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  • Presentation: 2019-10-11 09:30 R2-208, Västerås
    Hozhabri, Melika
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Human Detection and Tracking with UWB radar2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As robots and automated machineries are increasingly replacing the manual operations, protecting humans who are working in collaboration with these machines is becoming an increasingly important task. Technologies such as cameras, infra-red and seismic sensors as well as radar systems are used for presence detection and localization of human beings. Among different radar sensors, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radar has shown some advantages such as providing the distance to the object with good precision and high performance even under adverse weather and lightning conditions. In contrary to traditional radar systems which use a specific frequency and high output power, UWB Radar uses a wide frequency band (>500 MHz) and low output power to measure the distance to the object.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate UWB radar system for protecting humans around dangerous machinery in environments like mines where conditions like dirt, fog, and lack of light cause other technologies such as cameras to have a limited functionality. Experimental measurements are done to validate the hardware and to investigate its constraints.

    Comparison between two dominant UWB radar technologies is performed: Impulse and M-sequence UWB radar for static human being detection. The results show that M-sequence UWB radar is better suited for detecting the static human target at larger distances. The better performance comes at the cost of higher power usage. Measurements of human walking in different environments is done to measure and compare the background noise and radar reflection of the human body. A human phantom is developed and choice of material and shape for it is discussed. The reflection of the phantom is analyzed and compared with the reflection of a human trunk. Furthermore, the choice of frequency in discerning human beings is discussed.

    Signal processing algorithms and filters are developed for tracking of the human presence, position and movements. These algorithms contain pre-processing of the signal such as removing the background, detection and positioning techniques.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-09-20 08:00
  • Presentation: 2019-10-17 13:15 Delta, Västerås
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Runtime Monitoring of Automated Driving Systems2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is the period of the World's history, where the technological progress reached a level that enables the first steps towards the development of vehicles with automated driving capabilities. The swift response from the significant portion of the industry resulted in a race, the final line set at the introduction of vehicles with full automated driving capabilities.

    Vehicles with automated driving capabilities target making driving safer, more comfortable, and economically more efficient by assisting the driver or by taking responsibilities for different driving tasks. While vehicles with assistance and partial automation capabilities are already in series production, the ultimate goal is in the introduction of vehicles with full automated driving capabilities. Reaching this level of automation will require shifting all responsibilities, including the responsibility for the overall vehicle safety, from the human to the computer-based system responsible for the automated driving functionality (i.e., the Automated Driving System (ADS)). Such a shift makes the ADS highly safe-critical, requiring a safety level comparable to an aircraft system.

    It is paramount to understand that ensuring such a level of safety is a complex interdisciplinary challenge. Traditional approaches for ensuring safety require the use of fault-tolerance techniques that are unproven when it comes to the automated driving domain. Moreover, existing safety assurance methods (e.g., ISO 26262) suffer from requirements incompleteness in the automated driving context. The use of artificial intelligence-based components in the ADS further complicate the matter due to their non-deterministic behavior. At present, there is no single straightforward solution for these challenges. Instead, the consensus of cross-domain experts is to use a set of complementary safety methods that together are sufficient to ensure the required level of safety.

    In the context of that, runtime monitors that verify the safe operation of the ADS during execution, are a promising complementary approach for ensuring safety. However, to develop a runtime monitoring solution for ADS, one has to handle a wide range of challenges. On a conceptual level, the complex and opaque technology used in ADS often make researchers ask the question ``how should ADS be verified in order to judge it is operating safely?".

    Once the initial Runtime Verification (RV) concept is developed, researchers and practitioners have to deal with research and engineering challenges encountered during the realization of the RV approaches into an actual runtime monitoring solution for ADS. These challenges range from, estimating different safety parameters of the runtime monitors, finding solutions for different technical problems, to meeting scalability and efficiency requirements.

    The focus of this thesis is to propose novel runtime monitoring solutions for verifying the safe operation of ADS. This encompasses (i) defining novel RV approaches explicitly tailored for automated driving, and (ii) developing concepts, methods, and architectures for realizing the RV approaches into an actual runtime monitoring solution for ADS. Contributions to the former include defining two runtime RV approaches, namely the Computer Vision Monitor (CVM) and the Safe Driving Envelope Verification. Contributions to the latter include (i) estimating the sufficient diagnostic test interval of the runtime verification approaches (in particular the CVM), (ii) addressing the out-of-sequence measurement problem in sensor fusion-based ADS, and (iii) developing an architectural solution for improving the scalability and efficiency of the runtime monitoring solution.

  • Presentation: 2019-10-31 10:15 Futurum, Eskilstuna
    Simola, Hanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Styrning som stöttning: en etnografisk fallstudie om en högstadielärares didaktiska ledarskap som stödstruktur för språk- och kunskapsutveckling2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Steering as scaffolding – an ethnographic case study on a lower secondary school teacher’s didactic leadership as a supportive structure for the development of language and knowledge


    In this Licentiate thesis a teacher’s work with the development of language and knowledge in a lower secondary school classroom is examined. Its purpose is to develop knowledge of didactic leadership in the teaching of newly-arrived and multilingual pupils. In describing didactical leadership, the thesis can also contribute additional knowledge of language- and knowledge-developing working methods.  Two research questions have been used to fulfil this purpose. The first question concerns the characteristics of didactical leadership. The second question deals with the aspects of didactic leadership that can constitute a supportive structure for the language and knowledge development of newly-arrived and multilingual pupils. The study has been carried out as an ethnographical case study, in which I, by means of participatory observations, have followed a teacher over time in the subjects of Social Science, Home Economics and Mathematics, in their mentor class of around 28 pupils, of which nine are newly-arrived and multilingual pupils. I have also interviewed the teacher. A central aspect of the study is that knowledge is created through interaction between people. The licentiate thesis has its point of departure in a sociocultural perspective of teaching and learning, in which the concept of scaffolding in the nearest development zone is used in the analysis.  Furthermore, the concept of didactic leadership is also discussed. The sociocultural perspective, scaffolding in the nearest development zone and didactic leadership are thus important to the study, but it is not obvious what the relationship between them looks like.


    The analysis shows that the themes of the study, clarity and structure, accessibility and reflexivity, as well as high demands and cognitive challenges, are significant factors in didactic leadership that have a positive effect on the learning climate, where the pupils’ access to different supportive structures in teaching to further develop new knowledge and their learning, are a matter of course. By bringing together in one model the didactical triangle and the relationship between the various themes of the study, didactic leadership in the didactical room will be visualised. This means both in and outside the classroom, where scaffolding at different levels is important when teaching, and where interaction constitutes the unifying link between didactic leadership and scaffolding.  Scaffolding can both be a condition for didactic leadership and an effect of it. The focus in the study has been on multilingual and newly-arrived pupils, but the results of the study indicate that didactic leadership as I have described it is important for all pupils, in the didactical room, regardless of language and background, compulsory school or upper secondary school.