. The calculations present how the ohmic losses depend on the temperature (0-230°C) at different voltages (700V and 1000V), how the core losses depend on frequency (0-1000Hz) at different magnetic flux densities and how the windage losses depend on rotational speed (7000-10000 rpm). It could be concluded that at 8500 rpm an efficiency of 91,26% could be achieved at 700V, 1.5T and 90.4% at 1000V, 1.65T. The decrease in efficiency is a result of the increase in magnetic flux density. When looking at the economic viability of electrical integration the power to weight ratio and energy price was compared for the gas turbine and electrical motor including an inverter and battery. This resulted in a conclusion that a pure electrical system may not compete with a gas turbine in 30 years of time due to the low energy density of the battery. It was also concluded that the emissions during cruise could be lowered significantly. If the batteries were charged in Sweden the emissions would decrease from ~937 kg CO2 to ~31 kg CO2. If the batteries were charged in the Nordic region the emissions would decrease to ~119kg CO2. However, if the batteries were to be charged in the US the carbon dioxide emission would be ~1084 kg CO2, which is an increase in CO2 emission compared to the gas turbine.

  • Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Callin, Veronika
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    SMÅSKALIG VATTENKRAFT OCH FLEXIBILITET I ELSYSTEMET: En kartläggning av förväntningarna på den småskaliga vattenkraftens potential att bidra med flexibilitet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Narya, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    1 + 1 + 1 + 1 =1: En undersökning av Montevideo konventionen i relation till irakiska och turkiska Kurdistan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Salih, Helan
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Mobbning i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har tagit upp frågor om mobbning i förskolan.

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur tio förskollärare definierar mobbning, hur man identifierar barn som utsätts för mobbning och på vilket sätt man kan motverka det i förskolan. Undersökning genomfördes med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med ljudupptagning av samtliga berörda förskollärare. I resultatet framgick det att förskollärarna angav en variation av begreppet mobbning. I studien framträder både likheter och skillnader mellan förskollärarnas beskrivningar av mobbning. En del förskollärare angav att mobbning kan komma till uttryck i fysisk, psykisk och verbal form. Andra förskollärare uppgav att mobbning innebär att frysa ut andra och att man systematiskt utsätts för kränkande ord samt kränkande fysiska.

  • Sandberg Kehrein, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Demir, Rita
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Den viktiga kraften: Första linjens vårdchefer om betydelsen av stöd i arbetet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Första linjens chefer balanserar kraven mellan överordnade och medarbetare. Speciellt problematiskt kan det bli i offentlig verksamhet där politik styr och negativa resultaträkningar präglar sjukvården. För att klara av höga krav och begränsade resurser är olika typer av stöd en viktig faktor för chefernas hållbarhet. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur första linjens chefer upplever stöd, vilket stöd som saknas och vilken betydelse stöd har i yrkesrollen. Undersökningen bygger på kvalitativa semistrukturerade enskilda intervjuer med nio enhetschefer från två regioner. En tematisk analys gjordes för att identifiera väsentligt stöd, vilket stöd som anses vara otillräckligt och vilket stöd som är tillgodosett och betydelsen det har i yrkesrollen. Resultatet visade att stödet, framför allt från medarbetarna, ger den viktiga kraften att orka. Resultatet mynnade i slutsatsen att det finns ett behov av stöd för ledarskapsutveckling, ett behov av avlastning, en delaktighet i beslutsprocessen, regelbunden feedback och tydliga ramar och mandat.

  • Bakhshi Valojerdi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Nokia Bell Labs, Israel.
    A Preliminary Roadmap for Dependability Research in Fog Computing2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fog computing aims to support novel real-time applications byextending cloud resources to the network edge. This technologyis highly heterogeneous and comprises a wide variety of devicesinterconnected through the so-called fog layer. Compared to tra-ditional cloud infrastructure, fog presents more varied reliabilitychallenges, due to its constrained resources and mobility of nodes.This paper summarizes current research efforts on fault toleranceand dependability in fog computing and identifies less investigatedopen problems, which constitute interesting research directions tomake fogs more dependable.

  • Bakhshi Valojerdi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dependable Fog Computing: A Systematic Literature Review2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fog computing has been recently introduced to bridge the gap between cloud resources and the network edge. Fog enables low latency and location awareness, which is considered instrumental for the realization of IoT, but also faces reliability and dependability issues due to node mobility and resource constraints. This paper focuses on the latter, and surveys the state of the art concerning dependability and fog computing, by means of a systematic literature review. Our findings show the growing interest in the topic but the relative immaturity of the technology, without any leading research group. Two problems have attracted special interest: guaranteeing reliable data storage/collection in systems with unreliable and untrusted nodes, and guaranteeing efficient task allocation in the presence of varying computing load. Redundancy-based techniques, both static and dynamic, dominate the architectures of such systems. Reliability, availability and QoS are the most important dependability requirements for fog, whereas aspects such as safety and security, and their important interplay, have not been investigated in depth.

  • Pudas, Janina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Lehtosaari, Moa
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Grupparbeten i problemlösningslektioner i matematik: Syfte, lektionsutformning och lärarrollen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att beskriva fyra lärares syn på grupparbete inom problemlösning i matematik samt hur de praktiskt arbetar med det under en lektion. Som datainsamlingsmetod användes kvalitativa intervjuer samt icke-deltagande observationer. Data har analyserats utifrån Learning to learn together (L2L2), vilket är vårt teoretiska ramverk. Resultatet visar att lärarna främst använder sig av grupparbete i syfte att eleverna ska lära av varandra, samt att lärarens roll bland annat är att stötta elevernas kommunikation under arbetets gång. Under insamling av data framförde lärarna att syftet med deras problemlösningslektioner var att eleverna skulle öva på att samarbeta. Vår slutsats är att lärarna utformar problemlösningsuppgifter där fokus ligger på att gruppen ska samarbeta och där lärande av det matematiska innehållet inte betonas på samma sätt.

  • Svensson, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Bergqvist, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att se personen: Personcentrerad vård utifrån sjuksköterskors perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Jonsson, Emelie
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att bära slöja på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna studie var att det fanns ett behov av att se över hur den svenska arbetsmarknaden behandlar kvinnor med slöja (hijab). Detta då det svenska arbetslivet i vissa fall kan ses som etniskt ojämlik. Syftet med studien var att ge kvinnorna en röst i ämnet samt att lyfta deras upplevelser med hjälp utav ett sociologiskt perspektiv. För att ta del av deras upplevelser gjordes en kvalitativ studie med en hermeneutisk ansats och tematisk innehållanalys. Det utfördes åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer med kvinnor som bar slöja i arbetet. Från intervjuerna framkom fyra teman: upplevelser, bemötande, samhällets påverkan samt reaktion. Resultatet visade att slöjan är en viktig del i kvinnornas identitet samtidigt som samhället och arbetsmarknaden har svårt att acceptera deras slöjbärande. Kvinnornas arbetstillfredsställelse samt deras psykosociala arbetsmiljö påverkades då de utsattes för fördomar och diskriminering i sina arbetsliv.

  • Boyd, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Was it written for your audience?: Readability analyses of the information provided in English on a Swedish municipality’s website2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s multicultural society it is increasingly important that information is made available in a way that allows it to reach as many people as possible. The present study investigates the readability of the information provided in English on a Swedish municipality’s website. While Umeå Municipality sets a good example when it comes to providing information in foreign languages, the question is how easy the information is to read. The methods used to measure the readability of the texts were three automated readability formulas as well as additional analyses focusing on sentence structure and the number of clauses per word.

    The results show that despite obvious efforts to follow the guidelines for providing public information, more attention needs to be given to the form of the texts themselves. The complexity of the texts as gauged by the reading formulas was in all cases greater than what is recommended for information written for the general public. Some of the texts would seem to require the reader to have a college degree to fully comprehend the information. The supplementary analyses, especially when it comes to the number of clauses per sentence, confirmed the complexity of the texts. The importance of ‘writing for your audience’ thus seems to have been neglected for parts of the analysed material, which implies that some readers may not fully understand their rights and responsibilities regarding the areas addressed on the municipality’s website.

  • Davidsson, Lukas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Alsterlund, Isak
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Badrumsrenovering i bostäder: Jämförelse mellan radiatorsystem och golvvärmesystem ur energi-, fukt- och komfortaspekt i Västerås2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project cover renovation of sanitary rooms with focus on an exchange from a radiator system to an underfloor heating system out of the three aspects energy, moisture and thermal comfort. The used method is literature study, interview, case study and calculations. When a radiator system is replaced with an underfloor heating system the energy demand will decrease due to a possible temperature reduction. The power requirement for the bathrooms will be reduced if the finish material have a higher density and the volume of the room is small. The moisture aspect can in some cases deteriorate with the replacement of systems. It is possible to achieve the same thermal comfort with any system, but it is easier to adjust with an underfloor heating system. An exchange from a radiator system to an underfloor heating system is possible. The energy and thermal comfort aspects improves, but the moisture aspect will potentially degrade.

  • Salimov, Rustam
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Female Labor Force Participation Rate and Economic Growth2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analysed the effect of female labor force participation rate (FLFPR) on economicgrowth and included changes in male labor force participation rate (MLFPR) to help improve thepower of the model. Here, three robust regressions were used on the sample of 16 Latin Countries(Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala,Honduras, Venezuela, RB, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, El Salvador) for theperiod of 1995-2015 in order to identify the effect of each key variable when tested separately andwhen tested together. According to the results, the coefficients of FLFPR and MLFPR are differentand also the addition of MLFPR to the model that has an explanatory variable FLFPR anddependent variable economic growth clearly improves the predicting power of the model and helpsobtain better coefficients. It was also identified that FLFPR has a strong positive relationship witheconomic growth, while MLFPR has a negative effect on the latter. Finally, the existence of u-shape relationship between FLFPR and economic growth was reaffirmed in this thesis, while itwas also shown that MLFPR does not have a u-shape relationship with the economic growth.

  • Ilhammar, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Välmående hos pensionärer: Demografiska faktorers betydelse för känsla av sammanhang2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier visar att individer som bor på gruppboende är mer tillfredsställda med

    livet, eftersom de upplever ett större socialt liv genom aktiviteter som boendet

    erbjuder. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka bakomliggande faktorer

    som avgör att äldre känner välmående. En KASAM-enkät samt åtta

    demografiska frågor och en öppen kvalitativ fråga delades ut genom ett

    tillgänglighetsurval där 94 respondenter svarade. Resultatet visar att

    ensamstående som sällan träffade andra individer hade ett lägre välmående

    än de respondenter som hade en partner. Utbildningsnivån hade en signifikant

    skillnad där respondenter med grundskoleutbildning visade ett lägre KASAM

    än de med högskoleutbildning. Det visade att de som endast hade en

    grundskoleutbildning hade ett signifikant lägre KASAM än yrkesutbildning,

    gymnasieutbildning samt högskole- eller universitetsutbildning. I en

    kvalitativ fråga visade 45.8 % av respondenterna att det var familjen och

    endas 4.2% att det var deras aktiviteter som gjorde att de upplevde ett

    välmående.

  • Shaba, Salam
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Vilka drivkrafter & barriärer finns det för livsmedelsbutiker att handla av lokala producenter.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Anayati, Shilan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Gaber, Mohammed
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    The process of OBD certification: a comparative study between Euro VI and CARB2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the legal requirements for Euro VI and CARB regarding OBD certification in order to identify the challenges that may come for a manufacturer’s move from Euro VI classified heavy-duty engines to engines that meet the requirements of CARB. Furthermore, the study also aims to identify the effects that these challenges will have on the organisation.

    Research question: What type of challenges arise for a manufacturing company when developing an OBD certification process according to the requirements from CARB compared to Euro VI and how do these challenges affect the organisation?

    Method: The nature of this study was qualitative with a deductive method as an approach, where theories and empirical findings interacts. The theoretical framework is divided into two parts, in which the first part is obtained from scientific articles and books and the second part from legislations. The empirical data was gathered from interviews at a case study company and the information was thematically analysed.

    Conclusion: This study concludes that the movement from Euro VI to CARB standards will result in comprehensive changes for a company’s OBD process itself as well as organisational changes within the company. There will be a need to establish new processes and new ways of working within the organisation which can lead to comprehensive coordination difficulties that should be taken into consideration. In conclusion, it is as important to consider the effects of the changes that this movement will bring on the company and the actors within, as it is with the implementation of the process itself.

  • Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Östgren, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    En tjänstelösning inom energisektorn: Med fokus på datacenterbranschen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy sector is facing unprecedented changes as technology development and new expectations are necessitating action. As a result of market changes, incumbent companies as well as new ones within the sector are now seeking new business opportunities to cope with changes and position themselves for the future. The term servitization has been identified as a key to successfully being able to cope with these changes. It describes the transition from a product-oriented value proposition towards a service-oriented value proposition and has become attractive as a strategy due to economic, market and competitive arguments. Despite many clear advantages, the phenomenon of servitization comes with great challenges. To this day, no successful full-scale servitization initiative can be identified within the energy sector in Sweden, that is to say, a situation where a company completely has shifted its offering.

    The thesis therefore sets out to facilitate the development of a servitization endeavor by examining previous research work within the field of servitization and co-creation. These topics are considered by taking a systems perspective because of the characteristics of the given case, where components such as generators, power lines, transformers, electrical equipment companies, utility companies, data centers and regulatory authorities are part of a larger whole. The theoretical material is applied to better understand a potential receiver of a service offering, a potential customer in the energy sector that is: Data centers. More specifically, the thesis discusses and seek to identify the needs and interests that the customer segment data center seeks in a future energy related service offering and other important factors for a servitized offering. This in turn can be seen as a response to the servitization literature, which clearly promotes that all servitization efforts should start with understanding the customer.

    Findings show that the largest challenge of servitization has much to do with the abstract nature of the term. In contrast to a tool that can be used relatively mindlessly, servitization constitute a complex whole where things like organizational capacity, culture and common interests must co-exist. The case study has mapped out the needs and wants of the customer segment and suggests recommendations to succeed accordingly. The thesis makes in particular three contributions. First, the three theoretical topics of servitization, co-creation and systems thinking have been integrated to extend the understanding of the connection between these, as well as the challenges linked to the topics. Secondly, a deeper understanding of the data center sector has been provided, more specifically, which critical factors the segment considers in the context of the study. Thirdly, the thesis contributes with suggestions concerning areas for improvement or areas where business development can take place, which also was what first caused us to do the study.

  • Hermansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Bergkvist, Karolina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Är off-grid framtiden för det svenska elsystemet?: En analys utifrån Flernivå-perspektivet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master thesis is to study whether the off- grid scenario is a potential direction in the Swedish energy landscape of the future, and to investigate what can drive such development.

    For this master thesis, a qualitative research strategy has been applied, through an abductive approach towards the found empirical material and theory. An empirical data collection has been carried out in the form of semi-structured interviews with ten actors in the Swedish electricity grid market. Subsequently, a thematic analysis has been carried out, in which the empirical material is set against the theory.

    The study shows that there today are several factors that can drive the development towards an off-grid electricity system in Sweden. In the study’s empirical material, it is possible to find signs that most informants believe that change in today’sSwedish electricity system is needed. However, how likely it is that such a change process will take place, the study finds no evidence for. The factors that would drive the development towards an electricity system characterized by off-grid can be identified as price development, development in other sectors, changed tariff set, decentralization, legislation, increased popularity and examples where off-grid has been realized.

  • Bendix, Sofia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Härskarens skamfulla uttryck: En studie av tre härskartekniker på Facebook: The shameful expressions of the suppressor: A study on three suppression techniques on Facebook2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the words and phrases that occur when suppression techniques are used on the social media Facebook. Quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to investigate how men and women between the ages of 25-65 have been exposed to suppression techniques ridicule, the infliction of guilt and shame, and the violence and threat of violence. The result shows that women are more often exposed to the suppression techniques than men. The suppression technique ridiculous is the most prevalent technique and downgrading is the category of characteristics of inappropriate language use that occurs most frequently. The conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that women are still the ones who are most often exposed to suppression techniques and that younger people express rougher words and expressions when they use suppression techniques on Facebook.

  • Meijer, Fanny
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Sjökvist, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Laborativt material – påverkar det undervisningen?: En kvalitativ studie om materialtillgångens påverkan på undervisning i de naturorienterande ämnena för årskurs 1–3.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate if there is a connection between teachers’ access to laboratory material and their teaching in the sciences. The investigation was carried out through qualitative interviews with active qualified teachers in grades 1-3. The collected data was sorted and analysed under the two categories access to laboratory material and teaching. The results show that laboratory material is likely to be used and also that the teaching needs to be well planned so that theory and practice are intertwined. The main conclusion is that the teacher plays a key role in the education and that his or her attitudes and abilities are crucial for the quality of the education.

  • Hussain, Nishi
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. 1997.
    Myanmars demokratiska utveckling utifrån Dahls Polyarki2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

     

    Abstract The democratic process in Myanmar has been very complex and troublesome. Since Myanmar's way to democratization the country has witnessed an intense ethnic conflict between the Rohingya and the Government which led to one of the largest refugee crisis in the world. Several of the Rohingya minority has fled to the neighbouring country Bangladesh, due to the restrictions of human rights and political rights.

    This essay analyses the democratic process in Myanmar by measuring education, media freedom and how political governance is established within the parliament. Furthermore, this essay thoroughly examines how problematic laws are established. The method used is a mixed method which is a combination of quantitative method and qualitative method using both qualitative and quantitative data which this essay is based on.

    The main theory used in this essay is Robert Dahl's theory about polyarchy. The theory is based upon 5 democratic requirements and 7 institutions.

    The research question of the essay is whether Myanmar is moving towards democratic development and how well established democratic values are according to Dahl's theory about Polyarchy.

     

    Key words: Myanmar, Dahl polyarchy, Myanmar's democratic development, Democracy, Media freedom, Journalist in Myanmar, Education. 

  • Sandberg, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    A photovoltaic system performance Evaluation Software: For evaluation of ten unique PV-system configurations in the middle of Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contains the development of a software capable of evaluating the performance of ten unique photovoltaic (PV) systems located 10 kilometers outside of Västerås, Sweden. The ten systems have different configurations according to this list:

    1. Dual-axis tracking
    2. Single-axis tracking with 30°tilt
    3. Ground mounted, free-standing with 19° tilt
    4. Ground mounted, free-standing with 41° tilt
    5. Roof mounted with 19°tilt

     

    Each of the above configurations exist with and without installed power optimizers adding up to a total of ten unique systems.

    The development goal for the evaluation software is to provide the user with a variety of tools to determine which of the systems that has the best yield and performance. Integrated in the development of the software is therefore a literature study where it is investigate how photovoltaic systems operate and especially how their performance can be evaluated. Some of the frequently used parameters are; system yield, reference yield and performance ratio.

    The software features are focused around presenting the data collected from the PV systems in a variety of graphs. The different types of graph are designed to let the user easy compare the data between the systems and thus find how and why a particular system is performing better than the others. The software is developed in a Matlab environment and has an intuitive user interface.

    The thesis time-frame is too short for any conclusive result to be presented, but to showcase the software features a short-termed evaluation of the systems have been performed. The period evaluated is a three week period in the middle of May 2014. The short-termed evaluation highlights several scenarios and issues that can arise. It has been detected throughout the project that it is difficult to separate which effects that causes one system to be better than the other. Irregularities seen in the data can be caused by many factors. Some of the more evident are; installed power optimizers, differences in system configurations and shadow patterns. By using the software effects like array shading and inaccurate measurements has been discovered. 

  • Karlsson, Linnea
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    "Jag kanske låter elak...": En kvalitativ intervjustudie av uppfattningar hos gymnasieflickor i Eskilstuna om hur kön görs i ett sammanhang av klimat och miljö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att genom ett genusperspektiv undersöka gymnasieflickors upplevelser av miljö och maskuliniteter i ett urval hämtat från tre gymnasieskolor i Eskilstuna. Genom denna studie vill jag bidra till en förståelse av hur kön görs i ett sammanhang av miljö och klimat. För att nå studiens syfte har åtta samtalsintervjuer genomförts med gymnasieflickor i åldrarna 16–19 år. De medverkande var från tre olika gymnasieskolor i Eskilstuna. Resultatet visade att maskulinitet anses i första hand vara en traditionell manlighet men utmanas av en i andra hand mjukare manlighet som dessutom får stöttning av flickorna. Kopplingarna mellan maskulinitet och miljö och klimat görs genom att beroende på dominerande mansideal legitimeras också visst typ av miljöengagemang. Den traditionella manligheten kopplas ihop med industrimodern maskulinitet och med mjukare mannen kopplas ihop med den ekomoderna maskuliniteten. Femininiteten görs i sammanhanget till ett ansvarstagande för djur och natur. Uppoffringar som att sluta att äta kött och förändrat bilbeteende ”trendar” hos flickorna, men inte hos pojkarna.

  • Vatalis, Athanasios
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Exploring the uncertainty in start-ups from bootstrapping, effectuation and scrum perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand to what extent the principles of bootstrapping, effectuation and scrum are implementedtogether in a start-up and how do they relate to the uncertainty.By conducting a qualitative research method, the data were collected through semi-structured interviews and introspection. The findings of this study showed that two aggregated dimensions emerged –Internal Uncertainty and External Uncertainty. The empirical investigation showed that the mentioned principles,while utilized separately, cannot guarantee clear guidance in the entrepreneurship. However, a new approachoffered by the thesis, which will contribute to Innovation and Design area, is to combine the bootstrapping, effectuation and scrum principles. Doing so, an entrepreneur’s possibilities to hunt the roller-coaster of uncertainties in a start-up phase and eliminate them dramatically increases.

  • Edgren, Matilda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Agali, Hamid
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Elnätsinvesteringar i förhållande till normvärde: En fallstudie hos Mälarenergi Elnät AB2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Katja, Palovaara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hur deltagardemokratiska är e-förslagen?: En demokratistudie av inkomna e-förslag i Västerås stad2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Palovaara, Nadja
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    ROMBORGARSKAP?: En studie av romers framställda medborgarskap i minoritetspolitiken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Jongeling, Robbert
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Impediments to Introducing Continuous Integration for Model-Based Development in Industry2019In: Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based development and continuous integration each separately are methods to improve the productivity of development of complex modern software systems. We investigate industrial adoption of these two phenomena in combination, i.e., applying continuous integration practices in model-based development projects. Through semi-structured interviews, eleven engineers at three companies with different modelling practices share their views on perceived and experienced impediments to this adoption. We find some cases in which this introduction is undesired and expected to not be beneficial. For other cases, we find and categorize several impediments and discuss how they are dealt with in industrial practice. Model synchronization and tool interoperability are found the most challenging to overcome and the ways in which they are circumvented in g to overcome and the ways in which they are circumvented in practice are detrimental for introducing continuous integration.

  • Vukalic, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Separerade av migrationsprocess: Ofrivilliga distansens påverkan på individen i relationen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anknytningsärenden hos Migrationsverket innefattar individer som söker anknytning till partner i Sverige. I och med flyktingkrisen som Sverige upplevde under 2015 - 2016 har många anknytningsärenden dragit ut på tiden. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka upplevelsen av anknytningsprocessen för par där den ena partnern befinner sig i Sverige och den andra fortfarande är kvar utomlands och hur de hanterar denna process. Fenomenologiskt inspirerade frågor om relationen, upplevelserna och coping ställdes i telefonintervjuer. Deltagarna befann sig antingen i Sverige eller i utlandet. Studien visade separationens effekter på individernas relationer och gav inblick i deras förutsättningar. Deltagarna upplevde effekter av väntetiden i anknytningsprocessen så som ovisshet, maktlöshet, stress/ohälsa och ingen framförhållning. Det som utmärkte deras hanterande av väntetiden var att de nu fick leva ett virtuellt liv, de isolerade sig från sitt sociala liv och vissa tog lugnande medel/medicin. Förlängda anknytningsprocessen ledde till symptom av stress och hälsokomplikationer hos de som tvingas leva i ofrivilliga distansförhållanden.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 13:15 Lambda, Västerås
    Murara, Jean-Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Market Models with Stochastic Volatility2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial Markets is an interesting wide range area of research in Financial Engineering. In this thesis, which consists of an introduction, six papers and appendices, we deal with market models with stochastic volatility in order to understand some financial derivatives, mainly European options. Stochastic volatility models appear as a response to the weakness of the constant volatility models. Paper A is presented as a survey of different models where the volatility is itself a stochastic process and we present the techniques of pricing European options. Comparing single factor stochastic volatility models to constant factor volatility models, it seems evident that the stochastic volatility models represent nicely the movement of the asset price and its relations with changes in the risk. However, these models fail to explain the large fluctuations in the volatility levels and slope. We propose also a new model which is a variation of the Chiarella and Ziveyi model and we use the first order asymptotic expansion methods to determine the price of European options. Multiscale stochastic volatility models can capture the smile and skew of volatilities and therefore describe more accurately the movements of the trading prices. In paper B , we present an asymptotic expansion for the option price. We provide experimental and numerical studies on investigating the accuracy of the approximation formulae given by this asymptotic expansion. We present also a procedure for calibrating the parameters produced by our first-order asymptotic approximation formulae. Our approximated option prices are compared to the approximation obtained by Chiarella and Ziveyi. In paper C , we implement and analyze the Regime-Switching GARCH model using real NordPool Electricity spot data. We allow the model parameters to switch between a regular regime and a non-regular regime, which is justified by the so-called structural break behaviour of electricity price series. In splitting the two regimes we consider three criteria, namely the intercountry price difference criterion, the capacity/flow difference criterion and the spikes-in-Finland criterion. We study the correlation relationships among these criteria using the mean-square contingency coefficient and the co-occurrence measure. We also estimate our model parameters and present empirical validity of the model. In paper D , we consider a market model with four correlated factors and two stochastic volatilities which is the same model as the one introduced in paper A and used in paper B . An advanced Monte Carlo method is used to find the no-arbitrage price of the European call option in the considered model. In paper E , we forecast the stochastic volatility for exchange rates using Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) model and study the effect of the out-of-sample periods and also the effect of the decay factor on the forecasts. In Paper F , considering a two-dimensional Black-Scholes equation, we compare the performances between the Crank-Nicolson scheme and the lognormality condition when pricing the European options. We do this by studying the effects of different parameters.

  • Audo, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A study on Cobot investment in the manufacturing industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A collaborative robot is something of growing interest for companies in the manufacturing industries to implement. However, a collaborative robot is quite new in today’s market. An issue that arises is that no implementation process for collaborative robots exists today, as well as no requirement guide for skills, as well as actors, has been defined.

    The aim of this project was to examine how an implementation process of collaborative robots in manufacturing companies could look like. Focusing on charting the integration process steps of a collaborative robot, and identifying the actors as well as skills needed for successful cobot integration, with the aim achieve the goal of this thesis by answering the research questions. The thesis had the following research questions:

    Research Question 1 – How is an integration process for implementing a cobot represented in the manufacturing companies?

    Research Question 2 – What particular skills as well as actors are required when implementing in a cobot in the manufacturing companies?

    To answer the research questions, the author conducted several interviews with different companies. The interview questions were mainly constructed in order to answer the RQs but also to get an understanding for the different aspects of what a cobot is, what is required as well as how it compares to a traditional industrial robot.

    The thesis resulted in an implementation process with several steps constructed in order to implement a cobot as well as different aspects of what skills and actors are needed. In order to separate the aspects, the respondents were categorized into different roles which are the developer, integrator and the user. The different roles were all vital, providing an understanding from different perspectives.

    Keywords: Collaborative robot, cobot, Human-robot interaction, Human-Robot Collaboration, Development strategies, Automation, Industry 4.0.

  • Khanfar, Husni
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Demand-Driven Static Backward Slicing for Unstructured Programs2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Backward program slicing identifies the program parts that might influence a particular variable at a program point. A program part (e.g., a statement) can be directly influenced by another part due to its data or control dependence on the later. The classical program slicing approaches are designed to find in advance all the data and control dependencies in the program. This design entails a considerable amount of unnecessary computations because not all the dependencies are required for computing the slice. Demand-driven program slicing approaches try to raise the analysis performance by avoiding the unnecessary computations. However, these approaches cannot address unstructured programs in a demand-driven fashion. On the other hand, the existing techniques that compute the control dependencies in unstructured programs are based on fixed-point iterations, which limits their integration to the demand-driven slicing approaches. Program slicing based on Predicate Code Block (PCB) is a new demand-driven slicing approach that can address only structured programs. This paper presents the first demand-driven technique to compute the control dependencies in unstructured programs. In this regard, the technique uses flow information, location-based information and syntactic structure of the source code. Further, the paper shows how the new technique can be integrated to the PCB-based slicing approach to address unstructured programs.

  • Andersson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Carlstedt, Gustav
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Automated Testing of Robotic Systems in Simulated Environments2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the simulations tools available today, simulation can be utilised as a platform for more advanced software testing. By introducing simulations to software testing of robot controllers, the motion performance testing phase can begin at an earlier stage of development. This would benefit all parties involved with the robot controller. Testers at ABB would be able to include more motion performance tests to the regression tests. Also, ABB could save money by adapting to simulated robot tests and customers would be provided with more reliable software updates. In this thesis, a method is developed utilising simulations to create a test set for detecting motion anomalies in new robot controller versions. With auto-generated test cases and a similarity analysis that calculates the Hausdorff distance for a test case executed on controller versions with an induced artificial bug. A test set has been created with the ability to detect anomalies in a robot controller with a bug.

  • Boberg, Felix
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Eriksson Ljungblom, Lukas
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    MELLANSTADIELÄRARES KÄNSLA AV SAMMANHANG (KASAM): En kvantitativ studie i syfte att belysa mellanstadielärares inställning till läraryrket.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte har varit att ta reda på mellanstadielärares känsla av sammanhang. Detta har genomförts genom en enkätundersökning med totalt 30 stycken medverkande mellanstadielärare. Resultatet av studien visar ett positivt resultat då mellanstadielärarna som deltagit innehar en stark KASAM. Studien påvisar även att mellanstadielärarna känner en stor meningsfullhet till sitt yrke. Studien indikerar att mellanstadielärares KASAM inte kan kopplas samman med den höga grad av sjukskrivingar och psykiska ohälsa som idag existerar i läraryrket. Det finns dock en stor variationsvidd bland mellanstadielärarnas svar som därför påvisar att framtida forskning kring ämnet kan ses som intressant. 

  • Lindberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dag, Munir
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Viktig Intressant Person (VIP) i användning - En resultatutvärdering med programteoretisk ansats2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten från en utvärdering av det våldsförebyggande programmet Viktig intressant person (VIP). VIP är ett strukturerat målgruppsanpassat utbildningsprogram med pedagogiska inriktning som bedrivits i Eskilstuna kommun sedan 2014. Insatsen utgör en arbetsmetod som har utvecklats för att hjälpa personer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar. Målgruppen för insatsen kvinnor och män som har insatser med stöd av Socialtjänstlagen (SoL) eller Lagen om stöd och service (LSS). Syftet med VIP-insatsen är att minska våldsutsattheten för denna grupp genom att ge dem det stöd de behöver och har rätt till.Utvärderingens övergripande syfte kan konkretiseras i tre delar. Del ett att undersöka; giltigheten i VIP-programmet, det vill säga insatsens programteori. Del två att undersöka hur insatsen genomförts, det vill säga programtroheten i insatsen. Del tre att utvärdera programmets resultat, det vill säga om deltagande i VIP leder till positiv förändring avseende psykisk hälsa, utsatthet för våld och Känsla av sammanhang (KASAM).Utvärderingen har genomförts under perioden hösten 2016 till våren 2018 genom en kombination av olika utvärderingssteg. Det första steget utgörs av ett programteoretiskt arbete och en forskningsöversikt. Fokus i forskningsöversikten har varit på vilka våldspreventiva insatser som finns för gruppen samt vilken förändringspotential dessa har. Det andra steget består i att studera insatsen programtrohet. Det tredje steget har sökt fånga den förändring som sker för brukarna före (T1) och efter (T2) insatsens genomförande. Detta har skett genom att med hjälp av skattningsskalor göra mätningar av KASAM, psykisk hälsa och utsatthet för våld- och konflikter. Utöver detta har även semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer kring upplevda förändringar i relation till de nämnda områdena genomförts med brukarna.Utvärderingens empiriska underlag utgörs av skattningar och intervjuer före- och efter insatsen med totalt 26 brukare, två intervjuer med skaparna av programmet, sex intervjuer med VIP-ledare samt material hämtade från tre forskningsseminarier som genomförts med VIP-ledare, styrgruppen för VIP samt andra intressenter.Det empiriska underlaget för utvärderingen är relativt begränsat för att i alla avseenden, kunna säkerställa förändringar som sker hos brukarna. När det gäller KASAM visar resultatet emellertid att det sker signifikanta förändringar till det bättre för brukarna. Resultaten är inte lika tydliga när det gäller deltagarnas psykiska hälsa. När det gäller detta område är emellertid ett viktigt resultat att för de deltagare som innan insatsen hade måttlig till hög3grad av psykisk ohälsa så minskade denna efter insatsen. Förändringar i relation till våld och konflikter visar en likande tendens som psykisk hälsa. Även i detta hänseende sker en positiv förändring. Resultatet bygger på ett begränsat antal brukare vilket gör att de förändringar som sker i relation till psykisk ohälsa samt våld och konflikter inte går att säkerställa statistiskt. Det tydligaste tecknet på att det skett en positiv förändring för brukarna erhålls när resultaten från samtliga tre undersökta områden (KASAM, psykisk hälsa samt våld- och konflikter) summeras. Resultatet visar då att samtliga brukare fått en positiv utveckling på minst ett av de nämnda områdena och att merparten av deltagarna fått en positiv förändring på flera av dem. Det finns också brukare som visar en negativ utveckling över tid. Exempelvis uppger några av brukarna att den psykiska ohälsan ökat över tid. Det finns flera olika förklaringar till att det sker en negativ utveckling för några brukare över tid men det mesta pekar på att detta inte kan hänvisas till insatsen.Utvärderingen belyser vidare insatsen programteoretiska antaganden. När det gäller dessa dras slutsatsen att programmet har en rimlig logiskt-teoretisk utgångspunkt som följs genom hela dess genomförande. I förhållande till programteorin identifieras emellertid även behovet av att ytterligare tydliggöra insatsen teoretiska antagande. Programtroheten i programtroheten belyses också i utvärderingen. Resultatet av detta arbete tyder på en hög grad av följsamhet, det vill säga att andel centrala behandlingsmoment (kärnkomponenter) som genomförs med skicklighet och noggrannhet. Denna slutsats gäller för merparten av de totalt 12 lektionerna. Några lektioner visar på lägre grad av följsamhet. För dessa utbildningstillfällen finns det således möjlighet att ytterligare förbättra följsamheten.Den sammantagna bedömningen av utvärderingen är att våldspreventionsprogrammet VIP skapat en positiv utveckling för deltagarna. Förutom att insatsen visar att Känslan av sammanganhang ökat signifikant vittnar flertalet brukare om både kunskapsmässig, attitydmässiga och beteendemässiga förändringar som ett direkt resultat av insatsen. I det fall det sker en negativ utveckling för brukarna är det möjligt att hänvisa detta till insatsen.Samtidigt som detta sägs kan det emellertid konstateras att det föreligger ett behov av fortsatt kunskapsutveckling, genom systematisk uppföljning och utvärdering av VIP-insatsen.

  • Boivie, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Upplevelser av ledarskap inom kriminalvården och dess förhållande till kriminalvårdarnas psykiska hälsa2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskapet på arbetsplatsen har i flertalet studier visat ha en betydelse för medarbetarnas psykiska hälsa. En till synes, relativt outforskad yrkesgrupp inom området är kriminalvårdare. Kriminalvårdare beskrivs vara en komplex arbetsgrupp med en tudelad yrkesroll vilket kan innebära upplevda höga krav i arbetet. Till följd av detta har föreliggande induktiva studie intresserat sig för hur kriminalvårdare förstår sina upplevelser av ledarskapets i förhållande till deras psykiska hälsa. Genom en fenomenologisk metod genomfördes en intervjustudie med åtta stycken kriminalvårdare. För att skapa förståelse för kriminalvårdarnas upplevelser har krav – resursmodellen, tillsammans med tidigare forskning utgjort ett teoretiskt ramverk för studien. Resultatet talar för att vårdarna förstår ledarskapet inom kriminalvården som en extern resurs i arbetet som kan förklaras som ett direkt - och ett indirekt stöd med påverkan på vårdarnas psykiska hälsa.