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  • Myhrberg, Frida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Jonsson, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Best practice internal training: Factors for implementation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Yousef, Jivara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    ARBETSMILJÖ OCH SÄKERHET: Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete på byggarbetsplatser i Mellansverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is a large industry with approximately 320,000 employees according to the Swedish construction industry. As the work environment at construction sites affects a large number of individuals, it is important that there is good security at the construction sites, in order to reduce and prevent workers in the construction industry from being injured. The work thesis has been carried out in collaboration with Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB with the aim of creating better conditions for work environment and strategic safety work at Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB's construction sites, as well as highlighting risks and safety aspects. This qualitative study has been carried out at Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB, where semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to then use the information as the foundation of the study. The work has also been based on reviewed literature studies in the form of pre-review. In order to have a good working environment and safety at the construction sites, a number of factors are involved. The study shows that time, cleaning, communication, education and experience are the factors that have the greatest impact on the work environment and safety. According to some of Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB's workforce, there will always be deficiencies in safety, while some claim that a "zero vision" is possible to reach, so far no occupational accidents has occurred at Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB's construction sites, however, it seems that the subject does not get enough time, resources and like to prevent future accidents with "safety-first". The Work Environment Authority requires employers to systematically work with environment and safety issues with a vision of "zero tolerance", in which is strengthened by the work environment act. The interviews show that the viewpoint of the working environment differs depending on what perspective is being analyzed, for example, the supervisor has a wider perspective and greater responsibility whilst the professional worker has more narrow perspective and less responsibility. The survey shows that planning and preventive work can prevent workplace accidents with a systematic follow-up. In order for professionals and supervisors to understand the risks and preventive work they should be educated and thus gain an awareness of the problem. Improvement needs to create more awareness and prevention for work environment and safety with "safety deadline" have always been a goal to reach. One hope is that the working environment and security policy will contribute to improved security at the company's construction sites. systematic environmental work simplified by existing routines in environmental work for construction workers, leads to increased workplace safety and fewer occupational accidents.

  • Tingestedt, Mikaela
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Danielsson, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Utrymning i spårtunnel på upphöjd gångbana: Svaga ljusförhållandens effekt på förflyttningen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Evacuation of trains in tunnels is currently taking place in diverse ways. One of the methods implies that passengers leave the train along the railways on elevated walkways. The knowledge about the impact of elevated walkways on the safety level is today very limited. As more and more elevated walkways are designed in rail tunnels, it is important that studies and evacuation trials are made to investigate how those affect the safety level of the evacuation. This master thesis’ project aims to investigate the relationship between low light conditions, people's behaviour and ability to evacuate a train on an elevated walkway. To investigate this, the core in the work consisted a practical evacuation trial which purpose was to study people’s movement on a raised walkway under different illumination levels: 200 lux, 5 lux and 1 lux. A total of 16 escape trials were performed as controlled evacuations on a simulated elevated walkway with the measures 1.2x20 meters with a level difference down to the ground plane of 1.24 meters. The result of the evacuation trial showed that the intensity of illumination played a significant role in both the movement speed, the person flow and the peoples distance to the edge. The peoples flow and speed did generally decrease during the partial trials performed during the weaker light intensities, 5 lux and 1 lux, compared to partial trials performed during 200 lux. A general result regarding the effect of light intensity on the people’s distance to the edge is that during the partial trials performed with the weaker light intensities, 5 lux and 1 lux, more people chose to go further from the edge. The conclusion of these results is that a minimum brightness in tunnels should be 1 lux, but a stronger illumination should be sought to increase the safety of the passengers in case of evacuation. Regarding the learning effect on the trial procedure, it can be seen from the results that the more trials carried out, the closer the edge the people went combined with an increased speed and flow. The people became comfortable in the environment and hesitated less, which generated a source of error in the result. A conclusion of the practical evacuation trial is that by conducting a trial in this type of environment, we were given the opportunity to study the problems as well as the complexity that an evacuation may imply. The experiment further provided valuable information and knowledge about the problems that may arise in an evacuation, both from a technical and behavioural perspective.

  • Didriksson, Morgan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Små och medelstora företags utmaningar vid lean-implementering2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande examensarbete består av två delar, en litteraturstudie och en företagsstudie.Företagsstudien har genomförts hos Swedtrac Railservice AB. Företaget är verksamt inomjärnvägsindustrin där de har varit en typ av bemanningsföretag men nu håller på att ställa omsin verksamhet för att driva egna projekt. Företaget ingår i Knorr-Bremse koncernen som ären Europaledande tillverkare av bland annat bromsar till järnvägs och kommersiella fordon såsom bussars och lastbilar. I och med att företaget blev en del av Knorr-Bremse koncernen harde fått tillgång till det lean-baserade produktionssystemet ”Knorr-Bremse production system”(KPS) som de nu är i stånd att implementera i sin verksamhet.Syftet med examensarbetet åt företaget har varit att ta fram ett internutbildningsmaterial förlean-metoderna 5S och dagligstyrning. Som extra moment åt företaget genomfördes enskattning av den rådande implementeringsnivån av KPS samt en introduktionsworkshop omlean-konceptet och KPS för att skapa en gemensam grundförståelse. För att skatta KPS nivånsamlade studenten data genom intervjuer och observationer som sedan sammanställdes iskattningsmaterialet KPS Audit – Quick check. Det akademiska syftet har varit att besvaraföljande forskningsfrågor:

    • Vilka utmaningar ställs företag inför vid implementering av lean produktion?
    • Hur kan företag hantera utmaningar med implementering av lean produktion?

    För att identifiera utmaningarna och metoder för att hantera dessa genomfördes enlitteraturstudie där studenten sökte artiklar genom skolbibliotekets discovery-verktyg Primooch Google Scholar. Artiklar som ansågs relevanta för studien fokuserade på ämnen som;lean-implementering på SMF, företagsspecifika produktionssystem (XPS) och utmaningar vidlean-arbete.Litteraturstudien resulterade i identifieringen av fjorton utmaningar med koppling till fyrahuvudkategorier; ledning, ekonomi, kunskap och företagskultur. För att hantera de fjortonutmaningarna rekommenderades en cyklisk femstegsmodell för att kontinuerligt definiera ochhantera de fjorton utmaningarna allt eftersom lean-arbetet fortskrider. Den andra modellen vartill för den som ska leda ett lean-implementeringsprogram och går ut på att dela upp arbetet iimplementeringsfaser. Genom att göra detta underlättas resursfördelning och fokusering i deolika implementeringsmomenten.Det sista momentet i arbetet var att jämföra den data som inhämtats från företaget med deutmaningarna som identifierats genom litteraturstudien. Som resultat kunde studentenkonstatera att företagets huvudsakliga utmaningar är inom kategorierna företagskultur ochkunskapsnivån kring lean och KPS. Studentens rekommendation till företaget är att delta i ettlean program som ”Produktionslyftet” för att komma igång med arbete och att de investerartid och resurser för att utbilda medarbetarna i inom lean konceptet och KPS. Inom Knorr-Bremse koncernen finns mycket kunskap och erfarenhet som företaget har möjlighet att ta delav.

  • Kouera, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Rönkkö, Juho
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lemma, Selam
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    The Network expansion of SMEs: A case study of VINCIT2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the improvement of factors, such as transportation, communication, and technological advancement, is allowing SMEs to move towards international markets faster than before. Combining those factors with knowledge gained inside firms, software SMEs are able to follow the trend of internationalizing their activities. Depending only on one side of knowledge to expand abroad, will probably inhibit SMEs to survive in the foreign atmosphere. Moreover, the insufficiency of market 5 

    knowledge and the lack of international experience prevent SMEs to meet the basic requirements to establish relationships outside the home country. The dependence only on the domination of internal knowledge and the uniqueness of the product, may provoke software firms for an excessive ambition to internationalize - which can lead to tangling the way to establish a network abroad.

  • Sjöstrand, Julia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Formspråk - ett språk för alla?: En studie om att främja rörelseflöden i utställningar på museer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Form language - a language for all of us? is a thesis in information design with a focus on spatial design. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a design proposition that exemplifies how the form language can be used to guide museum visitors, thus promoting the flow of movement and information retrieval. The work is based on the thematic exhibition Framtidsland at Arbetets museum in Norrköping. This thesis is a small part of a major survey to find out how spatial information affects visitors' flow of movements in thematic exhibitions. The overall information design problem includes motion flow and navigation in exhibition environments. Many thematic exhibitions do not communicate how the visitor should relocate and lacks clarity in structure and implementation. With the support of acquired empirical information from an informant interview, expert interview and a three-way site analysis on Framtidsland, the existing problems have been identified. The basic issues in the exhibition include ambiguous spatial information and guidance, which complicates the flow of movement and information retrieval for the visitor. There is a need for clearer guidance, structure, a line of argument and a coherent form language. Based on theory of wayfinding/wayshowing, cognition, design rules and design principles, combined with results from a user test, a design proposition has been developed. The design proposition shows that form language is a language for all of us, and that it affects us more than we think. This study shows that spatial information can contain guiding design and visual balance to create better structure as well as facilitate movement flow for visitors in thematic exhibitions.

  • Ameerjan, Sharvathul Hasan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Predicting and Estimating Execution Time of Manual Test Cases - A Case Study in Railway Domain2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Testing plays a vital role in the software development life cycle by verifying and validating the software's quality. Since software testing is considered as an expensive activity and due to thelimitations of budget and resources, it is necessary to know the execution time of the test cases for an efficient planning of test-related activities such as test scheduling, prioritizing test cases and monitoring the test progress. In this thesis, an approach is proposed to predict and estimate the execution time of manual test cases written in English natural language. The method uses test specifications and historical data that are available from previously executed test cases. Our approach works by obtaining timing information from each and every step of previously executed test cases. The collected data is used to estimate the execution time for non-executed test cases by mapping them using text from their test specifications. Using natural language processing, texts are extracted from the test specification document and mapped with the obtained timing information. After estimating the time from this mapping, a linear regression analysis is used to predict the execution time of non-executed test cases. A case study has been conducted in Bombardier Transportation (BT) where the proposed method is implemented and the results are validated. The obtained results show that the predicted execution time of studied test cases are close to their actual execution time.

  • Iyer, Shankar Vanchesan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    REAL-TIME CHALLENGES OF VEHICULAR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS ON MULTI-CORE - A MAPPING STUDY2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of vehicular embedded systems has encouraged researchers and practitioners to adopt model-driven engineering in the development of these systems. In particular, several modelling languages have been introduced for representing the vehicular software architecture and its quality attributes. Current trend in the automotive domain is to shift from single-core architectures to multi-core ones in the attempt of providing the computational power required from the next generation of vehicles, particularly autonomous ones. On the one hand, multi-core architectures introduce new real-time challenges in the development of these systems like core-interdependency. On the other hand, it is pivotal that modelling languages continue to be effective in representing the new vehicular architectures together with their novel concerns, to continue to benefit from model-based methodologies. In this thesis, we present a systematic mapping study focusing i) on the real-time challenges introduced by the adoption of multi-core architectures and ii) on the extent of the modelling support for the resolution of these challenge, in the automotive domain.

  • Heidari, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Runtime Verification of A PLC System: An Industrial Case Study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term verification can mean different things to different people based on their background and the context of research. Comparably the term runtime might bring about similar disarray with lesser confusion. Whilst a software application executes on a system, there are libraries and codes that facilitates the execution of that binary, these processes and libraries make up the runtime environment, and verification in this context refers to the concrete techniques that verify a run and checks if it satisfies or defies the specified requirements. This study is specifically concerned with runtime verification systems, and how to make use of them in a limited-resource environment such as embedded systems or Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). It is of utmost importance to validate the conformance of a system, specially those in automotive and transportation industry. Vehicles such as trains are responsible to transport millions of people everyday which makes safety and reliability of the system the most prime component of bunch. Many manufacturers employs state of the art technologies and processes to endure the safety of the final product. Since most of the parts in vehicles (including trains) are computer controlled, the system (OS, application, control system, etc.) should undergo proper and comprehensive tests to single out even the smallest anomalies and misbehaviour. While traditional software testing can detect most of the anomalies, runtime verification can be used as a complementary method to passively monitor the running system and point out those behaviours and malfunctioning that are otherwise close to impossible to be caught. This thesis investigates runtime verification in train manufacturing, and propose a structured, contemporary process and system to monitor the train control system for conformance. Furthermore several methods of formal specification to be used for declaration of specification were explored and a suitable choice for this case study was suggested, in addition a proof of concept tool to demonstrate the entire process is developed as well.

  • Ramberg, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. 1992.
    Ocean Waves Estimation: An Artificial Intelligence Approach2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to solve the mathematical inverse problem of characterizing sea waves based on the responses obtained from a marine vessel sailing under certain sea conditions. By researching this problem the thesis contributes to the marine industry by improving products that are using ocean behavior for controlling ship's dynamics. Knowledge about the current state of the sea, such as the wave frequency and height, is important for navigation, control, and for the safety of a vessel. This information can be retrieved from specialized weather reports. However, such information is not at all time possible to obtain during a voyage, and if so usually comes with a certain delay. Therefore this thesis seeks solutions that can estimate on-line the waves' state using methods in the field of Artificial Intelligence. The specific investigation methods are Transfer Functions augmented with Genetic Algorithm, Artificial Neural Networks and Case-Based Reasoning. These methods have been configured and validated using the n-fold cross validation method. All the methods have been tested with an actual implementation. The algorithms have been trained with data acquired from a marine simulation program developed in Simulink. The methods have also been trained and tested using monitored data acquired from an actual ship sailing on the Baltic Sea as well as wave data obtained from a buoy located nearby the vessel's route. The proposed methods have been compared with state-of-the art reports in order evaluate the novelty of the research and its potential applications in industry. The results in this thesis show that the proposed methods can in fact be used for solving the inverse problem. It was also found that among the investigated methods it is the Transfer Function augmented with Genetic Algorithm which yields best results. This Master Thesis is conducted under the Master of Engineering Program in Robotics at Mälardalens högskola in Västerås, Sweden. The thesis was proposed by Q-TAGG R&D AB in Västerås, Sweden, a company which specializes in marine vessel dynamics research.

  • Winn, Olivia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Thekkemadathil Sivaram, Kiran
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Near-Infrared Spectral Measurements and Multivariate Analysis for Predicting Glass Contamination of Boiler Fuel2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project investigates how glass contamination in refuse-derived fuel for a fluidised bed boiler can be detected using near-infrared spectroscopy. It is motivated by the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil fuels with refuse-derived fuel. The intent was to develop a multivariate predictive model of near-infrared spectral data to detect the presence of glass cullet against a background material that represents refuse-derived fuel. Existing literature was reviewed to confirm the usage of near-infrared spectroscopy as a sensing technology and determine the necessity of glass detection. Four unique background materials were chosen to represent the main components in municipal solid waste: wood shavings, shredded coconut, dry rice and whey powder. Samples of glass mixed with the background material were imaged using near-infrared spectroscopy, the resulting data was pre-processed and analysed using partial least squares regression. It was shown that a predictive model for quantifying coloured glass cullet content in one of several background materials were reasonably accurate with a validation coefficient of determination of 0.81 between the predicted and reference data. Models that used data from a single type of background material, wood shavings, were more accurate. Models for quantifying clear glass cullet content were significantly less accurate. These types of models could be applied to predict coloured glass content in different kinds of background materials. However, the presence of clear glass in municipal solid waste, and thus refuse-derived fuel, limit the opportunities to apply these methods to the detection of glass contamination in fuel.

  • Schunnesson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    "Innehållet presenteras i samarbete med...": En något experimentell enkätstudie om attityder till native advertising och hur det påverkar konsumenters förtroende för nyheter och företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Current marketing discourse seems to be less and less about communicating to customers, and more and more about communicating with customers. Concurrently, traditional news companies are in a bit of a crisis where their business models are failing to compete with the growing colossus of “free” news that circulates the web. In the aftermath of all this, native advertising – an umbrella term for advertisements that look like editorial content – has emerged like a panacea. But while native advertisements might be effective where traditional advertisements are not, they also create a problematic ambiguity for the consumer – what is marketing and what is news?

    This thesis set off to investigate whether consumers perceive native advertisements as advertisements and how that might affect their trust towards the advertiser (company) and platform (news site). A questionnaire with a slightly experimental touch was constructed from various theoretical focal points; 207 respondents were exposed to three different types of native advertisements and then answered statements about how they perceived them on a 7-point Likert scale.

    The majority of the respondents considered all three of the native advertisements as sponsored content, with regard to some notable disparities between the examples. However, not all of them did; in one case, as much as 27 % stated they did not perceive the advertisement as sponsored content at all. There was also a unanimous preference towards traditional advertisements, particularly among those who felt they had a hard time distinguishing native advertisements from editorial content, and frequent occurrence of sponsored content on a news site weakened its general credibility among the respondents, as well as their trust in both advertiser and platform.

    This study is more exploratory than conclusive and should be interpreted as such, but from these results it seems that stakeholders should tread a lot more carefully when using native advertisements compared with traditional advertisements – particularly considering how they have become an industry norm in an almost dogmatic fashion. The consequences may not be as direct as a wound up CTR-ratio or increased advertising revenue, but trust is simply a too valuable currency to gamble with in an era filled with ‘post-truth’ and ‘fake news’.

  • Nilsson, Isabella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ulriksson, Jennifer
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Uppkopplad eller Avkopplad?: Kommunikationsteknologi i det moderna arbetslivet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Date: 2017-06-05

    Level: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 cr

    Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University

    Authors:                             Nilsson, Isabella                  Ulriksson, Jennifer

                                               920507                                930119

    Title: Connection versus Recovery? Communication technology in the modern working life. 

    Tutor: Magnus Hoppe

    Keywords: Smartphones, Information and communication technology, Boundary control, Psychological detachment, Work-Life Conflict, Stress, Job-Demand-Control.

    Research question: How do managers handle the positive and negative effects of communication technology?

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to critically analyse how managers in Sweden regulate the use of communication technology and how they perceive the effects of communication technology on the modern workplace. This contributes to an understanding regarding whether communication technology should be handled based on individuals being either digitally connected or able to mentally recover from work.

    Method: This study is of a qualitative approach, where semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight managers who is/ or has been, in charge of personnel. The study has a deductive approach and thus has its base in theory. Theories have consequently been used in the construction of the interview questions as well as in the creation of Modell 1.0.

    Conclusion: Policies restricting the use of communication technology is not desirable according to managers, this is due to it being a prerequisite for the working life of 2017. ‘Connection’ and ‘recovery’ are not dichotomies for all employees. Policies can be of use for employees who need help managing the boundaries between work and family. However, to reach a solution regarding the negative effects of communication technology, efforts should be put into the organizational culture rather than policies, which is depicted in Model 2.0. In that way, negative effects of communication technology can be fought off without risking the positive effects. Communication technology should not be handled based on the assumption that individuals are either digitally connected or able to mentally recover from work.

  • Living Tronêt, Linnea
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Elovaara, Isabella
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hansson Löjdqvist, John
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kvinnornas krig: Kvinnors berättelser om hur det är att vara kvinna i Försvarsmakten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kos, Cristoffer
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hermansson, Kristoffer
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    BUILDING AND SIMULATING DYNAMIC MODELS OF DISTRICT HEATING NETWORKS WITH MODELICA: Using Matlab to process data and automate modelling and simulation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems are common in Nordic countries today and accounts for a great portion of the heat demand. In Sweden, total district heating end use in the last years has been around 50 TWh and district heating accounts for roughly 50 % of the total heat demand. Suppliers of district heating must balance demand and supply, often in large and complex networks. Heat propagation can be in the range of hours and it is not known in detail how the heat will propagate during transient conditions. A dynamic model has been developed in OpenModelica and a method for modeling, handling data, simulating and visualizing the results of a district heating network was developed using Matlab as core. Data from Mälarenergi AB, a district heating producer and grid operator, was used for validation of the model. Validation shows that the model works well in predicting heat propagation and temperature distribution in the network and that the model can be scaled up to a large number of heat exchangers and pipes. The model is robust and can handle bi-directional and reversing flows in complex ring structures. It was concluded that OpenModelica together with Matlab is a good combination for creating models of district heating networks, as a high degree of standardization and automation can be achieved. This, together with visualization of the heat propagation, makes it useful for the understanding of the district heating network during transient conditions.

  • Heidari, Shayan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Economic Modelling of Floating Offshore Wind Power: Calculation of Levelized Cost of Energy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Floating offshore wind power is a relatively new technology that enables wind turbines to float above the sea level, tied by anchors at the seabed. The purpose of this work is to develop an economic model for the technology in order to calculate the total cost of a planned wind farm. Cost data are retrieved from reports and academic journals available online. Based on these data, a model in Microsoft Excel is developed which calculates the Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for floating wind power plants as a function of several input values. As an addition to this model, financing offshore projects are described using literature study and by doing interviews with three major companies, currently investing in offshore wind. As a result, the model allows the user to calculate Capital expenditures, Operating expenditures and LCOE for projects at any given size and at any given site. The current LCOE for a large floating offshore wind farm is indicated to be in the range of 138-147 £/MWh. The outline from interviews was that today there is no shortage of capital for funding wind projects. However, in order to attract capital, the governmental regulatory of that market has to be suitable since it has a crucial impact on price risks of a project.

  • Hedström, Erika
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Stålfackverk i hallbyggnader: En studie om sadelfackverk med tillhörande analys i FEM-Design2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this degree project was to look into the design process regarding steel trusses in hall buildings in order to find out what should be considered and what can be overlooked in the calculations to get the best result. In addition to the calculations, the need for fire protection of steel trusses in hall buildings was also investigated. This work was implemented through a literature study, interviews and calculations, both by hand and with the software FEM-Design. The interviews and a study visit at a manufacturer, were complements to the literature study to get a more trustworthy result. The calculation study was split into two parts; the first part contained the production of the cutting forces for the steel truss so that the values could be used in the second part. One section was analyzed in FEM-Design to calculate the load capacity of the upper chord, where the load capacity was calculated by three different methods. One of these, the general method, gives the most reliable result because it takes several flexural buckling into account. The utilization rate was 98 % with the general method compared to 89 % and 99 % using the other methods. The literature study about fire protection showed that several studies have come to the same result, e.g. that fire protection of steel trusses in hall buildings is unnecessary. The conclusions, thanks to this work, are that a problem in the design process is that there are no rules in the Eurocodes dealing with the capacity for non-double symmetrical cross-sections. Therefore, complex calculating programs are required today to use alternative methods from the Eurocodes. Fire protection, on the other hand, isn’t necessary because the problem isn’t that the roof structure rages. Human life is threatened long before by the heat radiation from the fire. In fact a person can only handle a short time of heat radiation of maximum 200°C while the steel frame doesn’t collapse until the temperature reached about 900-1000°C, that’s why the rules should be changed in Sweden.

  • Gustavsson, Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hagman, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Sanna, Cedervad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Konsten att kommunicera - bara informra?: En kvalitativ studie kring den interna digitala kommunikationens påverkan på organisationskommunikationen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Grip, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Skyttevall, Tobias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Bankvärldens framtid: En studie kring hur banker utnyttjar den teknologiska utvecklingen och digitaliseringen av tjänster, samt dess påverkan på kundrelationer, förtroende och lojalitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title:

    The Future of the Banking World: A Study Regarding How Banks Exploit the Technological Development of Services and Its Influence of Customer Relationships, Trust and Loyalty

     

    Level:

    Bachelor’s Thesis in Business Administration

     

    Institution:

    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University

     

    Authors: Sebastian Grip, Gustav Hellström and Tobias Skyttevall

    (92/04/22), (94/02/28), (95/05/21)

    Tutor:

    Hadjikhani, Annoch

     

    Date:

    05–06–2017

     

    Background:

    Creating a loyal customer by staying ahead and constantly being able to offer the latest on the market concerning digital services is important for survival for the banks. A war is taking place between the traditional banks and innovative up-and-comers, according to Thulin (2016). New regulations will be introduced which allow fintech companies access to customer information, as banks must release third party players into their systems. This has not been the case before and has hampered competitors to the established banks.

     

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this study is to create an increased understanding of how technological developments affect customer relations, trust and loyalty between banks and customers. The study is presented from a bank perspective concerning how banks utilise the digitisation of services.

    Research questions:

    • How do banks adapt to the constant technological development and digitisation regarding the creation of future customer relationships?
    • How do banks create trust and loyalty with the help of the technological advancement?

     

    Methodology:

    This study was conducted through a qualitative research method. The empirical material was collected through semi structured interviews with five unique respondents. Theory is collected through mainly scientific articles, but also via electronic and literary sources. As a result of the theoretical framework, methodology and empiricism the study will conclude with a discussion and finally to the conclusion of the study.

    Conclusion:

    The following conclusion is that banks have to continue to develop digital tools to be able to continue to improve and maintain customer relationships, including the creation of loyalty and trust. This study shows that the banks’ approaches to the constant development and digitalisation that takes place will be of value to be able to create strong customer relationships. A continuous effort has to be made by the banks to develop and improve the management of relations, both digitally and physically.

    Suggestions to further researching:

    It would be interesting to study this issue from a customer perspective concerning what the banks consider to be the most important aspects from a customer perspective. Furthermore, it would be interesting to examine if the creation of trust and loyalty are in line with the reality, as well as the impact of the impending PSD2 and GDPR directives.

     

    Keywords:

    Trust, loyalty, digitisation, bank, e-CRM, PSD2

  • Andersson, André
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Molin, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Procurement Policy: A Conceptual Design to Optimize Purchasing Policy and Safety Stocks2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Study question:

    How can the process for article classification and procurement be improved in a new implementable inventory policy with the objective to reduce inventory costs.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this degree project is to design a procurement policy which helps to minimize the annual capital tied up in inventory.

    Method:

    The procurement policy is created by a mixed method with a focus on the quantity inputs of secondary data and minor involvements of qualitative from primary data. Inventory management formulas from the theoretical framework constitute the conducted model. With the ground work from theory and inputs from interviews, the research approach has been deductive and followed the guidelines of Ali and Birley (1999). ABB Capacitors is the case study of this degree project which the model has been tested and verified upon.

    Conclusion:

    The degree project resulted in procurement policy which includes a calculation model and inventory analysis which has shown success from the theoretical comparisons, and it indicates that the procurement policy is functioning as intended. Mathematical formulas are mere tools in a procurement policy, experience and know-how are two pieces which importance should not be neglected.Weaknesses of this policy concern inventory capacity because the calculations’ purpose is to minimize inventory cost by procuring to an economic optimum. There is a chance that physical structure allows fewer quantities than what is financially best. The policy is recommended for manufacturing industries.

  • Babic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Siktanalys och förbättringsförslag för dumper2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this assignment was to analyse the visibility problems that occur for the operator of Volvos A40 hauler and generate suggestions for improvement. A modified product development process based on Ullmans model was used to create basic requirements for the solution and generate concepts with said requirements. The concepts were then evaluated and the highest scoring concept, which included a camera, was chosen to develop. The results also include calculations of the cameras desired focal length and object range, to achieve the defined field of view. An analysis of the result and project in general are provided after that, as well as the conclusions and recommendations for further research.

  • Karlsson, Tobias
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mikroplast skapar makroproblem: Grafik över ett förlopp som inte syns2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How does microplastics end up in the Baltic sea? Which are the sources, how does the process look and how does it affect the environment and the wildlife? This thesis examines how this process can be portrayed in an accurate way while still satisfying information requirements, the context and the target audience. The focus is on how complex processes are visualized in a way that promote understanding while creating interest.

    The study began with research based on the requirements set for the material and continued with theory formation to guide the design process. In addition, three similar artefacts related to the subject were analysed. The design process resulted in a prototype that was tested on the target audience to see the efficiency and to identify shortcomings. The results of these methods influenced the design and the shortcomings found were improved. It resulted in a final design that could be evaluated.   

    The conclusion of the study is that processes of this kind can advantageously present the entities in an accurate order with a clearly marked starting point and graphical codes that show the interaction between entities. To visualize a complex process with numerous elements can result in a messy material, therefore key elements in the graphic should stand out to facilitate perception and create an overview of the artefact as a whole. The design of a process can be aesthetically appealing, however, purely decorative elements should be avoided.

  • Fuentes, Cristopher
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Peralta, Christopher
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Miljövänlig kyla: En studie för framtagning av verktyg för att underlätta val av olika kylsystem2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study compared four different cooling systems and analyzed the competitiveness in those systems regarding electricity consumption, environmental impact and life cycle cost analysis. The assignment was given from the consultant company Ramböll who believed in these systems design as a solution to minimize the energy consumption in cooling systems. The purpose of the study was to facilitate the selection of cooling system by finding a key ratio for profitability in terms of energy consumption. This makes it easier to select one of these systems in project planning. A representative building model was built in the energy simulation program IDA ICE. From these result an energy profile was achieved.

     

    The energy profile was then used in another simulation program called Polysun were detailed system regulations could be made. By programing the controllers to regulate the distribution in an efficient way the energy consumption was minimized and matches the building cooling demand. The simulation was done for one full year and the obtained total energy consumption for each system, it was then used to calculate the operational cost. The life cycle cost analysis is a tool that compare each system costs during its lifetime. A depth analysis was also done regarding the sensitivity of changes in the profitability for the systems, by applying different electrical price and cost of capital.

     

    The study shows that the systems with different borehole storage solutions proves to be effective systems for covering the building cooling demand with a significant lower electricity consumption, compared to the system with a chiller. The different borehole storage systems also contribute to cover some parts of the heat demand, since the stored heat needs to be used in order to make the borehole storage functional. By analyzing the cooling systems in a comparative perspective, the most effective solution is identified from an economic and environmental point of view. The cooling system that only contained a borehole storage was the solution that distinguished the most regarding total electricity consumption and environmental impact. This system resulted in being the most profitable cooling system between the compared systems. The combined system with a borehole storage system and a heat pump solution was also proven to be an effective cooling system, additionally with an advantage of providing parts of the hot water demand in the building. 

  • Eklund, Malin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Habib, Mariana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Energikartläggning av två skolor i Västerås: Undersökning av möjligheter till effektivare energianvändning på Rönnbyskolan och Rönnby förskola2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rönnbyskolan and Rönnby förskola is a school area situated in the city of Västerås, Sweden that consist of a total of five buildings. The main buildings are built in 1973 which makes their energy use of interest. Due to the individual goals for Sweden to lower its energy use by 2020, the city of Västerås has begun an energy efficiency process to reduce energy use in potential buildings. In this degree project, a survey of the buildings’ energy consumption has been reviewed and possible energy reduction methods have been presented. This was made by studying the surveys of the buildings ventilation systems, the heating systems, the envelope and the buildings application by taking measurements. The results from the measurements have been studied and confirmed with the literature study and suggestions of energy effective solutions are presented based on energy calculations. Based on the results, four different technological installations and four building engineering actions have been evaluated. The calculations were supplemented with a model built and simulated in the simulation tool IDA ICE. Economical aspects were taken into account, which shows the connection between energy savings and economic profit. Due to high investment costs, only a few actions were cost effective. The result of the study showed that the buildings can reduce their energy consumption by 17 % or 34 kWh/ m2, year using the measures that turned out profitable.

  • Cragfors, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Holmgren, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Johansson, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Är man stor måste man vara snäll: En fallstudie i hur ICA Gruppen och MAXI-butiker samverkar i hållbarhetsarbetet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research questions:

    • What motivates ICA Gruppen and the MAXI stores for their sustainability efforts and how do their sustainability goals differ?
    • How do the sustainability efforts of ICA Gruppen integrate throughout the Maxi stores?
    • What strategies characterize the sustainability efforts of ICA Gruppen and the MAXI stores?

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the interaction between ICA Gruppen and the independent MAXI stores of central Sweden, concerning their sustainability efforts.

    Method: This qualitative study with an abductive approach is based on primary data from five separate interviews with corporate managers of four MAXI stores and one of the CSR managers at the head office of the organisation. In addition to the interviews, scientific articles on relevant theories, research reports on sustainability efforts, and adequate literature have been studied. In order to evaluate the results, the empirical data has been analysed by coding.

    Conclusion: Both ICA Gruppen and the MAXI stores have financial as well as philanthropic incentives for their sustainability efforts. What differs is that the CSR efforts of the stores take place in the immediate vicinity of the customer, while ICA Gruppen wants to make an effort for the world. Through dialogue and democratic processes, common goals are set. There are guidelines and various digital tools as well as coaches to assist the stores. The stores’ CSR initiatives take place more spontaneously than at ICA Gruppen, where the work is more long-term and strategic, with a view on how the brand can be strengthened.

  • Bäcklund, Alexander
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Bill
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Levander, Simon
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Generation Ys drivkrafter på arbetsplatsen: En studie av intern marknadsföring från ett medarbetarperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning – ”Generation Ys drivkrafter på arbetsplatsen”

    Datum: 2/6-2017

    Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi, 15 ECTS

    Institution: Akademin för Ekonomi, Samhälle och Teknik, EST, Mälardalens Högskola

    Författare: Alexander Bäcklund, Bill Samuelsson och Simon Levander

    Titel: Generation Ys drivkrafter på arbetsplatsen

    Handledare: Kerstin Nilsson

    Nyckelord: Employer branding, Generation Y, Intern marketing, Loyalty, Social Exchange Theory.

    Frågeställning: Vilka incitament är det som påverkar den anställde att stanna på en arbetsplats?Matchar företagets employer branding-arbete med de anställdas motivationsfaktorer?

    Syfte: Syftet med undersökningen är att förklara de incitament som leder till att medarbetare väljer att stanna inom organisationen och jämföra det med företagets human resource-arbete för att behålla anställda.

    Metod: Undersökningen var av kvalitativ karaktär. Medarbetare samt human resource-chefer på tre företag intervjuades. Intervjumallen baserades på de valda teorierna samt den sekundära information som varit till underlag till studien. Intervjuerna analyserades genom en innehållsanalys och resultatet presenterades i de teman som varit återkommande i empirin.

    Slutsats: Undersökningen bekräftade den tidigare empirin om hur Generation Y som medarbetare karaktäriseras. Generationen är uppväxta med många möjligheter och är den högst utbildade generationen. Detta ger Generation Y större makt på arbetsmarknaden. Undersökningen visade att medarbetarna inom denna generation var mer drivna av kunskap än av finansiella mål. Att låta medarbetarna växa organiskt är därför ett av de viktigaste incitamenten för ökad lojalitet. Därför bör human resource-avdelningarna nischa sig mot vad Generation Y efterfrågar eftersom de är en majoritet på arbetsmarknaden.

  • Bjram, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Barzani, Solin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    CUSTOMER UNCERTAINTY: The relationship between psychic distance and consumer behavior towards purchasing from foreign online retailers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides an examination of the link between psychic distance and consumers’ behavior towards purchasing from foreign online retailers. A self-administered online survey, with an observation unit of 123 respondents is provided for data collection. The findings from the data imply that psychic distance is valid from a level of high uncertainty. The level of uncertainty decreases as customers gain knowledge externally, access of relevant knowledge builds trust for the customer with the foreign online retailer.