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  • Public defence: 2017-08-31 10:00 Raspen, Eskilstuna
    Choowong, Jiraporn
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Barriers, Enablers and challenges in the practice of directly observed treatment for tuberculosis patients in a local Thai community2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis (TB) has presented a challenge to the public health community in Thailand, especially as regards patient adherence to TB treatment. Direct observed treatment (DOT) is recommended for promoting patient adherence to TB treatment. There is good evidence that DOT can significantly increase the patient adherence to TB treatment. However, the implementation of DOT has complex relationships to socioeconomic factors and Thai context issues. 

    The overall aim was (1) to obtain a deeper understanding of what happens when the DOT is practised in a local Thai community, and (2) to generate knowledge for improving the implementation of DOT, and thereby improve patient adherence to TB treatment.

    The empirical data were collected in Trang province, in the southern region of Thailand, between 2013 and 2015. The sample of study I consisted of five District TB Coordinators and five TB clinic staff from the public health sectors in rural and urban areas. Phenomenographic analysis was used. Study II: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 25 village health volunteers and six family members; manifest and latent content analysis was used for the analysis. Study III: Twenty TB patients were interviewed, using grounded theory methodology. Study IV: A mixed-method systematic review was accessed through databases. Data from the selected studies were extracted and synthesized using thematic analysis. 

    The fear of stigma of TB patients was considered a significant barrier to the practice of DOT and adherence to TB treatment (studies I, II and III). Lack of TB knowledge and skills among DOT observers were revealed as barriers to the practice of DOT (studies I and II). At the same time, social facilitation and TB patients’ positive thinking and self-awareness were considered enablers of patient adherence to TB treatment (studies I and III). Another result is to provide an empowerment approach for DOT observers, who, in turn, will increase the empowerment of TB patients to achieve adherence to TB treatment  (study IV).

    This thesis contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of healthcare providers, DOT observers and TB patients when DOT is practised in a local Thai community. A challenge from these results is to provide an empowerment approach towards DOT observers. The results of this thesis will be useful for policy-makers who will consider strategies for improving the implementation of DOT and enabling patient adherence to TB treatment in the Thai context.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 13:15 Filen, Eskilstuna
    Dahlin Andersson, Camilla
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    I händelse av delaktighet i en omvälvande innovationsprocess2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is desirable and many players, both individual and organized, as well as society at large, want to actively contribute to its development and to know its results. Increasingly complex but also controversial techniques are under development , new advanced technologies and services where we as individuals become increasingly coexistent with our machines and other artifacts, inside and outside our bodies.

    The interaction and settlement between social and material things creates a context of complexity. This is about innovation processes characterized by a transformative character which, despite some overlaps and touch points, are not properly captured in the concepts and theories of disruptive / radical innovation or the more process-oriented innovation theories of transformative and systemic innovation. On a higher level, this dissertation aims at further developing the understanding of the innovation process through an in-depth description of how transformative innovation is formed, developed, implemented and generates effects in a complex social context. Based on the purpose, the research question is formulated: How does transformative innovation develop in complex contexts?

    The dissertation takes a multidisciplinary approach by combining theories from the disciplines; innovation, business administration and sociology. The study can be seen as a contribution to the innovation technology discipline by considering innovation with an STS-inspired approach and introducing the translation perspective, transformation, action network, actor networks, space-time, actors and the collective. The process perspective has been studied over a long period of time between 2002-2016, through a case study on the development of the idea / concept "stem cell", with a major focus on embryonic and research at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, I have written my story from a theoretical and practical point of view. I highlight a process-methodological contribution in the form of innovation ethnography whose research role has practical implications for innovation management research.

    I have observed how knowledge development and innovation development in practice are integrated and that innovation management is about to act proactively and reactively continuously. I have developed the concept of transformative innovation and present a model of a transformative innovation process in which complexity plays an important role. The complexity is found in and around the processes, which contributes to the creation of complex contexts and is therefore considered an important aspect of the transformative concept. The transformative is linked to the innovation process as a result of the transnational collective and its actors / actors constant changing because of their participation in the idea / concept development.

    Keywords: Transformative innovation process, ANT, transnational collective, institutionalization, stem cells, KI, innovation ethnography.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-15 10:00 Raspen, Eskilstuna
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Dalarna University.
    Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme for this doctoral thesis focuses on how a film editor strives actively to perceptually frame and direct the film viewer’s gaze across film edits. The editor’s (audio-)visual intentions concerning the film viewing correspond to perceptual considerations that the editor makes during film editing.

    Film editing in this thesis is considered as a kind of design work, foremost motivated by the possibilities of many new approaches, questions, and answers that a design perspective brings, stretching well beyond what previously adopted perspectives have done.

    The research questions asked, as well as the presented results, are discussed with regard to design theory, established film production field knowledge, and perception research. Apart from considering audiovisual perception in a film editing context, film editing is also discussed as audiovisual design, and tentative implications for the role of perception in other kinds of design work are pointed out.

    The results of my analyses are that there is reason to consider parts of film production as design work; that properties of an audiovisual material affect the creative space; that perceptual considerations are a significant part of the film editor’s treatment of the audiovisual material; that film viewers’ response to film edits varies with the shape of the edits; and that this variation is possible to link with the film editor’s intention regarding the edits, as well as to the degree of fulfillment of the intention.

    I conclude that perceptual precision at the edit point is decisive for attaining a desired film-viewing decoding of a film sequence, and that when the perceptual precision is low, it is likely that the perceived continuity of the film fails.

    The contribution of this doctoral thesis is that it drives the investigation of actual appliance of perception as audiovisual knowledge in film editing. Hence, it also adds to the more general discussion on perception as part of audiovisual thinking, and how audiovisual knowledge is formed.

    The thesis contributes to the area of Innovation and Design through its mix of methods, since the main study considers the creation of new artefacts, the thinking going on during that process, as well as human responses to the artefacts. Conclusively, the thesis provides a thorough example of how a design research perspective can add to the understanding of film production, and its trades and activities.