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  • Public defence: 2018-09-11 13:15 Gamma, Västerås
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GPU Support for Component-based Development of Embedded Systems2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One pressing challenge of many modern embedded systems is to successfully deal with the considerable amount of data that originates from the interaction with the environment. A recent solution comes from the use of GPUs. Equipped with a parallel execution model, the GPU excels in parallel processing applications, providing an improved performance compared to the CPU.

    Another trend in the embedded systems domain is the use of component-based development. This software engineering paradigm that promotes construction of applications through the composition of software components, has been successfully used in the development of embedded systems. However, the existing approaches provide no specific support to develop embedded systems with GPUs. As a result, components with GPU capability need to encapsulate all the required GPU information in order to be successfully executed by the GPU. This leads to component specialization to specific platforms, hence drastically impeding component reusability.

    Our main goal is to facilitate component-based development of embedded systems with GPUs. We introduce the concept of flexible component which increases the flexibility to design embedded systems with GPUs, by allowing the system developer to decided where to place the component, i.e., either on the CPU or GPU. Furthermore, we provide means to automatically generate the required information for flexible components corresponding to their hardware placement, and to improve component communication. Through the introduced support, components with GPU capability are platform-independent, being capable to be executed on a large variety of hardware (i.e., platforms with different GPU characteristics). Furthermore, an optimization step is introduced, which groups connected flexible components into single entities that behave as regular components. Dealing with components that can be executed either by the CPU or GPU, we also introduce an allocation optimization method. The proposed solution, implemented using a mathematical solver, offers alternative options in optimizing particular system goals (e.g., memory and energy usage).

  • Public defence: 2018-09-14 10:00 Raspen, Eskilstuna
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Videography as Design Nexus: Critical Inquires into the Affordances and Efficacies of Live-action Video Instructions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about live-action instructional videos (LAVs). By addressing design problems with respect to the how-to video genre, the thesis asks fundamental questions about mediated instructional communication efficacies and the factors that either obstruct or augment them. 

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on the notion that videography is a design nexus and key focal point of the connections that make live-action video instructional efforts possible. This Design Nexus is explored by defining and illuminating key ontological dimensions, medium specificities and the video users’ cognitive capacities. This is to acknowledge that the users of instructions in this thesis are center stage, both as biological and cultural beings.

    The methods used in this thesis and its associated papers are eye-tracking, video observations, questionnaires, self-reports, focus group interviews and YouTube analytics. Hence, both numerical data and non-numerical data are analyzed in this study.

    The results of the analyses indicate that pre-production planning is key in live-action video instructional endeavors, but not at the expense of the videographer’s status as designer. Moreover, the analyses show that users’ cognitive processing and visual decoding depend on the power of the live-action format to show actual human behavior and action. Other presented evidence seems to infer that LAV-instructions are a little less demanding if users apply a focused decoding style when interacting with them. Nevertheless, physiological engagement of this kind is likely not to fully compensate for users’ psychological engagement.

    This thesis contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of humans’ abilities to interpret the actions of others via medial means. By relating this to video medium-specific affordances, this thesis also furthers important efficacy distinctions and boundary conditions. This understanding is considered important for live-action video makers and designers of visual instructions as well as scholars who need to develop better methods to assess users’ behavioral engagement when they interact with digital instructional media.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-28 13:15 Filen, Eskilstuna
    Talman, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Participation in everyday life for adults with profound intellectual (and multiple) disabilities2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adults with profound intellectual (and multiple) disabilities need society’s support to live under “as normal circumstances” as possible. Support should be carried out in accordance with the Swedish disability policy vision of full participation in community and equality in living conditions.

    Aim: To highlight and problematise the conceptualisation of participation, and how participation is achieved in implementation plans and in everyday life for adults with profound intellectual (and multiple) disabilities living in a group home or in their own home with support from personal assistants.

    Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to gain a deeper understanding of participation. In study I, 17 implementation plans were analysed. In study II, 27 social care managers and staff members were interviewed. In study III, 4 adults with profound intellectual (and multiple) disabilities living in a group home and their 13 staff members were observed.

    Results: Documentation of participation focused on self-care and community, social, and civic life. In interviews with staff members and managers, the results showed that participation is abstract and hard to handle. Participation for the adults was mostly about doing or being present in general daily activities. The conditions needed for facilitating participation were the adults’ capabilities, staff members’ knowledge, and resources in the social division. Moreover, the adults were listened to, supported in expressing their views, and their views were taken into account. However, they were not involved in decision-making processes nor did they share the power and responsibility for decision-making.

    Conclusions: Participation for the adults is conditional, seldom involves decision-making processes, and is hardly ever connected to social contacts and leisure activities. In addition, attitudes about the adults’ capability present a barrier to participation. The social care division need to better enable and facilitate participation by changing the conditions as well as educating the staff around changing their attitudes about the adults’ capabilities. Managers and staff members need to have a shared understanding of what participation entails so that they all work in the same direction. Furthermore, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a tool when drawing up individual plans so that the adults’ wishes and preferences are considered.

    Keywords: everyday life, participation, profound intellectual and multiple disability, social care

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 13:15 A407, Eskilstuna
    Sandberg, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Att lära av det förflutna: Yngre elevers förståelse för och motivering till skolämnet historia2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To learn from the past- younger pupils´ understanding of and motivation for history as a school subject

    When pupils take part in schools´ history teaching they encounter a school historical culture, which is a part of society’s historical culture. Historical culture is here defined as the specific and particular way in which a society relates to its past. How pupils understand and motivate history as a school subject is a part of how they perceive society’s historical culture. This study examines younger pupils' historical culture based on Jörn Rüsen's defined dimensions of historical culture, which are: cognitive, political, moral, religious and aesthetical. The aim of this study is to examine younger pupils’ historical culture and how they perceive the historical culture they encounter in history as a school subject. In the study, the pupils´ historical culture is defined as the pupils' definition, perception and understanding of history, and primarily, of history as a school subject.

    The results show that all of Rüsen's five dimensions of historical culture become visible in the pupils’ expressed historical culture, albeit to a different extent. Both the cognitive and moral dimensions become visible in the pupils' main motivation for and understanding of history as a school subject: that they should learn from the past. The pupils say that they can learn from the major events and of peoples’ mistakes and achievements in the past. The pupils also believe that they can learn from the past on a practical level. They also emphasis that they need to learn from the past in order to understand the society they live in since it builds on the past. The pupils also express that school history has an entertaining aspect. They mainly emphasise the exciting and dramatic events in the past. The pupil’s historical culture appears to be homogeneous and mainly based on the teaching they received in history as a school subject, but also with an imprint from a social history culture with an interest in, primarily, World War II.

    The pupils primarily identify with the historical culture they meet through education at school, and mean that the history conveyed to them at school is the same as they encounter in society. The different historical cultural identities the pupils acknowledged that they belonged to seem to overlap and complement one another. The pupils trust the representations of history they encounter both inside and outside school.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-18 13:15 Beta, Västerås
    Jägemar, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Utilizing Hardware Monitoring to Improve the Quality of Service and Performance of Industrial Systems2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The drastically increased use of information and communications technology has resulted in a growing demand for telecommunication network capacity. The demand for radically increased network capacity coincides with industrial cost-reductions due to an increasingly competitive telecommunication market. We have addressed the capacity and cost-reduction problems in three ways.

    Our first contribution is a method to support shorter development cycles for new functionality and more powerful hardware. We reduce the development time by replicating the hardware usage of production systems in our test environment. Having a realistic test environment allows us to run performance tests at early design phases and therefore reducing the overall system development time.

    Our second contribution is a method to improve the communication performance through selective and automatic message compression. The message compression functionality monitors transmissions continuously and selects the most efficient compression algorithm. The message compression functionality evaluates several parameters such as network congestion level, CPU usage, and message content. Our implementation extends the communication capacity of a legacy communication API running on Linux where it emulates a legacy real-time operating system.

    In our third an final contribution, we implement a process allocation and scheduling framework to allow higher system performance and quality of service. The framework continuously monitors selected processes and correlate their performance to hardware usage such as caches, floating point unit and similar. The framework uses the performance-hardware correlation to minimize shared hardware resource congestion by efficiently allocate processes on multi-core CPUs. We have also designed a shared hardware resource aware process scheduler that makes it possible for multiple processes to co-exist on a CPU without affecting the performance of each other through hardware resource congestions. The allocation and scheduling techniques can be used to consolidate several functions on shared hardware thus reducing the system cost. We have implemented and evaluated our process scheduler as a new scheduling class in Linux.

    We have conducted several case studies in an industrial environment and verified all contributions in the scope of a large telecommunication system manufactured by Ericsson.%We have deployed all techniques in a complicated industrial legacy system with minimal impact. We show that we can provide a cost-effective solution, which is an essential requirement for industrial systems.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-22 13:00 Filen, Eskilstuna
    Bozic, Nina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Choreographing innovative practice in everyday work2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis argues for a humanistic and democratic approach to innovation management that puts employees and their engagement in the center of organizational efforts for innovation. It proposes that a culture for innovation can be built by enabling all employees to develop their innovative practice as part of their everyday work and not as an extra activity on top of their existing responsibilities. The aim of this approach to innovation is to build more human-centered organizations that help employees improve their own motivation, creativity, well-being, and self-fulfillment at work. This presupposes that they need to be able to connect with their body, feelings, fantasy, intuition, and will, and to be able to innovate more from within, balancing external expectations from management and users with their own personal needs. Since there is a lack of discussing embodied aspects of knowledge and learning in connection to innovative competence in the current innovation management literature, knowledge and methods from contemporary dance and choreography are explored to support a more holistic approach to innovative competence development. Based on integrating research from both innovation management and contemporary dance fields, a model of innovative practice in everyday work is developed. The model suggests what kind of skills and activities can enable employees develop their personal innovative practice that is adjusted to their work context and their specific needs. It is proposed that as employees practice innovating in everyday work, they will slowly move from innovating incrementally towards developing the competence for more radical innovation. Different practical tools and exercises for enabling innovative competence development that were inspired by choreographic practices, and adjusted and tested in organizational context are described. Ideas around how contemporary dance and choreography can be used to design and implement long-term art-based interventions in organizations that can create value on strategic level are proposed.  The research approach used in the thesis is participatory action research done by several iterative cycles between practice and theory. Two empirical and two theoretical studies that were part of the research process are presented. The empirical studies were implemented in the Eskilstuna municipality and at the Art of Management and Organization conference. The theoretical studies were performed in the fields of innovative competence and contemporary dance and choreography.