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  • Achrenius, William
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bergman Törnkvist, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    GRAPH GENERATION ALGORITHMS FOR THE GRADE DECISION CANVAS2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Development in the field of software architecture, from the early days in the mid-80’s, has been significant. From purely technical descriptions to decision based architectural knowledge, software architecture has seen fundamental changes to its methodologies and techniques. Architectural knowledge is a resource that is managed and stored by companies, this resource is valuable because it can be reused and analysed to improve future development. Companies today are interested in the reasoning behind the software architecture. This reasoning is mainly formulated through the architectural decisions made during development. For architectural decisions to be easier to analyse they need to be stored in a way that enables use of common analytical tools so that comparisons between decisions are consistent and relevant. Additionally, it is also important to have enough data, which leads us to the problem that, preferably, all the individual architectural knowledge cases must be structured and stored. To do this we present a tool that uses graph generation algorithms to generate architectural knowledge as graphs based on an architectural decision canvas called GRADE. This enables multiple decision cases to be encoded through graphs that can be used to analyse relationships and balances between different architectural knowledge elements represented through nodes and edges within a graph.

  • Alape Vivekananda, Ashish
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Test Generation For Digital Circuits – A Mapping Study On VHDL, Verilog and SystemVerilog2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have proposed different methods for testing digital logic circuits. The need for testing digital logic circuits has become more important than ever due to the growing complexity of such systems. During the development process, testing is focusing on design defects as well as manufacturing and wear out type of defects. Failures in digital systems could be caused by design errors, the use of inherently probabilistic devices, and manufacturing variability. The research in this area has focused also on the design of digital logic circuit for achieving better testability. In addition, automated test generation has been used to create tests that can quickly and accurately identify faulty components. Examples of such methods are the Ad Hoc techniques, Scan Path Technique for testable sequential circuits, and the random scan technique. With the research domain becoming more mature and the number of related studies increasing, it is essential to systematically identify, analyse and classify the papers in this area. The systematic mapping study of testing digital circuits performed in this thesis aims at providing an overview of the research trends in this domain and empirical evidence. In order to restrict the scope of the mapping study we only focus on some of the most widely-used and well-supported hardware description languages (HDLs): Verilog, SystemVerilog and VHDL. Our results suggest that most of the methods proposed for test generation of digital circuits are focused on the behavioral level and Register Transfer Levels. Fault independent test generation is the most frequently applied test goal and simulation is the most common experimental test evaluation method. Majority of papers published in this area are conference papers and the publication trend shows a growing interest in this area. 63% of papers execute the test method proposed. An equal percentage of papers experimetnatlly evaluate the test method they propose. From the mapping study we inferred that papers that execute the test method proposed, evaluate them as well.

  • Alshiekh, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    OPTIMIZING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING SYSTEMS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of network devices in cloud data-centers consume huge amount of energy. This has emerged as a matter of concern for data center operators. Cloud computing finds its application in various elds such as telecommunication, multimedia, video gaming and etc. Most of these applications require a timing guarantee which are reffed to as real-time applications. Once cloud providers aim to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) parameters such as deadlines, more hard-ware resources are required because of using a higher number of servers, switches, higher network bandwidth, more cooling and power distribution systems. As a consequence of the use of a higher number of devices and communication links, power consumption and operational cost. This thesis aims to optimize the network energy consumption, which in turn results in reduction of the energy consumption of a data-center while respecting the network constraints. The energy reduction of the network is achieved by turning off idle network devices and playing with the allocation of the workload among the servers to minimize the communication load. Thereby, it increases the number of idle devices. Our experimental results demonstrate a full performance by using Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol. OSPF creates a routing table to nd the nest tasks paths and the address of the idle devices. It provides 22.75% reduction in energy consumption by applying Elastic Tree mechanism.

    The performance of the method is also examined in terms of the network load. The results reveal a trade-off between network energy consumption and the load of the network. The results show that although the Elastic Tree mechanism optimizes energy consumption of the network, it increases the network load.

  • Miftari, Tringa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    COLLABORATION BETWEEN PROFESSIONALS: AN EXPLORATION OF HOW CRIMES AGAINST CHILDREN ARE MANAGED: A case study at a Swedish Children's Advocacy Center2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hussain, Aliya
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    AN EVALUATION OF MODEL-BASED TESTING IN INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE: FROM SYSTEM MODELLING TO TEST GENERATION.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular systems have become intensively sophisticated and their software content has increased swiftly in this era. While developing the vehicular software, the requirements which should be satisfied are more complex in comparison to other types of software. As vehicular systems interact with physical processes, the high reliability of the system is always demanded. This is making testing a difficult but necessary step in developing reliable systems. Due to the competition and customer demands companies tends to update the software systems of their products as often as possible. Such demands put increased pressure on making testing more efficient and cost-effective. Traditionally, software testing is performed manually and in an ad-hoc manner. Moreover, manual testing becomes costlier when software is updated often. Hence there is the need for using techniques which can complement such manual techniques.

     

    Model-based testing (MBT) is a test automation technique which promises to increase reliability, understandability, and maintainability of test cases by the use of test models, automatic test generation and execution. MBT[WU1]  is the process of test generation from design models of the system requirements and functionality. There are studies in the literature showing initial results on the advantages of using MBT with some promising results. Such promises are inspiring companies to take an interest in adopting the MBT approach. This thesis aims to evaluate the use of MBT in industrial practice and investigates the automated testing approach and its applicability in the context of Volvo CE.

     

    The results of this thesis show that structural and behavior models can be created based on functional architecture and requirements of a real subsystem provided by Volvo-CE. These models are generated in Conformiq Creator MBT tool. Test cases are generated using different model coverage criteria.  The results suggest that activity and structure diagrams, developed using MBT, are useful for describing the test specification of an accelerator pedal control function subsystem. The use of MBT results in less number of test cases compared to manual testing performed by industrial engineers for these subsystems. We showed that MBT can be used for system modelling and test case generation in the vehicular domain.

     [WU1]MBT is the process of testing design models of the system requirements and functionality.

     

  • Smajlovic, Emina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Krekic, Amina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    CONSISTENT INTEGRATION OF SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE MODELS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to numerous domain needs, aspects and requirements, various preferences and diversity of organizations, development of complex embedded systems mostly requires using many different tools and modeling languages. Since corresponding data is repeated in multiple models, at different levels of abstraction and expressed in different modeling languages, it is very challenging to keep these models consistent and up to date as the system evolves. A case study from one of Volvo CE’s vehicles has been used to identify and investigate the relation between models in an actual case. With the aim of improving the development process of embedded systems, the gap between models describing different aspects of the system has been addressed. An existing example of one system function has been analyzed and discussed. SysML models and Simulink models of the function were examined in order to identify dependencies between them. After the dependencies were found, they have been generalized into a list of various dependency types. During the case study, it has been noticed that these models are not one-to-one related which makes the automatic conversion between them harder, and a number of gaps between SysML and Simulink models were identified. Further, possible ways of improvements are proposed in order to achieve a consistent integration of system and software models at different levels of abstraction.

  • Roslund, Anton
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    USING DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE FUNCTIONS TO ACCOUNT FOR HETEROGENEOUS CONTEXT FOR TASKS IN DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR PLANNING2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes a way to represent domain knowledge as functions. Those functions can be composed and used for better predicting time needed for a task. These functions can aggregate data from different systems to provide a more complete view of the contextual environment without the need to consolidate data into one system. These functions can be crafted to make a more precise time prediction for a specific task that needs to be carried out in a specific context. We describe a possible way to structure and model data that could be used with the functions.

    As a proof of concept, a prototype was developed to test an envisioned scenario with simulated data. The prototype is compared to predictions using min, max and average values from previous experience. The result shows that domain knowledge, represented as functions can be used for improved prediction.

    This way of defining functions for domain knowledge can be used as a part of a CBR system to provide decision support in a problem domain where information about context is available. It is scalable in the sense that more context can be added to new tasks over time and more functions can be added and composed. The functions can be validated on old cases to assure consistency.

  • Ajmaya, Davi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eklund, Dennis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Machine learning based pedestrian event monitoring using IMU and GPS2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the behavior of pedestrians in road transportation is critical to maintain a safe en- vironment. Accidents on road transportation are one of the most common causes of death today. As autonomous vehicles start to become a standard in our society, safety on road transportation becomes increasingly important. Road transportation is a complex system with a lot of dierent factors. Identifying risky behaviors and preventing accidents from occurring requires better under- standing of the behaviors of the dierent persons involved. In this thesis the activities and behavior of a pedestrian is analyzed. Using sensor data from phones, eight dierent events of a pedestrian are classied using machine learning algorithms. Features extracted from phone sensors that can be used to model dierent pedestrian activities are identied. Current state of the art literature is researched to nd relevant machine learning algorithms for a classication model. Two models are implemented using two dierent machine learning algorithms: Articial Neural Network and Hid- den Markov Model. Two dierent experiments are conducted where phone sensor data is collected and classied using the models, achieving a classication accuracy of up to 93%.

  • Larsson, Carl
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Case Representation Methodology for a Scalable Case-Based Reasoning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology and a growing field of research. CBR uses past experiences to help solve new problems the system faces. To do so CBR is comprised of a few core parts, such as case representation, case library, case retrieval, and case adaptation. This thesis will focus on the case representation aspect of CBR systems and presents a scalable case representation for big data environments. One aspect of focus on big data environments is also the focus of a MapReduce environment. MapReduce is a software framework enabling the use of a Map and Reduce function to be executed over a network cluster.

    This thesis conducts a systematic literature review to gain an understanding of the current case representations used in various CBR systems. The systematic literature review presents two major types of case representations, hierarchical and vector-based representations. However, the review also finds that the field of case representation research to be lacking. Most papers were focused on other aspects of CBR systems, mainly case retrieval.

    This thesis also proposes the design of a scalable and distributed case representation. The proposed case representation is of a hierarchical nature and is designed in such a way that it can utilize a MapReduce environment for working with the case library in components such as case retrieval. In the proof of concept, part of the case representation was implemented and tested using two data-sets. One data-set contains EEG sensor data measuring sleepiness while the other contains information about employees health and time taken off work. These tests show the case representation adequately representing the respective data-sets.

    The strength of the proposed case representation method is further discussed using a cross of papers. These papers cover the use of XML structured data in both CBR and MapReduce showing how this case representation is suitable for both uses. This shows strong capabilities of the case representation being further implemented and the addition of a case retrieval method to utilize it.

  • Bengtsson, Philip
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Utveckling av monteringsbar Automationsstation: Produktrealisering av automatiseringsprocess inom byggindustrin2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automated processes in the construction industry are made today by prefabricating the building items and then transport it to the building site. Instead of producing the building items and transport them to the building site there is an idea of bringing the automated process to the construction site is, as it would generate huge profits by reducing unnecessary resource waste. However, it is a difficult challenge to implement and therefore it has not got a big impact today.

    The standard method to build reinforcement cages today is a tiresome job for construction workers. The method to build this cages is by means of lashing reinforcements bar on sight or in be prefabricated in advance. To avoid this manual work on sight, an idea from the companies Skanska and Robotdalen is to build an automated facility that can perform this work. This idea based on today's technology can be a way to automate a process at the construction site.

    The objective of this facility is to enable this station to be able to be mounted and transportable. This work is based on investigating via a pre-study, how it would be possible to product realize this concept of mountable automation station for reinforcement cages. The problem that arises is that an automation station requires repeatable accuracy and very fine accuracy. That is, the automation system used to drive the station can find itself back to exactly the same position repeatedly. This places enormous demands on the design that it has to be extremely rigid in order not to be deformed.

    A smaller prototype of this automated station has shown that the concept works. This work is based on continuing the concept of this project and examining how a full-scale prototype of the construction can look as well as concepts for manufacturing and find solutions for possible design problems.

    To study this, the strategy for research been to carry out a case study for the development of this construction. The study has followed a product development model similar to the waterfall method. This means that the work has followed a step by step plan. Many steps and concepts along the way have been evaluated with interviews and with many experienced designers in the industry. Many design areas have been very special and specific, which means it has been difficult to find general data in those areas. This means that a lot of the conclusions have to been put together from the experienced interviewees.

    The end result of this work is a product realized model of the automation station. The model is in the form of a gantry. The gantry can be assembled into removable beams that can be placed in a 40 foot container.

    The conclusion of this work is that, although the concept of the design has been discussed with several parties there still remains some practical testing. The unevenness system for recurring accuracy remains to be seen if it works. The calculations that are made should also be double- check aw well complete with calculations that may not be done in this work but are required to realize the concept. Even though there needs some testing, the concept is still considered feasible. This means that it could be a possible application to automate an on-site construction process.

  • Elamidi, Sokaina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Amir Taher, Dalia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Social hållbarhet och dagvattenhantering i Linköping: En studie om Parken Paradiset och Broparken i Vallastaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several aspects which need to be considered while planning a building to achieve sustainable environment for people's well-being. One of the significant aspects is social sustainability which is largely about promoting everyone regardless of the circumstances. In a socially sustainable city, there should be access to meeting places to improve social life. The Park Paradiset and the Broparken in Vallastaden were designed to improve socializing between people. The parks in this work are examined based on social aspects; interaction and identity. In addition, a park should be designed based on different aspects to suit different people. This work considers aspects such as recreation/ leisure, cultural identity, accessibility and safety. Beyond these aspects, the stormwater management in the parks is also studied. These studies were conducted with systematic literature studies, site visits, survey and qualitative interviews. A site visit was in Vallastaden, where the authors explored the district and handed out survey to the resident. The interview for the Park Paradise was conducted with Ulrika Gunnman from White Arkitekter and the interview for the Broparken was conducted with Lina Moström from 02landskap. The result shows that the architects worked differently to achieve the social aspects. It can be concluded that Park Paradiset fulfills the aspects better than the Broparken based on survey results, site visits and the interviews. The results further show that the stormwater management for the parks consists of open systems. Open systems have even been current in the Park Paradiset. The open ditches in the park leads the water in the transverse dikes to a longitudinal dike. It can be concluded that the architects utilized stormwater management better in Broparken compared to the Park Paradiset, when the architects transformed the ordinary ditch into something attractive and gave the park a character. 

  • Ljungberg, Åsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors beredskap i mötet med patienter som lider av psykisk ohälsa och missbruk2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ebrahimi, Fozia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    SEXUELL HÄLSA EFTER BARNAFÖDANDE: LITTERATURSTUDIE AV PARS UPPLEVELSER2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Wahlqvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Perrault, Desireé
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av information vid abort: PM för en kvalitativ studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Wikström, Madelene
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Colm, Susanne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att utföra munvård: Ur vårdpersonalens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with declined oral health condition experienced discomfort in the oral cavity which affected their well-being and their participation in social activities. The risk with a declined oral health condition is several but present research shows a connection between declined oral health condition and systematic diseases. Aim: The aim was to describe the healthcare professional’s experiences of performing oral health care. Method: A systematic review of interpretive research with descriptive synthesis has been conducted through qualitative articles with caring science perspective has been analyzed. Result: The themes that showed were challenges to performing mouth care and a will to do the right thing that effected the performance of oral health care. Under these main themes a total of six subthemes emerged that described the experiences of the health care professional’s performance of oral health care. The experiences that turned out were about prioritization of the oral care. That the performance was complicated when it came to patients who had limited abilities. Poor knowledge was a barrier because the healthcare professional’s felt unsure in performing the oral health care. Discomfort were also something that arose in the results where the healthcare professional’s experienced discomfort associated with oral care. A feeling of wanting to care about the patient’s integrity and an experience of well-being when they performed the oral care were found under the theme a will to do the right thing. Conclusion: The conclusion showed that the health care professional’s need knowledge to feel safe in their performance of oral health care and that their personal experiences had a big influence on their performance.

  • Al-Siyamer, Akram Dahham
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Energieffektivisering av Byggnader: En kartläggning av energianvändningen på två förskolor och två skolor i Västerås med hjälp av timvärden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of society towards renewable energy sources, the target in Sweden is 100% energy supply from renewable energy sources by the year 2040. This requires increased energy production from renewable, but also energy optimization of existing buildings. The housing and service sector which includes households and the public services account for about 40 % of Sweden’s total energy use. It is estimated that preschools and schools have an area of 35 million m² which have an energy savings potentials of 0,7-1 TWh in the electricity consumption and 0,9 TWh in energy use for heating. With regard to energy optimization, it is not only interesting to investigate a buildings total energy use on an annual or monthly basis, but also on shorter time intervals such hourly energy use, because of the uneven energy production of some renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. The purpose of this work is to study the energy usage for some of Västerås preschools and schools, and on the basis of it propose some energy optimization actions. To achieve this a literature study has been carried out to get knowledge about how energy usage is at preschools and schools, as well as to gain insight into what actions are appropriate to perform and how they savings look like. Other than that four objects has been studied, two preschools and two schools, one of each kind were chosen amongst those with the highest energy usage among Västerås city’s preschools and schools and one of each kind amongst those with the lowest usage. The annual energy usage have been calculated and been compared to the actual usage, and the monthly and hourly energy usage for district heating have been studied as well as the electricity usage along the day for different periods. The studied periods and energy usage shows that the energy usage, both for the monthly and hourly,  for the district heating moves with regards to the outdoor temperature with some exceptions. As for the electricity usage it shows that the energy usage is even with some exceptions and there is a difference between different outdoor temperature intervals. Some conclusions could be drawn among others that the objects with higher energy usage where older buildings and the objects with lower energy usage where newer ones. There are some energy optimizations actions for the objects which would lower the energy consumption, both for district heating and electricity usage.

  • Sjölander, Katrine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Dawood Ramirez, Tamara
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Abort på en kombinerad kvinnoavdelning: Kvalitativ intervjustudie om kvinnors upplevelser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Baggås, Rebecca
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ahlqvist, Robyn
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    När tillvaron förändras: Yngre kvinnors upplevelse av att genomgå bröstcancerbehandling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer är den vanligaste cancerformen i världen bland kvinnor. Yngre kvinnor får ofta sämre prognos än äldre eftersom de ofta utvecklar en aggressiv cancerform och svarar sämre på behandling. Trots att bröstcancer är den vanligaste cancerformen är forskning underrepresenterat bland yngre kvinnor med bröstcancer. I sjuksköterskans omvårdnad ingår ansvar att ge information och stöd under behandlingsperioden. Det är viktigt att förstå yngre kvinnors lidande för att lättare möta deras behov. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva yngre kvinnors upplevelser av att genomgå behandling mot bröstcancer. Metod: Kvalitativ litteraturstudie med beskrivande syntes. Resultat: Analysen resulterade i två teman. Första temat var betydelsen av stöd med subteman upplevelse av att få stöd, upplevelse av otillräckligt stöd och upplevelse av att själva stötta familjen. Andra temat var sjukdomens påverkan på kroppen med subteman upplevelse av kroppsförändringaroch upplevelse av påverkad fertilitet.Slutsats: Patienterna upplevde sig begränsade till följd av behandling, de upplevde sorg och oro. Patienterna hade svårt att stötta familjen när de själva behövde stöd. Stöd från anhöriga, familj och sjuksköterska var viktigt för dem. Dock upplevde några av kvinnor att det emotionella stödet från sjukvårdspersonalen samt information om behandling var bristfällig. Patienterna upplevde också kroppspåverkan till följd av behandling negativt.

  • Ringkvist, Lotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Upplevelsen av att må bra: Nittio personers berättelser ur fenomenologiskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning om välmående utifrån hedoniskt och eudaimoniskt perspektiv har bidragit med teorier om välmående. Dock har få fenomenologiska studier gjorts i ämnet. Positiv psykologi vill stärka den psykiska hälsan hos individer, så också denna studie som undersökt de gemensamma komponenterna i människors upplevelse av att må bra. Sextio kvinnor, 30 män, 18 år och äldre från fem delar av världen skrev berättelser, svarade på kvalitativ online enkät eller intervjuades. Berättelserna analyserades inspirerat av strukturell fenomenologisk metod med kvantitativa inslag som resulterade i fyra teman (a) interaktion, (b) rörelse, (c) återhämtning, (d) yttre och inre balans. Dessa gav en holistisk bild av att må bra med återhämtning och delar ur yttre och inre balans som nya inslag från existerande välmåendemodeller. Resultatet kan ge insikter om välmående, användbart inom arbeten med människor. Vidare kan resultatet prövas och bidra till ett självrapporteringsformulär om en individs välmående ur ett helhetsperspektiv.

  • Agerskans, Natalie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ergonomisk kartläggning av internt logistikflöde - Med förbättringsförslag: En fallstudie genomförd på ett företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is firstly to identify risks of ergonomic strain in a future internal logistics flow and secondly propose how to avoid these risks by applying LEAN methodology and a new logistics solution. In order to identify causes for problems and to find improvement opportunities the following issues have been addressed:

    1)    What tasks in the studied logistics flow lead to risks of ergonomic strain?

    2)    How can the studied company implement the LEAN methodology to improve ergonomics in the material handling?

    3)    How can a new general and more ergonomic logistic solution for material handling look like for the studied company?

    Method: The study has been conducted based on a case at an industrial company. Data has been collected through interviews and observations at the company, visits at two other industries and through a literature survey. To identify and assess various ergonomic risks, the RAMP tool has been applied.

    Study result: The study resulted in an ergonomic survey for a selected internal logistics flow with suggestions on how to improve ergonomics in the studied company´s material handling. The ergonomic survey showed that several work tasks cause an increased risk for the operators to develop strain injuries and therefore improvements are required. Heavy lifting, pulling and sliding work pieces and incorrect working positions were shown to have the most adverse impact on good ergonomics. To reduce these risks - without major changes to the current factory layout and existing workflow - work rotation, various tools/aids and modifications of technical equip-ment can be implemented. Proposals are presented on how a new and more ergonomic material handling solution can be achieved at the studied company through the introduction of a pickup station and a “supermarket”. A suggested framework is also presented for how the company can use LEAN methodology in order to achieve better ergonomics in the material handling process.

    Conclusion: The ergonomic survey indicated that improvements are required in order not to risk strain injuries for the operators. Suggestions have been made for how the ergonomic situation can be improved.

    Recommendations: The studied company is recommended to take measures with respect to the ergonomic risks identified. Before the proposed improvements can be introduced, studies are required to evaluate the improvement proposals from other than ergonomic aspects as well as performing a RAMP analysis. The studied company is also recommended to investigate the possibility of introducing the proposed LEAN framework.

    Keywords: Strain ergonomics, RAMP, Picking station, Work environment, Internal logistics, Material handling

  • Olad, Hamdi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Housibian, Arminé
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Mottagandet av nyanlända elever i grundskolan: En kvalitativ studie om hur lärare tar emot nyanlända elever i grundskolan.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att få djupare kunskap om hur lärare arbetar för att inkludera nyanlända elever i skolan samt hur lärarna anpassar lektionerna efter nyanlända elevers behov. För att få svar på våra forskningsfrågor användes en kvalitativ metod. Vi intervjuade totalt åtta lärare från två olika skolor med sju intervjufrågor. Studiens resultat visar hur läraren anpassar lektionerna och inkluderar eleven i lektionen för att elevens inlärning ska kunna utvecklas. En del lärare hade svårt med att anpassa och inkludera de nyanlända eleverna under lektionerna.

  • Bröms, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    I effektiviseringens kölvatten: En kvalitativ studie om gymnasielärare i en marknadiserad skola2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens gymnasieskola präglas av effektivisering och marknadisering. Med en ramfaktorteoretisk analys undersöker studien en grupp lärares upplevelser av vad som utgör pedagogiska utmaningar i den egna verksamheten där effektivisering och vinstintressen styr. Resultatet påvisar vikten av en fungerande organisation anpassad till de behov eleverna har och vikten av rektors pedagogiska ledarskap. Samtidigt beskriver studien även den komplexa roll och de spänningsfält som läraryrket idag befinner sig i.

  • Carling, Evelina
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Swedes' Attitudes to the Use of English in Swedish Advertising2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    English is commonly used on the Swedish consumer market today. Not only is English present in Swedish print media but it is also highly present in everyday communication amongst Swedes. The aim of this paper is to find out why English is often picked for promotion purposes and to find out if young Swedes have more positive attitudes towards English than Swedish – Both in general and when it comes to advertising purposes. This study investigates the possible advantages as well as disadvantages of using English in logotypes and brand names aimed at a target group that are learners of English as a second or foreign language. The study was performed using a questionnaire divided into two parts. The first part aimed at finding out about the informants’ knowledge of English and attitudes towards English. The second part was about Swedes’ preferences regarding English versus Swedish brand names. To do so six fictional logotypes in pairs of two’s were created: one with all Swedish text elements and one with all English text elements. The informants were to pick their favorite logotype and motivate why they picked it. The results showed that Swedes generally have positive attitudes towards English and that they prefer English brand names to Swedish ones when the English used is on a certain linguistic level. A possible conclusion is that Swedes like English better for commercial purposes but only as long as they experience some familiarity with the words or expressions used.

  • Lundström, Marie
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Teaching English in Multilevel Classes: How do teachers at Swedish secondary schools face this challenge?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how teachers of English in secondary schools experience the challenge of adapting their instruction to meet their students’ differences and needs as learners. Its ultimate purpose was to provide useful information for the development of English teaching and learning practices. As a means to achieve this, six active secondary school teachers of English, working at different schools located in Central Sweden, were interviewed. The method used to collect data was semi-structured interviews, rendering the study qualitative in nature. The concrete research questions posed were the following: What attitudes do the English teachers have towards ability grouping? How do the English teachers experience the challenge of instructing students with different needs as learners? The results indicated that there were rather divergent attitudes among the teachers towards ability grouping. Although, most participants could see that ability grouping would be advantageous in the sense that it would facilitate the teaching situation. A one-size-fits-all type of instruction seemed to be employed by most teachers in the study, where “tailoring” was used to adapt instruction. The study concluded that there were some teachers who seemed to face these challenges more effectively than others, which was also visible in the way they perceived their success in doing so.   

  • Charbachi, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ferrario, Filippo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Methods for Automatic Hydraulics Calibration in Construction Equipment2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we investigate the problem of automatic calibration and control of hydraulic components in the domain of construction equipment. Methods that are able to remove a costly manual approach in favour of an automatic one are investigated and evaluated. The thesis aims to investigate what methods are available in achieving this goal as well as evaluate the performance and applicability of such methods in the domain of construction equipment. The literature indicates that a great focus is put on learning a model of the plant at run time in order to provide accurate control. Common approaches to the problem are the Recursive Least Square method and PID controllers for non-linear systems, but other methods are also present, such as the Nodal Link Perceptron Network (NLPN). The methods chosen to be compared are the existing method of manually calibrating two set points for start and end current and interpolating between them; the use of a PI controller with a static line inverse model; a PI controller with a static curve inverse model; a PI controller with an NLPN adaptive inverse model and lastly, a completely NLPN based control strategy. The methods were implemented in Matlab Simulink and evaluated in simulations based on data collected from real wheel loaders in the construction equipment domain, produced by Volvo CE. The simulations are performed on data from three machines and were evaluated twice for the adaptive methods in order to evaluate how well the methods improved. The results were then evaluated in terms of average absolute error, as well as a discussion of the behaviour shown in the plots. The evaluations indicate that the most effective method for control is the PI controller using a static line inverse model. The method produces the smallest average error of both actions evaluated, lifting and lowering of the boom, while the complete NLPN solution provide the worst results.

  • Nygren, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Digitala primärkällor i historieundervisningen: en utmaning för elevers historiska tänkande och historiska empati2014In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2, p. 208-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 110 Swedish upper secondary students use a historical database designed for research. We analyze how they perceive the use of this digital tool in teaching and if they are able to use historical thinking and historical empathy in their historical writing and presentations. Using case-study methodology including questionnaires, observations, interviews and text analysis we find this to be a complex task for students. Our results highlight technological problems and problems in contextualizing historical evidence. However, students show interest in using primary sources and ability to use historical thinking and historical empathy, especially older students in more advanced courses when they have time to reflect upon the historical material.

  • Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Vartanova, Irina
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Simpson, Brent
    University of South Carolina, USA.
    Generosity Pays: Selfish People Have Fewer Children and Earn Less MoneyIn: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does selfishness pay in the long term? Previous research has indicated that being otherish rather than selfish has positive consequences for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. Here we instead examine the consequences for individuals’ income and number of children, as these are the currencies that matter most in theories that emphasize the power of self-interest, namely economics and evolutionary thinking. Drawing on both cross-sectional (Studies 1 and 2) and panel data (Studies 3 and 4), we find that otherish individuals tend to have more children and higher income than selfish individuals. An additional survey (Study 5) of lay beliefs about how self-interest impacts income and fertility gives an indication of why selfish people persist in their behaviour even though it leads to poorer outcomes: people generally expect selfish individuals to have higher incomes. Our findings have implications for lay decisions about the allocation of scarce resources, as well as for economic and evolutionary theories of human behavior.

  • Gustafson, Amanda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ekström, Isabelle
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Trycksårsprevention: Ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Loro Loro, Maria Teresa
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Mälardalens Högskola.
    ATT UNDERVISA SVENSKA I EN FLERSPRÅKIG MILJÖ: En kvalitativ studie av lärarnas undervisningsstrategier, metoder och anpassningar i ämnena svenska och svenska som andraspråk2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har som syfte att undersöka olika metoder och -strategier som ett antal lärare i grundskolans tidigare år använder i sin undervisning i ämnena svenska och svenska som andraspråk. Studien är av kvalitativ natur och är baserad på semistruktrurerade intervjuer. Resultatet visar att lärarna arbetar varierat med olika lässtrategier för att bygga upp ordförråd och läsflyt. De anpassar undervisningen efter elevernas nivå och använder olika hjälpmedel som bildstöd och digitala verktyg. Majoriteten av de intervjuade lärarna anser att det kräver mycket mer av dem när de har elever med ett annat modersmål  än svenska och de skulle behöva mer kunskap i att undervisa elever med svenska som andraspråk, speciellt med tanke på mångfalden i skolan.

  • Brehmer, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Ryve, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Towards an organizing frame for mapping teachers' learning in professional development2018In: Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Papers of NORMA17 / [ed] Eva Norén, Hanna Palmér, Audrey Cooke, Göteborg, 2018, p. 229-237Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their claim that teachers’ learning is treated as a “black box” in research on

    professional development programs for mathematics teachers, Goldsmith, Doerr,

    & Lewis (2014) call for “an organizing framework that clearly distinguishes

    dimensions of teachers’ learning and identifies catalysts of teachers’ learning…”

    (p. 23). The aim of this study is to present initial efforts to construct a framework

    for categorizing descriptions of activities designed to support teachers’ learning

    as presented in research articles within mathematics education. Based on existing

    literature on professional development and examination of research articles, an

    organizing frame is constructed.

  • Kalifa, Rawyda
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Jag kan hålla tal: En studie av hur muntlig framställning upplevs ur ett lärar- och elevperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka några gymnasieelevers erfarenheter av muntlig framställning i svenskämnet. Studien undersöker även hur läraren arbetar med elevers muntliga framställning. Detta undersöktes med hjälp av elev- och lärarintervjuer. I resultaten framkommer det att eleverna känner en viss osäkerhet och oro inför muntlig framställning och orsakerna till detta kan kopplas till klassrumsklimatet och elevernas känsla av trygghet samt hur väl förberedda de är. Samtliga lärare i studien använder de metoder som i teorin omnämns vara effektiva för att minska elevernas nervositet och göra deras inställning till muntlig framställning mer positiv. Slutsatsen som dras är att läraren behöver ge eleverna mer övningar och träning, konkreta och tydligare återkoppling och att läraren finns som ett stöd under och efter den muntliga framställningen.

  • Thelin, Paulina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Gustavsson, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Maligna tumörsår: Patienters erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Eriksson, Susanne Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    To live with insulin dependent diabetes2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Diabetes mellitus is a common disease and people with diabetes have doubled the last 20 years. Individual’s experiences in living with diabetes is useful to increase the understanding of persons with diabetes ability to manage, accept and possibilities to reconcile with a life with diabetes.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe person’s experiences of living with insulin dependent diabetes.

    Method: The study is a qualitative descriptive study with an inductive approach. Nineteen persons with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was recruited from diabetic clinics at two hospitals in the middle of Sweden. The analysis was made with a qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: Time around the diagnosis living with diabetes was losing control of self and life. By flexible strategies they could regain control of self and life. By living in the present they found a way to live with illness as a part of life. 

    Conclusions: Persons with insulin dependent diabetes needed to develop flexible strategies for daily life. With the help of strategies and a positive attitude they could continuously re-evaluate their planning for outer form of reconciliation. The threat of future complications constitutes an obstacle to inner form of reconciliation.

  • Perzyna, Iwona
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Fysioterapeutiska behandlingar vid kroniska whiplashrelaterade besvär (WAD): En systematisk litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis